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Energy Aspects

Chapter 01

ENERGY ASPECTS

01.1 Introduction
Technological facilities make the lives of human being comfortable. To provide these technological facilities, we need source of energy. Day by day the demand of energy is increasing and hence per head energy consumption is increasing. The natural resources like coal, oil, natural gas may be finished near future. So we should not depend only these natural resources. We have to invent new procedure to fulfill he demand of energy. After a long research the scientists came to know that the sun is a potential source of huge energy. In the sun fusion reaction occurs and this crease about 61011Kg of H2 to convert to He per second. The scientists observed that, a net mass of about 4103Kg is lost during the conversion and as a result 41020Joule/second energy is produced. We know that the mass of the sun is 21030Kg and it is projected by the scientists that the stable life with a nearly constant radiative energy output of the sun is over 10billion years. Therefore we can easily say that the sun is a house of power to generate energy and the extensive use of solar energy is the natural and universal solution of huge energy demand of the world. At present photovoltaic solar cell are well known among the various solar energy converters and are being studied rigorously.

Renewable and Non-renewable Energy Resources The term renewable energy generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, geothermal, hydropower, and various forms of biomass. These energy sources are considered renewable sources because they are continuously replenished on the Earth. Renewable energy resources include: biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action. A non-renewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be produced, re-grown, regenerated, or reused on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate. These resources often exist in a fixed amount, or are consumed much faster than nature can

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The main forms of energy are nuclear, mechanical, electrical, light, chemical and thermal. Chemical energy of fuels, nuclear energy of radioactive materials can be converted to electrical energy. Light energy can be directly converted to electrical energy by photovoltaic cell. But light is not a fuel. Then it can be told that all fuels are energy but all energy is not fuel.

Theoretical Facts

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Energy Aspects recreate them. Fossil fuel (such as coal, petroleum and natural gas) and nuclear power are examples.

Primary and Secondary Energy Primary energy is embodied in natural resources that have not undergone any anthropogenic conversions or transformations. Coal, crude oil, sun light, uranium are some examples of primary energy. Some primary energy needs to process before its use. As for example crude oil is refined to produce consumable petroleum products. Primary energies are transformed in energy conversion processes to more convenient forms of energy, such as electrical energy, refined fuels, or synthetic fuels such as hydrogen fuel. In energy statistics these forms are called secondary energy. Secondary energy is an energy form which has been transformed from another one. Electricity is

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Fig 1: Non-renewable Energy Resources [1]

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Energy Aspects the most common example, being transformed from such primary sources as coal, oil, natural gas, and wind. Commercial and Non-commercial Energy Energy sources those are delivered to the consumers through organized market system are called as commercial energy resources. Coal, oil, gas, electricity are the examples of commercial energy resources. This energy resource is considered as national accounting system. Although fuel wood and charcoal are traded, they are not considered as commercial energy resource under the sector of energy development program. But in the prospective of Bangladesh as the fuel wood has a value of national accounting system so it is considered as commercial energy resource. The energy resources those are being collected from wood fuels, agricultural residues and the fuels which are not deal in organized system are known as non-commercial energy resources. Fuel wood, other tree biomass, sawdust, husk, straw etc are the examples of non-commercial energy resources.

For depicting the current status of RETs, global installed capacity of non-hydro RETs presented in the Table 1 and technology-wise growth rate, capacity factor, turnkey investment cost, current energy cost per unit and potential energy cost per unit are shown in the Table 2.

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According to Global Environment Facility (GEF), a major financier of RET projects in the developing countries - "A transition to renewable energy is inevitable, not because fossil fuel supplies will run out , large reserves of oil, coal, and gas remain in the world, but because the costs and risks of using these supplies will continue to increase relative to renewable energy. Costs will increase as the environmental impacts of fossil fuel use are increasingly incorporated into the costs of energy and as the cheapest reserves are depleted. In the developed countries, RETs are promoted by different supporting policy or regulatory-frameworks to combat greenhouse gas emissions. But in the developing countries, renewable projects are mainly donor driven programs for rural or distant electrification with subsidy or incentives and the market is transforming. It is expected that in the near future some of the RETs will attain commercialization without subsidy or incentives.

