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PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE FORM REPORTED SPEECH IMPERATIVES SHOULD AND MUST (FOR OBLIGATIONS)

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

The simple past tense is used to show an action that usually happened at a specific time in the past, and ended in the past. Words like just now, yesterday, last night, etc., are used in the simple past tense. The simple past tense is used to : 1. Describe an action that happened and ended in the past. I talked to my friend in Singapore yesterday. Kumala worked at that factory in 1987. Now she has left. We cooked nasi lemak last night. 2. Describe a past habitual action. When I was in Perlis, I walked to school everyday. Mr. Halim taught night classes before he retired. The simple past tense is formed by adding d , ed , or ied ,to the base form of the regular verb. Examples Base form Simple past form waved saved rotated Married Identified Tried

For verbs ending with e wave + d. save rotate For verbs ending with y Marry change y to i + ed Identify try

Some verbs are formed with a change in the spelling in the simple past form.

Base form go grow is are leave build

Simple past form went grew was were left built

Some verbs do not change in form in the simple past. Base form cut put hurt beat cost read hit Simple past form cut put hurt beat cost read hit

PAST SIMPLE EXAMPLES FROM THE ARTICLE

1.

I lifted the food cover and saw a few dull dishes.

2.

My grandmother adopted her when her superstitious parents believed a fortune teller who said that she would bring bad luck to the family.

3. 4. 5. 6.

I grew up in a neighbourhood where there were many children. I cried when my best friend moved. The more I cleaned and cooked, the more I resented her. Later, when I got married, I continued to hear her refrain about counting your blessing.

7.

So, I learned to let her into my life and eventually surrendered my kitchen to her.

PASSIVE FORM

FORM To be in the appropriate form +past participle

The passive is not used in the present perfect continuous, the past perfect continuous or the future continuous for reasons of style. We can use the passive in all other tenses and in other verb forms.

Infinitive Perfect Infinitive Participle and gerund Perfect participle/gerund USE

Active To do To have done doing Having done

Passive To be done To have been done Being done Having been done

We use the passive form when the receiver of the action is more important than the performer of the action or when the performer of the action is not someone specific. The use of passive avoids sentences with vague subject like someone or some people:

The local cinema was closed down three years ago. Very few typewriters are being sold these days. Children should be warned not to speak to strangers. The 10.30 flight to Greece has been delayed. The use of passive is away of avoiding placing responsibility for a particular action on any specific person or organisation, Due to the companys need to increase production, the lunch break will be reduced from one hour to forty-five minutes. ( The managers will probably prefer to say this than say We / The company/ The management will reduce the lunch break.)

I am sorry that your letter was mislaid. ( The speaker may prefer not to say I am sorry that I mislaid your letter) The passive is often used to avoid a change of subject in a sentence. When they got to the police station, they were immedietly questioned.

I went by train and was met at the station by my aunt. We can use by + the performer of the action after a verb in the passive if we want to say who or what did it. This place emphasis on the performer of the action. We often use by+ agent after the passive form of these verbs: Build, compose, damage, design, discover, invent, make, write: The play was written by a previously unknown author. St. Pauls Cathedral was designed by Christopher Wren. The book tells how he was often beaten by his cruel father. The petition was signed by all the people in the street. We were stopped by the police on our way home. these constructions: It + passive + that clause : It is expected that many more people will die from starvation in the next decade. There + passive + to be : There are believed to be many thousands of homeless teenagers living on the streets of capital. The passive is often used with verbs of saying and believing in

Subject + passive + to-infinitive She is considered to be the best singer in the group. The passive is often used in notices, news reports and descriptions of

processes.

Customers are advised to buy their tickets in advance. Two escaped prisoners were recaptured this morning when they tried to board an aircraft.

PASSIVE FORM EXAMPLES FROM THE ARTICLE 1. 2. 3. The salt solution is heated in the flat-bottomed flask till it boils. The liquid that flows out from the condenser is collected in a beaker. The temperature of the thermometer during the collection of the liquid in the beaker is recorded. 4. A little of the collected liquid is tested.

5. 6.

The product of the distillation is boiled and the boiling point is recorded. The distillation is continued until the salt solution is almost dry and observations are recorded.

REPORTED SPEECH Reported Speech (also referred to as 'indirect speech') refers to a

sentence reporting what someone has said. It is almost always used in spoken English. Reported speech has a main clause and a noun clause. We use reporting verbs such as say or tell in the main clause.

