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2 February 2013 e-ISSN : 2249-8303, p-ISSN : 2319-2208 VSRD International Journals : www.vsrdjournals.com

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Kumar and 2Anirudh Biswas* Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, VITS, Ghaziabad, INDIA. 2Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, CMJ University, Shillong, Meghalaya, INDIA. *Corresponding Author : anirudhbiswas1966@gmail.com

1Assistant 1Manoj

ABSTRACT

In this research work, the effect of machining parameters, on surface roughness is investigated using ANN & Taguchi method. Three significant factors i.e. cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate, which are more significant for the surface roughness, are used. Machining parameters are control by ANN & Taguchi method. Therefore, in this research work, these two methods are employed. The back propagation, Artificial Neural Network and Taguchi approach to the design of experiment. They are applied to find out the optimum levels of the cutting speed, depth of cut, feed rate for surface roughness. Experimental data are taken from reference paper [5] for training of the neural network. After experimental data study, a neural network model is developed to predict the surface roughness; also the results are verified using the Taguchi method. In the modeling of ANN & Taguchi method; cutting speed, Feed rate, depth of cut are denoted by A, B and C respectively. During the modeling, cutting speed, depth of cut, & feed rate are selected as input parameter & surface roughness (Ra) is selected as output data. The Taguchi is implemented on PC using Minitab software. The ANN model is developed using MATLAB software. Comparison of the results found from ANN models and Taguchi method do not show significant difference. This implies that ANN can be used for such kind of optimization problems confidently. Keywords : Roughness, ANN (Artificial Neural Network), Taguchi.

1. INTRODUCTION Surface roughness plays an important role in many areas and is a factor of great importance in the evaluation of machining accuracy .The Taguchi method is statistical tool, adopted experimentally to investigate influence of surface roughness by cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. In a manufacturing process it is very important to achieve a consistence tolerance and surface finish. Taguchi method is especially suitable for industrial use, but can also be used for scientific research [5].Taguchi methods are statistical methods developed by Genichi Taguchi to improve the quality of manufactured goods, and more recently also applied to biotechnology, marketing and advertising. Taguchi orthogonal array (TOA) offers the way of conducting the minimum number of experiments that gives the full information of all the factors that affect the response parameters. According to the Taguchi design concept, the selection of OA depends on the total degree of freedom (DOF) of the process. Degree of freedom can be computed .DOF= (number of levels-1) for each control factor+ (number of levels for A-1) (number of levels for B-1) (number of levels for C-1) for each interaction + 1].Where A, B and C are the interacting control factors [4]. Artificial neural Networks (ANNs) are information processing systems, and since their inception, they have been used in several areas of engineering applications. ANNs are trained to solve non-linear and complex problems that are not exactly modeled mathematically. ANNs eliminate the imitations of the classical approaches

by extracting the desired information using the input data. Applying ANN to a system needs sufficient input and output data instead of a mathematical equation. Furthermore, it can continuously re-train for new data during the operation, thus it can adapt to changes in the system. ANNs can also be used to deal with problems with incomplete and imprecise data. This work presents an approach for surface roughness predictions depend on the variable machining parameters in turning operation [11]. ANNs have been trained to solve non-linear and complex problems that are not exactly modeled mathematically. ANNs eliminate the limitations of the classical approaches by extracting the desired information using the input data. Applying ANN to a system needs sufficient input and output data instead of a mathematical equation. Furthermore, it can continuously re-train for new data during the operation, thus it can adapt to changes in the system. ANNs can also be used to deal with problems with incomplete and imprecise data [12]. ANN has been developed as a generalization of mathematical models of human cognition and neural biology. The available data set is partitioned into two parts, one corresponding to training and the other corresponding to validation of the model. The purpose of training is to determine the set of connection weights and nodal thresholds that cause the ANN to estimate outputs that are sufficiently close to target values. This fraction of the complete data to be employed for training should contain sufficient patterns so that the network can mimic the underlying relationship between input and output variables adequately [13].The main