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01.2 Global Renewable Energy Utilization Overview [2]

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Energy Aspects Table 1 Global Installed Capacity of Non-Hydro RETs [UNEP, 2000] TECHNOLOGY INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) 35,000 9,000 1,200

Biomass Geothermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wind Total

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United Nations and other international bodies started advocacy for RETs since the beginning of 1980s. Global Environment Facility (GEF) along with the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP has been the major financiers in the RETs projects in the developing countries. Most of the Aid Agencies (like USAID, CIDA, SIDA, DANIDA, DFID, GTZ etc.) are also funding RETs projects. Apart from these multilateral and bilateral financiers, some of the internationally reputed private banks have also started financing RETs projects.

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350 14,000 59,550

Energy Aspects Table 2 Current Status and Potential Future Costs Of Renewable Energy Technologies [WEA 2000]
Technology Growth Rate (% / year) Capacity Factor (%) Turnkey Investment Costs (US$/kW) 900-3000 250-750 Current Energy Cost Potential Future Energy Cost 4-10 /kWh 1-5 /kWh 6-10 /GJ

Biomass Energy Electricity Heat Ethanol Wind Electricity Solar Solar PV Electricity Solar Thermal Electricity Low-temperature Solar Heat

3 3 3

25-80 25-80

5-15/kWh 1-5 /kWh 8-25 /GJ

30 30 5 8

20-30 8-20 20-35 8-20

1100-1700

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5-13 /kWh 25-125 /kWh 12-18 /kWh 3-20 /kWh 3-8 /kWh 5-10 /kWh 2-10 /kWh 0.5-5 /kWh 8-15 /kWh 8-20 /kWh 8-15 /kWh

3-10 /kWh 5 or 6-25 /kWh 4-10 /kWh 2 or 3-10 /kWh

5000-10000 3000-4000 500-1700

Hydroelectricity Large Small Geothermal Electricity Heat

2 3

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35-60 20-70 45-90 20-70 20-30 20-35 25-35 70-80

1000-3500 1200-3000

3-8 /kWh 4-10 /kWh

4 6

800-3000 200-2000

1 or 2-8 /kWh 0.5-5 /kWh 8-15 /kWh 5-7 /kWh

Marine Energy Tidal Wave Current OTEC

0 -

1700-2500 1500-3000 2000-3000 Not Clear

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Energy Aspects

01.3 Global Resources of Fossil Fuel [3]

Fig 2: World energy usage width chart Table 3 Energy Consumption Statistic Total electricity production by the plants of Bangladesh given by International Atomic Energy Agency is given below
Data

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2007 Bangladesh
Asia & Oceania

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2008 World Rank Bangladesh 28 year history Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day) Total Oil Production Crude Oil Production Consumption Net Exports/Imports(-) Refinery Capacity Production Consumption 6.76 6.00 94.00 -87.24 0.028 2006 541 541 12962 14956 103977 104425 31 39 8475 7421 25133 -16657 33 84392 72989 86142 -1317 89 76 75 49 68 6.43 5.67 95 -89 0.028 2007 554 554
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Energy Aspects
Net Exports/Imports(-) Proved Reserves Coal (Million Short Tons) Production Consumption Net Exports/Imports(-) (Trillion BTU) Electricity (Billion Kilowatt hours) Net Generation Net Consumption Installed Capacity (GWh) Total Primary Energy (Quadrillion BTU) Production Consumption Energy Intensity (BTU per USD 2000 ) Carbon Dioxide Emission Total from Consumption of Fossil Fuels 0.566 0.743 1118 22.94 21.37 4.710 6041 5502 1244 18015 16379 4012 66 65 72 NA NA 5.02 0 0.772 -14.577 3868 3808 1084 6779 6737 -66 68 44 NA 0.772 -14.577 0 5000 -2060 391645 -6124016 --46 0 5000

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156 --

121

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469 472 --29195

61 67

NA NA NA

01.4 Energy Consumption


Fossil fuels provide around 66% of the world's electrical power, and 95% of the world's total energy demands (including heating, transport, electricity generation and other uses). Coal provides around 28% of energy, oil provides 40% and natural gases provide about 20%. A concern is that the fossil fuels are being used up at an increasing rate, and that they will soon run out. If these fossil fuels were to run out now there would not be a suitable replacement for them that is equally as efficient at producing the same amount of energy.