MAIN CLAUSE Speaker Reporting verb Ali said Mary says We can leave out that.

NOUN CLAUSE (That) Reported speech (that) he was the greatest (that) she is happy

Ali said that he was the greatest. OR Ali said he was the greatest. If the reporting verb is in the present tense, there is no change in the tense of the verb in the noun clause. QUOTED SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH : Mary says, I am happy. : Mary says that she is happy.

If the reporting verb is in the past (for example said,told ) the verb tense in the noun clause changes when we report it. Some modal auxiliaries change, too. QUOTED SPEECH Reported speech : Ali said, I am the greatest. : Ali said that he was the greatest.

This chart shows the tense changes. QUOTED SPEECH Verb Tense or REPORTED SPEECH Verb Simple past Example He said that he did the work. He said that he was doing the work. He said that he had done the work. He said that he had been doing the work. He said that he had done the work.

Modal Simple present Present progressive Simple past Past progressive Present perfect

Example He said, I do the work.

He said, I am doing Past the work. progressive He said, I did the work. Past perfect He said, I was doing Past perfect the work progressive He said, I have done Past perfect the work.

Future with Be going to Future with will Can Have to Must

He said , I am going to Simple past for He said that he was do the work. be (going to) He said, I will do the Would work. He said, I can do the Could work. He said, I have to do Had to the work. He said, I must do the Had to work. going to do the work. He said that he would do the work. He said that he could do the work. He said that he had to do the work. He said that he had to do the work.

There are many possible pronoun changes in reported speech. We use : Bob said to Alice, You gave me the wrong : Bob said that she had given him the wrong book.

the logic of each situation to decide on the changes. QUOTED SPEECH book. REPORTED SPEECH

QUOTED SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH

: Bob said to me , You gave me the wrong book. : Bob said that I had given him the wrong book.

The following are some pronoun changes. SUBJECT PRONOUNS

I , you (singular) We, you (plural) OBJECT PRONOUNS Me, you (singular) You (plural) Us (plural)

He, she, I They,we

Him, her, me Us, them Them

Time expressions can change in reported speech : Jim said, Tomorrow is my birthday.

QUOTED SPEECH

REPORTED SPEECH QUOTED SPEECH now Today, tonight Yesterday Tomorrow This week Last week Next week Two weeks ago

: Jim said that his birthday was the next day. REPORTED SPEECH Then, at that time That day, that night The day before The next day That week The week before the week before Two weeks before

We use reported speech when we report what someone says or said. We use it when we do not want to use the exact words. We use reported speech often in both speech and writing. REPORTED SPEECH EXAMPLES FROM THE ARTICLE

1. There are many of these coming every day, these ones for instance are from Jaipur (in western India), said the 20- something Susan, holding up a pair of vivid pink panties. 2. We want to tell these people that there are other ways of protesting, particularly the non-violent way, Susan said. 3. Drinking, socialising, celebrating Valentines day is all part of Western culture which is corrupting our Indian culture, SRS general secretary V.K Rajesh said. 4. We welcome the gifts. Those who send us the underwear, we will send them pink saris. It is symbolic of Indian culture, he said. 5. One of the contributors was a 55 years old woman who said she had not been to a pub in her life or celebrated Valentines Day but was joining our cause because she was horrified by what she saw in television, Machanda said.

6. Then they can demand that we cover our faces. It can get out of control, she said.

IMPERATIVES Introduction: An important part of social interaction is to get people to cooperate with each other. One way to get others to do things, is to use the imperative. The grammar is simple enough, in fact it is perhaps one of the easiest points of grammar to teach in English. However, as we will see, if we want to be polite so we can maintain friendships and perhaps employment or even marriages, we need to know more than grammar. Grammar: English imperatives or commands in daily interaction are quite simple. Look at the other person and then say the verb. There is no need for pronouns, verb agreement, tense, or anything else. You probably recognise some of these commands from your childhood.

Eat your food. Wash your hands. Pick up your clothes. Make your bed.

Say please and thank you.

In English commands can only be given to the second person, the person you are talking to. Other forms are used to include other people in the command:

Let imperatives
o o o o

Let me help you wash the dishes. Let's wash the dishes together. Let John do it. Let this be a lesson.

Causatives (note the degree of difficulty in getting it to happen)


o o o o o

I'll have Henry wash the dishes. I'll have the dishes washed I'll get Henry to wash the dishes. I'll get the dishes washed I'll make Henry wash the dishes. Somebody answer the phone. Don't anybody move.