advantage of the LM algorithm is its demand for memory to operate with large Jacobeans and a necessity of inverting large matrix. The rank of matrixes to be inverted is equal to the number of weight in the system. Such large Matrix must be inverted at each iteration step and this result in large computation time [14]. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW V.N.Gaitonde, et.al.,[8] has developed the application of Taguchi method and utility concept for optimizing the machining parameters in turning of free-machining steel using a cemented carbide tool has described. A set of optimal process parameters, such as feed rate cutting speed, depth of cut on two multiple performance characteristics namely, surface roughness and metal remove rate (MRR) is developed. The experiments were planned as per L9 orthogonal array. The optimal level of the process parameters was determined through the analysis of means .The Relative importance among the process parameters was identified through the analysis of variance (ANOVA).The ANOVA results indicated that most significant process parameter is cutting speed followed by depth of cut that affected the optimization of multiple performance characteristics. The conformation tests with optimal level of machining parameters were carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of Taguchi optimization method. The optimization results revealed that a combination of higher levels of cutting speed and depth of cut along with feed rate in the medium level is essential in order to simultaneously minimize the surface roughness and to maximize the MRR. S.Thamizhmanii, et.al [5] The purpose of research paper was focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get lowest surface roughness in turning SCM 440 alloy steel by Taguchi method. The method is power tool for design of high quality systems. It provides simple, efficient and systematic approach to optimize design for performance, quality and cost. Taguchi method is efficient method for designing process that operates consistently and optimally over a variety of conditions. To determine the best design it requires the use of strategically design experiment. Experiment was designed using Taguchi method and 18 experiments were designed by this process and experiments conducted. The Taguchi design of experiments was used to optimize the cutting parameters. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Taguchi method has shown that the depth of cut has significant role to play in producing lower surface roughness followed by feed. The Cutting speed has lesser role on surface roughness from the tests. The author has taken lathe as a machine tool and SCM 440 steel as a work piece material. Ulas Caydas, Ahmet Hascalik [10] in this paper the purpose of research paper was focused on artificial neural network (ANN) and regression model were developed to

predict surface roughness in abrasive water jet machining (AWJ) process. In the development of predictive models, machining parameters of traverse speed, water jet pressure, standoff distance, abrasive grit size and abrasive flow rate were considered as model variables. Taguchis design of experiments was carried out in order to collect surface roughness values. A feed forward neural network based on back propagation was made up of 13 input neurons, 22 hidden neurons and one output neuron. The 13 sets of data were randomly selected from orthogonal array for training and residuals were used to check the performance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test were used to check the validity of regression model and to determine the significant parameter affecting the surface roughness. The statistical analysis showed that the water jet pressure was an utmost parameter on surface roughness. The microstructures of machined surfaces were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM investigations revealed that AWJ machining produced three distinct zones along the cut surface of AA 7075 aluminum alloy and surface striations and waviness were increased significantly with jet pressure. Abrasive water jet cutting machine has been used as machine tool. A.G.Olabi, et.al.[6]) In this paper, two of those methods have been employed, the back propagation artificial neural network and the Taguchi approach to the design of the experiment. They were applied to find out the optimum levels of the welding speed, the laser power and the focal position for CO2 keyhole laser welding of medium carbon steel butt weld. The CO2 laser welding in the keyhole mode was chosen due to its large use in manufacturing systems. The investigation was carried out using actual penetration depth, melting area width and the width of the heat affected zones that are measurable on the micro-graphy of the transverse cross-section of the laser-welded butt joints. The combination of the laser power, welding speed, focal position, shielding gas and position accuracy is paramount for a correct transverse cross-section shape. In fact the laser welding input parameters determine the section shape, due to the influence of the combination of these parameters on the heat input. This investigation was aim to maximize both the penetration-to-fuse-zone-width (p/w) and the penetration-to-haz-width (p/whaz) ratios. Sakir Tasdemir, et.al.[11] The purpose of research paper was focused on the effect of tool geometry on surface roughness has been investigated in universal lathe. Machining process has been carried out on AISI 1040 steel in dry cutting condition using various insert geometry at depth of cut off. At the end of the cutting operation, surface roughness has been measured using MAHR M1 Perthmeter. After experimental study, to predict the surface roughness, an ANN has been modeled using the data obtained. ANNs have been trained to solve non-linear and complex problems that are not exactly modeled mathematically. ANNs eliminate the limitations of the classical approaches by extracting the desired information