01.5 Shortage of fossil fuels [4]


As the world is coming to a shortage of these three types of fossil fuels, other fossil fuels are being investigated, including bituminous sands and oil shale. The difficulty with

Study of Solar Module & Its Efficient Use in Bangladesh

42.74

11220

67

NA

Energy Aspects using these fossil fuels is that they need expensive processing. Over the last 25 years, various predictions have been made about the supply of crude oil. According to these figures, oil should have run out by now. At the moment only as much oil that is being found is being used. As technology improves, new oil fields are discovered and small fields can be exploited more economically. People are also using energy more efficiently to heat their homes and factories, so using up less fuel. The oil companies are making sure that there is less waste in the production of oil from wells; Vapor is even being collected from delivery tankers when storage tanks are filled.

Fig 3: Quantity of fossil fuels all over the world One of many problems is that all fossil fuels and biomasses consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Burning coal produces carbon dioxide, among other by-products. Some scientists believe that due to the widespread use of coal and other fossil fuels, the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere could increase to such an extent that changes in the earth's climate will occur. Before humans were around on the earth, there was a fairly even recycling of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Plants require carbon dioxide to live, and they emit oxygen in return. Animals, on the other hand, need oxygen, but exhale carbon dioxide. But as humans began to burn fossil fuels to create energy, more and more carbon dioxide was emitted into the air until the balance was slowly destroyed. Small particulates that are a result of burning fossil fuels can become trapped in the human respiratory system. These particulates can cause coughing and damage to the lungs, they can also lead to cancer and lung disease. Carbon monoxide is also produced when less oxygen is available when burning the fuels. Carbon monoxide is also produced and is more harmful to humans because it is odorless, colorless, and reduces the body's ability to carry oxygen; this can lead to fatigue, nausea, and headaches.

Study of Solar Module & Its Efficient Use in Bangladesh

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Energy Aspects Renewable energy is any source of energy that can be used without depleting its reserves. Fossil fuels are not a renewable energy resource. The use of fossil fuels has nearly doubled every 20 years since 1900. This is a particular problem for oil because it is also used to make plastics and many other products and soon there will be no longer enough oil to continuously meet the demands for it. Not only will there not be enough oil, coal and natural gases are also becoming very scarce. About 80% of the world's commercial energy comes from non-renewable fossil fuels.

01.6 Energy Perspective of Bangladesh


Primary Commercial Energy According to Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), primary commercial energy consumption [5] in 1994-95 was follows: Petroleum Products: 2.410 Million Tons Natural Gas: 0.247 Trillion Cubic Feet Hydro Power: 372.000 GWh Coal: 0.642 Million Tons

The primary energy consumption in 1994-95 in uniform heat units (PJ) and Million Metric Ton Equivalent (MTOE) were follows: Petroleum Products: 102.910 PJ = 2.41 MTOE (28.1%) Natural Gas: 244.530 PJ = 5.73 MTOE (66.8%) Hydro Power: 1.339 PJ = 0.03 MTOE (0.37%) Coal: 17.330 PJ = 0.41 MTOE (4.73%) Total: 366.110 PJ = 8.58 MTOE (100%)

Per capita consumption of primary commercial energy in 1995 was71.5 kg OE (8.58 MTOE/120 million). It may be mentioned that when national energy was drafted in 1993, primary commercial energy consumption in 1995 was projected as 342 PJ or 8 Million Ton Oil Equivalent (MOTE). Actual consumption of commercial energy in 1995 was 8.58 MTOE, which was 7.25% more than the project value.

01.7 Recent Statistics


World Bank made a survey on Bangladesh on consumption of electricity. It has been showed the power consumption of Bangladesh from 1975-2006.

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Energy Aspects

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Figure 4: Power Consumption per Capita [6]

Table 4 Electricity Consumption per Capita [7]


Year 2002 Data Source Value Notes -

N
(2005) (2005) (2005)

(IEA (2005)

2002

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108.00 100.28 99.00 93.61 84.36

Energy consumption statistics by different organization are given below

kWh/capita -

World Bank

o
2001

kWh/capita -

IEA (2004)

kWh/capita World Bank -

2001

kWh/capita -

2000

World Bank

kWh/capita

US Energy Information Administration made a survey on Bangladesh about its energy consumption, production comparing with the world.