Diffuse imperatives (directed to anyone present)


o o

Mandative subjunctives (note there is no verb agreement in the following that clause)
o

They insist (demand, propose, require, suggest) that the car be there by 8. He insists that Mary go out with him. It's essential (necessary, important) that the meeting start on time.

o o

Discourse and Pragmatics: In daily actions imperatives have more functions than simply commands. Here are a few:

wishes: Have a great day!

advice or reminders: Don't forget to pick up the dry cleaning. offers: Have another piece of toast. suggestions: Try it this way. request: Close the door, please. directions: Go three doors down and turn left. warning: Watch out for children. prohibition: Do not walk on grass. invitation: Come in.

IMPERATIVES EXAMPLES FROM THE ARTICLE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Preheat oven to moderate, 180 C. Beat in egg until well combined. Sift flour and baking powder together. Spoon mixture into muffin paper cups or muffin pan holes, until two-thirds full. Bake for 20-25 minutes, until cooked. Transfer to a wire rack to cool completely.

SHOULD AND MUST (FOR OBLIGATIONS)

SHOULD Obligation- duties or responsibilities a person or a group of people have. Example : All restaurants should be clean at all times. : Students shouldnt waste their parents money. Advice- an expression of opinion of what to do or what not to do. Example : You should keep your money in the bank. : You should not be rude to your eldest. Expectation refers to an action that is sure to happen. - 90 % certainty Example : Syaza should pass his test with flying colours. ( She has been receiving high grades in his other tests and she is well prepared.)

: We should be there in about 20 minutes. ( There is no traffic jam. This trip has been taken many times before)

MUST

Strong necessity. Example : I must be at work on time. : You must hand in your essays before noon tomorrow.

Assumption Something is true based on evidence, strong facts or familiarity with the situation. 95 % certainty. Example : Sundram must be sick. He did not come to school today. : They must be stuck in the traffic jam. ( They are never late)

Prohibition an order or a law must against doing something Example : You must not exceed the speed limit. : You must not smoke in class.

SHOULD AND MUST (FOR OBLIGATIONS) EXAMPLES FROM THE ARTICLE

1.

A good nights rest with at least eight hours sleep for adults and even more for youngsters is must at any time, especially when on a trip.

2.

A good bed should provide warmth, a reasonable degree of softness, smoothness and freedom from bumps, and protection from dampness.

3.

A good sleeping bag should have an outer covering of light, tough synthetic or cotton material such as poplin, duck, sail silk, or rip-stop nylon.

4.

Although warmth may seem like the thing you want at least as you pack up your duffel on a warm summer day, you must remember that the sun will go to bed long before you do.

5.

It should be resilient enough to sustain your weight and yet spring back into shape when you get up.

6.

There should be a padded weather- strip extending across and beneath the full length of the zipper, so that it wont catch when you open or close it.

ANALYSING TEXT IDENTIFY GRAMMATICALLY

WRONG

EXPLAIN THE VIOLATION OF THE

RULE

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE Grammatical items Original text Revised text

Punctuation We should put comma rather than full stop.

Two other cranes were called in to Two

other

cranes

were

lift the fallen crane. which lay at called in to lift the fallen Km3.6 of the Butterworth-bound side crane, which lay at Km3.6 of the bridge. of the Butterworth-bound side of the bridge.

Lower case The word in bold should be written in lower case, and not in upper case. Spelling error The word councillar is wrongly spelled. It should be spell counsellor.

Two other cranes were called in to Two

other

cranes

were

lift the fallen crane. which lay at called in to lift the fallen Km3.6 of the Butterworth-bound crane. which lay at km3.6 of side of the bridge. the Butterworth -bound side of the bridge. State executive councillor Lim Hock State executive counsellor Seng expressed anger and Lim Hock Seng expressed and the Bhd dissatisfaction High Bridge and Malaysian Penang (PBSB) dissatisfaction that the Malaysian anger High authority, Penang Bridge Sdn that contractor UEM Construction took Sdn

Bhd (PBSB) and expansion project authority,

almost eight hours to remove crane, expansion project contractor criticising their lack of coordination UEM and preparedness for emergencies. almost remove and Construction eight crane, hours took to

criticising for

their lack of coordination preparedness emergencies.