using the input data. Applying ANN to a system needs sufficient input and output data instead of a mathematical equation. Furthermore, it can continuously re-train for new data during the operation, thus it can adapt to changes in the system. ANNs can also be used to deal with problems with incomplete and imprecise data. Bogdam M.wilamowski, et.al .[14] The purpose of research paper was focused on efficient algorithm for training neural networks with one hidden layer. Efficient second order algorithm for training feed ford neural networks was presented. The algorithm has a similar convergence rate as the Lavenberg-Marquardt (LM) method and it was less computationally intensive and requires less memory. This was especially important for large neural networks where the LM algorithm becomes impractical. Demetri Psaltis, et.al.[15] The purpose of research paper was focused on a multi layered neural network controller. Several learning architectures was proposed for training the neural controller to provide the appropriate inputs to the plant so that a desired response is obtained. A modified error-back propagation algorithm, based on propagation of the output error through the plant, was introduced. The properties of the proposed architecture are studied through a simulation example. In this paper the application of neural approach to control. Both human and machines perform control functions, however there are sharp distinction between machine and human control systems. Human make use of a much greater amount of sensory information in planning and executing a control action compared to industrial controllers. Julie Z. Zhang , Joseph .Chenb, et.al.[16] In this paper the author was present. A study of Taguchi design application to optimize surface quality in a CNC face milling operation. Maintaining good surface quality usually involves additional manufacturing cost or loss of productivity. The study included feed rate, spindle speed and depth of cut as control factors. The noise factors were the operating chamber temperature and the usage of different tool inserts in the same specification, which introduced tool condition and dimensional variability. An orthogonal array of L9(34) was used; ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting surface roughness, and the optimal cutting combination was determined by seeking the best surface roughness (response) and signal-to-noise ratio. 3. METHODOLOGY Machining is very important process in which a single point cutting tool removes unwanted material from the surface of rotating cylinder work piece. The cutting tool is fed linearly in direction parallel to the axis of rotation Machining is carried on a lathe that provides the power to turn the work piece at a given rotational speed and feed to the cutting tool at specified rate and depth of cut. Three cutting parameters namely cutting speed, feed and depth of cut need to be determined in a machining operation. The purpose of

machining operation is to produce low surface roughness of the parts. Proper selection of cutting parameters can produce longer tool life and lower surface roughness. A neural network is a machine that is designed to model that way in which the brain perform a particular task or function of interest. A neural network is performing useful computation through a process of learning. A neuron is an information processing unit that is fundamental to the operation of a neural network. The biggest advantage of ANN is simplicity and speed calculation.

Fig. 1 : Schematic Illustration Of Turning Process [16] ANN has been developed as a generalization of mathematical models of human cognition and neural biology. The available data set is partitioned into two parts, one corresponding to training and the other corresponding to validation of the model. The purpose of training is to determine the set of connection weights and nodal thresholds that cause the ANN to estimate outputs that are sufficiently close to target values. This fraction of the complete data to be employed for training should contain sufficient patterns so that the network can mimic the underlying relationship between input and output variables adequately. There are many types of ANN architectures. A back propagation multi-layer feed-forward network (MLN) is the most widely used for prediction and in engineering applications. A MLN typically has an input layer, an output layer, and one or more hidden layers. There are many ways to define the activation function, such as threshold function, step activation function, sigmoid function, and hyperbolic tangent function. The type of activation function depends on the type of neural network to be designed. A sigmoid function is widely used for the transfer function. The neuron in ANN is a non-linear element which accepts multiple inputs, with producing weights, and transmits a single output by means of a specific activation function. The output then becomes an input feeding the neurons in the next layer. The training process continues until the network output matches the target i.e. the desired output. The calculated difference between these outputs and target outputs is called error. The error between the network output and the desired output is minimized by modifying the weights. When the error falls below a determined value, or the maximum number of epochs is exceeded, the training process is terminated. Then this trained network can be used for simulating the system outputs for the inputs that have not been introduced before. The work performed over

