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Developmental Theory Has four (4) major areas, such as Biophysical, Psychosocial, Cognitive and Moral development.

Biophysical Development Attempts to describe how our physical body undergoes growth and change. Can be compared against established norms Defined as the process of biological maturation Psychosocial Development Attempts to describe the development of human personality and behavior Thought to occur with varying degrees of influence from the internal and external societal/cultural biological forces. Cognitive Development Focused on the thinking process including the changes in how people come to perform intellectual operations. Operations in example: how/ ways persons understand the world. Moral Development Description of moral reasoning. How one person thinks about the rules of ethnical or moral conduct but does not predict what a person would actually do in a given situation. Ability of an individual to distinguish right from wrong and develop ethnical values on which basis to his/her actions. Gesells Theory of development Sequential Development childs pattern of growth like a fetus, this pattern is directed by the activity of the genes.

Three Categories of Biophysical Development : Genetic theories of aging Tries to define how the DNA molecules transfer information to the formation of proteins which determines the function and life span of specific cells ( Shock, 1977 ; Schroeder, 1992 ; Cavanaugh, 1993 ; Eliopoulos 1999). Under this are Error Theory of Cellular Aging , one other DNA theory relating how exposure to radiation shortens a life span.

Non-genetic Cellular Theories of Aging Concerns cellular level and how changes that takes in the molecules and structural elements of cells impair their effectiveness. Under this are Cross linking theory, Free Radical Theory Physiological Theories of aging Either the breakdown in the performance of the single organ or impairment of the physiological control mechanism. Under this Theories relates to single organs or metabolic process being tested, one theory on how many kilojoules we eat.

Under Psychosocial Theory Sigmund Freud First to provide the theory of Psychoanalytic Personality Development. Freuds clinical work with patients suffering from hysteria and other ailments led him to believe that early childhood experiences and unconscious impulses contributed to the development of adult personality and behavior.

The Psychopathology of Everyday Life , Freud detailed how these unconscious thoughts and impulses are expressed, often through slips of

the tongue and dreams. According to Freud, psychological disorders are the result of these unconscious conflicts becoming extreme or unbalanced. Selected Publications by Sigmund Freud (1895) Studies in Hysteria , (1900) The Interpretation of Dreams, (1901) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, (1905) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality , (1905) Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria , (1923) The Ego and the Id , (1930) Civilization and its Discontents , (1939) Moses and Monotheism

Erik Erikson Extended Freuds theory with socio-cultural perspective


He published a number of books on his theories and research, including

Childhood and Society and The Life Cycle Completed. His book Gandhi's Truth was awarded a Pulitzer Prize and a national Book Award .
While Freuds theory had focused on the psychosexual aspects of

development, Eriksons addition of other influences helped to broaden and expand psychoanalytic theory. He also contributed to our understanding
of personality as it is developed and shaped over the course of the lifespan.

Development is revolutionary , Eight stages of life

Stage Infancy (birth to 18 months)

Basic Conflict Trust vs. Mistrust

Important Events Feeding

Outcome Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.

Early Autonomy vs. Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of Childhood (2 to Shame and personal control over physical skills 3 years) Doubt and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Preschool (3 to Initiative vs. 5 years) Guilt Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children

who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. School Age (6 to 11 years) Industry vs. Inferiority School Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.

Adolescence (12 to 18 years)

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Social Teens needs to develop a sense of self Relationships and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. Relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.

Yound Adulthood (19 to 40 years)

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Middle Generativity Adulthood (40 to vs. Stagnation 65 years)

Work and Parenthood

Maturity(65 to death)

Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Reflection on Older adults need to look back on life Life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.

Robert Havighurst Influenced by Eriksons studies. Defined series of essential risk that arise from internal and external pressure. Roger Gould Psychiatrist

Found out that the lack of understanding of adult years contributed to the maturing and changing personality. Under Cognitive Development Jean Piaget Four distinct, increasingly sophisticated stages of mental representation from children to adult level of intelligence.
Piaget's conclusion that children think differently than adults had an impact

on both psychology and education, inspiring Albert Einstein to describe the discovery as something "so simple that only a genius could have thought of it." Schemas A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. In Piagets view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas. For example, a child may have a schema about a type of animal, such as a dog. If the childs sole experience has been with small dogs, a child might believe that all dogs are small, furry, and have four legs. Suppose then that the child encounters a very large dog. The child will take in this new information, modifying the previously existing schema to include this new information. Assimilation The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schemas is known as assimilation. The process is somewhat subjective, because we tend to modify experience or information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs. In the example above, seeing a dog and labeling it dog is an example of assimilating the animal into the childs dog schema. Accommodation Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information, a process known as accommodation. Accommodation involves altering existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process. Equilibration Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance

between assimilation and accommodation, which is achieved through a mechanism Piaget called equilibration. As children progress through the stages of cognitive development, it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge (assimilation) and changing behavior to account for new knowledge (accommodation). Equilibration helps explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought into the next. Sensorimotor period ( 0-2 yrs.) , Preoperational period (2-7 yrs.) , Concrete operational period (7-12 yrs.) , Formal operational period (12above) During the sensorimotor stage, an infants knowledge of the world is limited to their sensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. Children utilize skills and abilities they were born with, such as looking, sucking, grasping, and listening, to learn more about the environment During the preoperational stage, children also become increasingly adept at using symbols, as evidenced by the increase in playing and pretending. For example, a child is able to use an object to represent something else, such as pretending a broom is a horse The concrete operational stage begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. During this time, children gain a better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage

Under Moral Development Kohlberg The Heinz Dilemma, story for the interview Stages of reasoning to form the moral development

Level 1 Preconventional = S-1 Obedience and Punishment , S-2 Individualism and Exchange Level 2 Conventional = S-3 Intrapersonal Relationship, S-4 Maintaining Social order Level 3 Post conventional = S-5 Social Contract and individual rights, S6Universal Principles.

Source: www. About.com: Psychology