Grammatical items

Original text

Revised text

I wish the state government I wish the state government had Short form had the authority to do the authority to do something, but We cannot use short something, but we cant as we cannot as this is under federal form in writing a this is under federal control, control, he said. sentence. he said. PBSB said in a statement Repetition The repetition of the word and should be replaced comma ( , ). with that all necessary action had been taken to manage the congestion, including updates via the main radio stations, variable message signs and alerts, and police managing the traffic. PBSB said in a statement that all necessary action had been taken to manage the congestion, including updates via the main radio stations, variable message signs, alerts, and police managing the traffic.

BROCHURES ARTICLE

ANALYSIS OF BROCHURE Grammatical items Lower case The word in bold should be in lower case, not in cupper case. Original text Revised text

Winners shall be notified by Winners shall be notified by post post before 15 days after before 15 days after draw date. Draw date.

Improper sentence The sentence is not appropriate.

An agent appointed by us An agent appointed by us will offers attractive price for offer attractive to prices parts for any for the students to purchase students computer, and purchase

any replacement part for replacement servicing PC with Alfatera with Computer Resources. Article The usage of article to be is not suitable in this text. Word Usage The word usage is not suitable in this text. The word computer components should be replaced with the word computer parts. STUDENT WORLD privilege offers marvellous benefit such as insurance coverage and other discount privilege and facilities, up to purchasing computer components, travelling, revision books, accommodation, holiday, shopping even an Umrah Package for Muslim student. Alfatera

even computer, and servicing PC Computer Resources.

This to be included when This will be included when you you subscribe. subscribe.

STUDENT WORLD privilege offers marvellous benefit such as insurance coverage and other discount privilege and facilities, up to purchasing computer parts, travelling, revision books, accommodation, holiday, shopping even an Umrah Package for Muslim student.

Grammatical items Sentence structure We should put a conjunction in the middle of the sentence to make the sentence more meaningful .

Original text STUDENT benefit such as coverage discount computer and privilege

Revised text WORLD privilege

WORLD STUDENT

privilege offers marvellous offers marvellous benefit such as insurance insurance coverage and other other discount privilege and facilities, and up to purchasing computer

facilities, up to purchasing components, travelling, revision components, books, accommodation, holiday, holiday, Package for Muslim student. Muslim travelling, revision books, shopping and even an Umrah accommodation, Package student. for shopping even an Umrah

SONG LYRICS Cmon Lah lyrics by KRU When was the last time you pay for a Malaysian movie Or a music CD or if ever maybe Was it a pirated copy or illegal MP3 Cause the cinemas all look empty to me Is it because everyones too busy Fighting and voting on reality TV shows Whos better, Mawi or Jackie And in awards shows, will anyone ever beat Miss Siti? Who cares if shes got something going on With all these Datuks cause its a big yawn A love saga or some courtroom drama Yo, dont be kaypo MYOB Joe Haiya, why you want to fight-fight Make noise some more Make the blood go up Cmon lah, we Malaysian what?!! Cmon lah, together-gether mah How to go far when we fight-fight Make noize some more Make the blood go up Cmon lah, we Malaysian what?!! Cmon lah, together-gether mah Now pay attention sit down and listen So why cant we be obedient when no ones watching us 24/7 Passing red lights in the middle of the night Whats right is wrong, on the roads we become demons

Honks and fingers, abuses and sisters That you force to stand and book your spot at the parking lot Unless if youre an AP king driving Ferraris Hustlers will scratch your doors and nail your tyres So which team do you support here? Melaka, Pahang , Selangor or Johor? Cause at the mamak stalls they watch the EPL scores Maybe thats why its hard for our national team to beat Singapore Just think about it..just give it a chance coz we need it Theres no one else in the world who cares if we dont care at all Just go on and on..and move on Now everybody cmon, Say La-la-la.. Haiya, why you want to fight-fight Make noise some more Make the blood go up Cmon lah, we Malaysian what? !! Cmon lah, together-gether mah How to go far when we fight-fight Make noise some more Make the blood go up Cmon lah, we Malaysian what?!! Cmon lah, together-gether mah Hey brutha..hey sista! Too many wannabes in our Hip Hop community Talking crap bout the ghetto, G thang and the rivalry Talk the way you normally talk lah Youre from KL, not an American rap star Whats wrong with the honies wearing minis Whether in the clubs or malls or streets in the cities