MATLAB software with Neural Networks Toolbox. The ANN (Artificial Neural Network) used for the experiment has three layers such as one input layer, one hidden layer and one output layer as shown in fig. 12. The input layer, hidden layer and the output layer consist of three neurons, twenty neurons and one neuron respectively. The structure of predictive neural network with input and output parameters is shown in Fig. 12. Feed rates, depth of cut, cutting speed are taken as the input parameters. The output parameter is taken as the surface roughness (Ra). The ANN model designed according to these parameters. The backpropagation algorithm has implemented to calculate errors and adjust weights of the ANN model. The sigmoid function is chosen as the transfer function for input and hidden layer however linear activation function is used for the output layer. The network is selected with the trial and error method of neural network architecture selection. By this method this is found that the network twenty hidden neurons yield the most appropriate results. Eighteen data are used for training set. They all were chosen randomly from [5]. Training speed and error ratio of ANN were 0.5

and 0.001, respectively. All of the data have been normalized in the range of 0 to 1 for better generalization of ANN modeling by the operation given in Eq.

There VN is the normalized value of a variable V (actual value in a parameter), Vmax and Vmin are the maximum and minimum values of V, respectively. Training and testing data graphs and performance after 2877 epochs in Matlab NN Toolbox are shown in Fig 12. Mean square error performance with respect to epochs is shown in Fig. 12. For the fig. 12 the performance is found to be 0.00413803. 4. PROCEDURE The given process flow is used for the research :

5. OBSERVATION Table 1 INPUT MATRIX Cutting Speed - m/min Feed mm rev 135 0.04 135 0.05 135 0.063 185 0.04 185 0.05 185 0.063 240 0.04 240 0.05 240 0.063 135 0.04 185 0.04 240 0.04 135 0.05 185 0.05 240 0.05 135 0.063 185 0.063 240 0.063 135 0.04 185 0.05 240 0.063 135 0.04 185 0.05 240 0.063 135 0.04 185 0.05 240 0.063

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Depth of cut mm 1.00 1.50 0 1.00 1.50 0 1.00 1.50 0 1.00 1.50 0 1.00 1.50 0 1.00 1.50 0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 0 0 0

The cutting parameters are shown in the Table 1. For the three levels of cutting speed, three levels of feed rate and two levels of depth of cut were used and are shown in the Table 3. Table 8 depicts the different alloying elements present in a work piece. Taguchi method is used to create orthogonal array of size L18. For this orthogonal array input output combinations were gets from [5] shown in Table (6).

The Table gives the various cutting parameters for each experiment. The results are shown in Table 6(A). The Table 6 A is taken from [5]. The different units used here are: cutting speed m / min, Feed-mm rev, depth of cut (DOC) mm, surface roughness Ra - m. Design Expert software was used to run Taguchis method.

Table 2 : Composition of SCM 440 Alloy Steel Material C% Mn % Cr % Mo% SCM 0.35/0.43 0.75/1.00 0.80/0.75 0.15/0.25 Table 3 : Cutting Parameters Cutting Parameter Lev - 1 Lev-2 Cutting Speed -m/min 135 185 Feed mm rev 0.04 0.05 Depth of cut -mm 1.00 1.50

Symbol A B C

The table is taken from [5], which shows different level of cutting parameters with concerned cutting parameters. For the sake of easiness symbol A, B and C are used for different cutting parameter.

Relationship between Cutting Conditions and Response: From table 1 various combinations of cutting parameters were presented in Table 3 using Taguchi method. Also corresponding output is shown to training the ANN. this way the ANN was trained by the actual practical data.

