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BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY

Chemistry deals with the composition, structure and properties of matter.

Matter is everything around us. Basic constituents of matter are atoms and molecules. That is why chemistry is called the science of atoms and molecules. Matter is anything that has mass (amount of stuff in an object) and occupies space. States of matter are : Solid , Liquid and Gas. Eg- book, pen, air, all living organisms etc are all composed of matter. Because of such arrangement of particles different states of matter exhibit different characteristics. Solid Particles closely held in orderly fashion, with no much freedom of movement Definite volume Definite Shape Liquid Particles close to each other but can move around Definite Volume No definite shape, takes the shape of the container in which they are placed. Gas Particles are far apart from each other and movement is easy and fast. No definite volume No definite shaped, completely occupies the container in which they are placed.

Classification of matter:

Mixture : It contains two or more substances present in it (in any ratio) which are called its componenets. Eg- sugar solution is water; air ; tea etc Homogeneous mixture Heterogeneous mixture Sometimes the different components can be observed. Composition is not uniform throughout Eg-Mixture of salt and Sugar, Pulses and stones etc

The components mix with each other completely. Uniform composition throughout Eg- Air, Sugar Solution etc

*Uniform composition means that the mixture has same properties throughout Elements: An element consists of only one type of particles. These particles may be atoms or molecules. Atoms of different elements are different in nature. Some elements Some elements such as sodium or copper, contain single atoms held together as their constituent particles whereas in some others, two or more atoms combine to give molecules of the element. Thus, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen gases consist of molecules in which two atoms combine to give their respective molecules.

Compounds: When two or more atoms of different elements combine, the molecule of a compound is obtained. The examples of some compounds are water carbon dioxide etc. A water molecule comprises two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Similarly, a molecule of carbon dioxide contains two oxygen atoms combined with one carbon atom. Thus, the atoms of different elements are present in a compound in a fixed and definite ratio and this ratio is characteristic of a particular compound. Also, the properties of a compound are different from those of its constituent elements. For example, hydrogen and oxygen are gases whereas the compound formed by their combination i.e., water is a liquid. It is interesting to note that hydrogen burns with a pop sound and oxygen is a supporter of combustion, but water is used as a fire extinguisher. Moreover, the constituents of a compound cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical methods. They can be separated by chemical methods.