We make a big deal about the little things in life On the differences rather than the similarities alike Just chill, be cool with each other After all theres no one out there gonna do us this favour Stop the slacking, dissin, slammin and moanin Cause were brothers and sisters, now everybody sing Haiya , why you want to fight-fight Make noise some more Make the blood go up Cmon lah, we Malaysian what?!! Cmon lah, together-gether mah How to go far when we fight-fight Make noise some more Make the blood go up Cmon lah , we Malaysian what?!! Cmon lah , together- gether

ANALYSIS OF SONG LYRIC- Cmon Lah by KRU

Grammatical items Spelling

Original text Make noize some more

Revised text Make noise some more Whats wrong with the homiest wearing minis Stop the slacking, dissent, slamming, and moaning Hey brother, hey sister! Talking crap bout the ghetto, G thang and the rivalry When was the last time you paid for a Malaysian movie

There are some spelling error in this song lyrics. Whats wrong with the honies wearing minis Stop the slacking, dissin, slammin and moanin Hey brutha..hey sista! Talking crap bout the ghetto, G thang and the rivalry Past Tense We should add ed to an action that happened in the past Short form

When was the last time you pay for a Malaysian movie

Is it because everyones too

Is it because everyone is too busy Who is better, Mawi or Jackie Come on, we are Malaysian right? Do not be a busybody. Mind your own business ,Joe.

Short form is not suitable busy in writing. There are few of short form in the lyrics. Cmon lah, we Malaysian what? Yo, dont be kaypo MYOB Joe Whos better, Mawi or Jackie

Short form

Whats right is wrong, on the roads we become demons

What is right is wrong, on the roads we become demons

Maybe thats why its hard for our national team to beat Singapore

Maybe thats why it is hard for our national team to beat Singapore

Colloquial There are many improper spoken language in this song lyrics.

Yo , dont be kaypo MYOB Joe Haiya, why you want to fightfight Cmon lah, together-gether mah How to go far when we fightfight

dont be busybody MYOB Joe why you want to fight? Come on together. How to go far if we always fight

Punctuation We should put a question mark (?) after at the end of the text because it is a question. Tenses We should add ed at the word pay in the text because it is in the past Tense

Melaka, Pahang, Selangor or Johor.

Melaka, Pahang, Selangor or Johor?

When was the last time you pay for a Malaysian movie

When was the last time you paid for a Malaysian movie

REFLECTION

Alhamdulillah , Thank to Allah swt because of His blessing, finally I can complete this task just in time. During the process to complete it, I have learnt many useful things. I also had many valuable experiences upon completing this task. This short coursework requires me to find articles, brochures and also song lyrics . Then I had to analyse what are the grammatical error found in each of these materials. I had to give a short explanation about the violation of the rule. I admit that it is quite a challenging past but I also realize that it is really important for me to learn a lot about grammar. I have searched for the information through grammar books, internet, magazines, and other trusted sources to make sure that I have diversity of sources to complete this coursework. I am very thankful because English lecturers helped me a lot regarding how to make this coursework. Especially to Sir Azman bin Mohamed and also Madam Noormah binti Ismail for guiding me until I manage to complete this short coursework. Not to forget, thanks to all my beloved friends for sharing their knowledges and has helped me a lot grammatical error. Thanks for the sincerity. Lastly, I hope that this coursework will be a benefit to everyone. Forgive me if there are some mistakes. I have tried my best and I promise that I will improve my work from day to day. Thanks a lot. especially in analysing the

BIBLIOGRAPHY
SOURCES FROM BOOKS Abd. Malik bin Jaafar. (1997). Malay & English Development Programme English Grammar. Kuala Lumpur : Times Learning Centre Sdn Bhd. Elaine Walker, Steve Elsworth. (2002).Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students. England : Pearson Education Limited. Jenny Tan, Ainun Zubiar.(2005). Reference Text Series English Form 4 & 5. Selangor : Pearson Malaysia Sdn Bhd. Milada Broukal. (2004). Grammar Form and Function 2. New York: McGrawHill Companies. Mitchell, Crawford Robberson. (1970). Camp Counselling. America : W.B Sounders Company. Susan Kesner Bland. (2004). Grammar Sense. England : Oxford University Press. Himanshu Bhatt . ( 2009, February 20). Toppled Crane Causes Mammoth Jam. The Sun. Page 8. SOURCES FROM WEBSITE www.tolearnenglish.com . www.wikipedia.com . http://www.englishclub.com. www.lyricshosting.com. accessed on 25th February 2009. accessed on 1 March 2009. accessed on 2 March 2009. accessed on 8 March 2009.