From the table 3, input parameter columns are used as an input to the ANN and last column depicts the surface roughness is used as the output for the ANN. This data was first converted to the normal data for better generalization INPUT MATRIX S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Cutting Speed -m/min 135 185 185 135 240 240 240 135 185 240 185 135 240 240 185 185 135 135

of the ANN. The training method used is LevenbergMarquardt training method. The type of ANN used is MLNN (Multi Layer Neural Network).

Feed mm rev 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.063 0.063 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.063 0.063 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.063 0.05 0.063

Depth of cut -mm 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.00 1.00

OUT MATRIX Surface roughness Ra(m) 0.60 0.41 0.63 0.84 0.82 0.46 0.80 0.76 0.65 0.41 0.98 0.50 0.53 0.59 0.43 0.77 0.90 0.44

NEURAL NETWORK: The ANN shown in fig. 12 has three layers, one input layer, one hidden layer & one output layer. The input layer consists of three neurons, the output layer consists of one neuron, and the hidden layer consists of 20 neurons. The structure of predictive neural network with input and output parameters is shown in Fig 12. Feed rate, depth of cut, cutting speed, is taken as the input parameters. The output parameters are taken as the surface roughness (Ra). The type of activation function depends on the type of neural network to be designed. A sigmoid

function is chosen for the transfer function. Training and test data graphics and performance after 2877 epochs in MAT LAB NN Toolbox software are shown in Fig 2. Variation of the mean square error with training and test epoch is 0.00413803. The matrix which came out from Taguchi method (Design of Experiments) has been used for network, then it simulates to get output in the form of graph Fig13 (A). From the graph one can select the minimum surface roughness on the basis of combination.

A well trained ANN is well generalized a generalized network is that which gives proper output for those input also which has never been encountered with the network while training. Training a network is nothing but to set optimum weights of the links of two neurons. These

weights, activation function, number of layers and neurons in a layer decide how well nonlinearity can be defined. After the training the network weights are set and referring to Fig. 3 their values are as follows:

Fig. 3 :The Basic Sturucture of The Neural Network Used For The Experiment 6. RESULT ANALYSIS During the simulation we get 9 outputs corresponding to the 9 input patterns. For finding the minimum roughness the graph between surface roughness & input combination index is shown in Fig 13 B. The input index 4 gives the minimum surface roughness, comprises of Cutting speed =180 m/min, Feed Rate = 0.02 mm rev and Depth of cut = 1.0 mm. which are the optimal parameters for surface roughness.

Fig. 3 : Surface Roughness & Input Matrix Table 7 : Cutting Conditions and Response : Simulation results found from the ANN along with the input parameters Table 7. Input Matrix Output matrix Cutting Speed -m/min Feed mm rev Depth of cut -mm Surface Roughness Ra(m) 130 0.02 0.50 0.760 130 0.04 1.00 1.135 130 0.06 1.50 0.840 180 0.02 1.00 0.120 180 0.04 1.50 1.131 180 0.06 0.50 0.673 230 0.02 1.50 0.460 230 0.04 0.50 0.603 230 0.06 1.00 0.656 result. Comparison between best results found after simulation (i) referring TABLE-6(C), (ii) after further breaking the optimized parameters found from Table-6(C) i.e. Table-7

S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

The input index 4 gives the minimum surface roughness, Cutting speed =180 m/min, Feed Rate = 0.02 mm rev and Depth of cut = 1.0 mm. which are the optimal parameters for surface roughness. It is better result from a previous

S. No. Cutting Parameters 1. Cutting Speed -m/min(A) 2. Feed mm rev(B) 3. Depth of cut mm(C) Surface Roughness Ra( m)

Table 8 : Comparison of Results Results during Ist Simulation Results during IInd Simulation 240 m/min 180 m/min 0.063 mm rev 0.02 mm rev 1.5 mm 1.0 mm 0.41113 0.1256 said from the neural network experiment that for the best surface roughness the combination of cutting parameters must be as follows:

From the TABLE-8 it is clear that the surface roughness in the second simulation, after breaking the cutting parameter found from first simulation results, is better. Also it can be

Table 8 : Optimized Value of Cutting Parameters for Best Surface Roughness S. No. Cutting Parameters Value 1. Cutting Speed -m/min(A) 180 m/min 2. Feed mm rev(B) 0.02 mm rev 3. Depth of cut mm(C) 1.0 mm

7. RESULTS VALIDATION USING TAGUCHI METHOD Now the question arises for the validity of the data found using the neural network. For the same, software tool

Minitab is used, which is used to solve an optimization problem using Taguchi method. During validation, data from Table-6 was imported. The optimal results find out by Taguchi method are shown in Table-8.

Table 9 : Results using Taguchi Method S. No. Cutting Parameters Value 1. Cutting Speed -m/min(A) 180 m/min 2. Feed mm rev(B) 0.02 mm rev 3. Depth of cut mm(C) 1.0 mm Comparing results of Table-8 and Table-9 are found to be same. It validates that the results found using the ANN are optimized. CUTTING PARAMETERS SYMBOL A B C CUTTING PARAMETER Cutting Speed -m/min Feed mm rev Depth of cut mm LEV - 1 130 0.02 0.50 LEV-2 180 0.04 1.00 LEV-3 230 0.06 1.50

The term signal represents the desirable value (mean) and noise represents the desirable value(mean) and the noise represents the undesirable value (standard deviation ). So the S/N ratio represents the amount of variation presents in the quality characteristic. Depending upon the objective of

the quality characteristic there can be various types of S/N ratio. Here the desirable objectives are lower values of surface roughness. So the lower-the-better type S/N ratio, as given below was applied for transforming the observed data. Output matrix Surface Roughness Ra(m) 0.760 1.135 0.840 0.120 1.131 0.673 0.460

S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Table 10 : Orthgonal Array Input Matrix Cutting Speed -m/min Feed mm rev Depth of cut -mm 130 0.02 0.50 130 0.04 1.00 130 0.06 1.50 180 0.02 1.00 180 0.04 1.50 180 0.06 0.50 230 0.02 1.50

8 9

230 230

0.04 0.06

0.50 1.00

0.603 0.656

LEVEL AVERAGE RESPONSE ANALYSIS : Level average response analysis can be based upon the obserbed data or upon the S/N data . The analysis is done by averaging the raw data or the S/N data at each level of each factor and plotting the value in the graphical form. The level average responses from the raw data help in analyzing

the trend of the quality characteristic with respect to the variation in the factors. The level average response plot based on the S/N data help in optimizing the objective function. The peak points in these plots coresponds to the optimum condition.

Fig. 10 : Main Effect for S/N Ratio 8. CONCLUSION In many of the practical applications specially machining operation, the surface roughness is an important factor, which draws a lot of our attention. Many parameters affect this. For better surface roughness it is necessary to control the variable over which surface roughness depends. Some of the important factors that affect the surface roughness are feed rate, depth of cut and cutting speed. Our motive is to select the best combination of these factors, which is not an easy task. From the literature survey done, it is obvious that a lot of research has been done on the conventional methods like statistical methods and trial and error method. The conventional methods were not so efficient. Taguchi proposed an algorithm to optimize such kind of optimization problem using less number of experiments, which save time as well as efforts and results in less cost also. For finding the further improved efficiency, research turned towards artificial intelligence methods, such as fuzzy logic, neural network and genetic algorithm and hybrid methods. Very less attention was paid on methods using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). This led the problem to be solved using one of the hybrid method using Taguchi and ANN. The advantage of Taguchi method is that one can get the optimized result using orthogonal arrays. The biggest benefit of ANN is its simplicity and intuitiveness towards the unknown values and faster speed of calculations. The proposed method use uses the hybrid method, so that to achieve both the advantages. Therefore, with old knowledge and lesser number of experiments (orthogonal array) surface roughnesses problem can be solved more efficiently. The Taguchi-ANN approach is applied accurately on a machining problem for good surface roughness. The present work is concerned with exploring the possibility of predicting surface finish. It is found that neural networks can be used to find out the effective estimates of surface roughness. The proposed methodology is validated by Taguchi method. First of all orthogonal array is designed using different combinations of specified parameters. These combinations are used to train the network. For training the network, all the possibilities of different combinations are explored. And get the optimized results. Further the results are divided into three levels. And

with the help of Taguchi method, new group of combinations is found (orthogonal array). These combinations are used for further simulation to more optimized results using ANN. During the validation using the Taguchi method it is found that the new results are further optimized and best. The methodology is found to be quite effective and utilises fewer training and testing data. The experimental data and the developed system analyses showed that ANN reduces disadvantages such as time, material and economical losses to a minimum extent. The experimental results of ANN-Taguchi methodology show that the proposed scheme can be successfully implemented for predicting the surface roughness. There is no significant difference found with real and experimental results found through ANN-Taguchi results. In this approach the machining process is optimized in the ranges of the investigated parameters using the L9 Taguchi approach hybrid with ANNs. 9. FUTURE SCOPE As we know that ANN and Taguchi is a promising tool for optimization. It can be used for more number of input variable problems also. The methodology can be further discussed for multi parameter optimization. The methodology can be implemented over machining, casting, control of microstructures, die designing, fuel ignition system and in many more applications of optimization. Thus the methodology has a wide area of research scope in the mechanical as well as interdisciplinary problems 10.REFERENCES

[1] Dyi-Cheng Chen,jheng-Yu Huang Design of brass alloy drawing processing using Taguchi method 464,135-140, (2007 ). [2] Mikell P.Groover,Automation Production Systems, and Computer integrated Manufacturing, 638-645,second edition (2004). [3] C.J. Luis, J.Leon, R.Luri, J.Mater. Process. Technol.164/165 (2005) 1218. [4] Dale H.Besterfield, Carol Besterfield-Michna.Total Quality management .373-413, second edition. [5] S.Thamizhmanii, et.al. Analyses of surface roughness by turning process using Taguchi method, Journal of Achievements in materials & manufacturing Engineering, 503-506, (2007). [6] A.G.Olabi, et.al., An ANN & Taguchi algorithm integrated approach to the optimization of CO2 laser welding, Advances in Software Engineering, 643-648, (2006). [7] Sakir Tasdemir, et.al. Prediction of surface roughness using artificial neural network in Lathe International conference on Computer systems & technologies, IIIB.6-1-8, (2008). [8] V.N.Gaitonde, et.al., Multiperformance optimization in turning of free machining steel using Taguchi Method & Utility concept, ASM International Conference, 231-236 (2008 ). [9] Simon Haykin, Neural Networks, 1-117, second edition (2002). [10] Ulas Caydas, Ahmet Hascalik, A study on surface roughness in abrasive water jet machining process using artificial neural

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networks and regression analysis method, Journal of Materials processing Technology, 574-582 (2008). Sakir Tasdemir, Suleyman Neseli, Predication of surface roughness using artificial neural network in lathe, International conference CompSysTech, 08. Dincer, K., Tasdemir, S, Baskaya, S., Uysal, B.Z. Modeling of the effects of length to diameter ratio and nozzle number on the performance of counterflow Ranque Hilsch vortex tubes using artificial neural Networks, Applied Thermal Engineering, Article in Pres. Satish, S., Pydi Setty, Y. Modeling of a continuous fluidized bed dryer using artificial neural Networks, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 32539547, 2005. Bogdan M, Wilamowski, Yixin Chin, Efficient algorithm for Training neural networks with one hidden layer, IEEE, 17251728, (1999) Demetri Psaltis, Athanasios, A multilayers neural network controller, IEEE control systems, 574-582 (1988). Julie Z. Zhang , Joseph .Chenb, E. Daniel Kirby , Surface roughness optimization in an end-milling operation using the Taguchi design method, Material processing technology.(2006). Ali Zilouchian and Oren Masory, Neural network controller for turning operation of a metal cutting process, IEEE, 713716 (1995)

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