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Energy Aspects The electricity sector in Bangladesh is handled by three state agencies under the Ministry of Energy and Mineral resources (MEMR). These are Bangladesh Power Development board (BPDB) Dhaka Electric Supply authority (DPDC,DESCO) Rural Electrification Board (REB) Bangladesh is a largely rural agrarian country of about 120 million people situated on the Bay of Bengal in south Central Asia. Fossil energy resources in Bangladesh consist primarily of natural gas. Domestic oil supply in considered negligible. Several small deposits of coal exist on the north eastern region of the country, but these consist of peat, with low caloric value and very deep bituminous coal that will be quite expensive to extract. Only 15% of the total population has got access to the electricity. In 1990 only 2.2% of total households (mostly in urban areas) have piped natural gas connections for cooking and only 3.9% of total households used kerosene for cooking. These are by no means a pleasant scenario. Per capita consumption of commercial energy and electricity in Bangladesh is one of the lowest among the developing countries. In 1990, more than 73% of total final energy consumption was met by different type of biomass fuels (e.g. agricultural residues, wood fuels, animal dung etc.). The rural and remote sector of Bangladesh economy, where 85% of the population lives, is characterized by an abundance of open and disguised unemployment, high Man-land ratio, alarmingly large numbers of landless farmers, extremely inadequate economic and social facilities, low standard of living and a general environment of poverty and deprivation. Larger energy supplies and greater efficiency of energy use are thus necessary to meet the basic needs of a growing population. It will therefore, be necessary to tap all sources of renewable energy and to use these in an efficient converted form for benefit of the people. Primarily this will be done in remote inaccessible un-electrified area in a stand alone system where grid expansion is expensive. This energy conversion will reduce pressure on the national power demand. This will not only save excessive grid expansion cost but will also keep environment friendly. Recently a number of experimental and pilot projects are being undertaken by different organizations in different sectors of alternative energy technologies in Bangladesh. Some preliminary information on the main pilot projects of different energy technology are discussed in this paper.

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01.8 Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies in Bangladesh [8]


Bangladesh is endowed with plentiful supply of renewable sources of energy. Out of various renewable sources solar, biomass, peat, and hydro-power can be effectively used in Bangladesh (Government of Bangladesh, 1991). Renewable energy practices in Bangladesh are
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Energy Aspects Solar Energy Wind Energy Biomass Energy Hydro-power energy

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01.9 Solar Energy [8]


The sun is a grain of sand in a whirling desert storm. It is part of the milky way which is a spiral composed of over 1010 stars. The basic characteristics of the sun are: Mass, m = (1.9910.002) x1030 kg Radius, r = (6.9600.001) x103 Average density, p= 1.4100.002 g/cm2 Average surface temperature, T= 5762500 k

Solar Energy is inexhaustible and pollution free. It is available everywhere; but the greatest amount is available between two broad bands encircling the earth between 15" and 35" latitude north and south. Fortunately, Bangladesh is situated between 20"43' north and 26"38' north latitude and as such Bangladesh is in a very favorable position in respect of the utilization of solar energy. Annual amount of radiation varies from 1840 to 1575 kwh/m2 which is 50-100% higher than in Europe. Taking an average solar radiation of 1900 kwh per square meter, total annual solar radiation in Bangladesh is equivalent to 1010 X 1018 J. present total yearly consumption of energy is about 700 X 1018 J. this shows even if 0.07% of the incident radiation can be utilized, total requirement of energy in the country can be met. At present energy utilization in Bangladesh is about 0.15 watt/sq. meter land area, whereas the availability is above 208 watt/sq. meter. This shows the enormity of the potentiality of this source in this country (Eusuf, 1997).

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The variability of solar energy incident on a collector surface on the ground is consider-ably greater than that of the extraterrestrial solar energy. On a clear sunshine day, the energy increases from zero at sunrise to a maximum at solar noon and decreases to zero at sunset. At any moment, clouds may intercept the sun and decrease the energy to a low value due to the diffuse radiation.

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The earth receives solar energy at a range of 5.4 x 1024 J/year. This is equivalent to about 30.000 times the sources of energy used at the present time. Harnessing this power requires knowledge of the nature of solar insulation, the factors which influence its intensity and tools which utilize such energy. For example, in building applications, the total solar radiation (global radiation) is the source of energy. The intensity of this source depends on whether the radiation is direct or diffuses, or both. As for the tools which utilize the sun's energy, the most efficient are flat plate collectors. In the case of solar concentrators, direct solar radiation is the source.

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Energy Aspects A good number of organizations and departments are doing research, development, demonstration, diffusion and commercialization of solar energy technology. Diffusion aspects of the solar energy technologies are using mostly in Bangladesh especially solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar cooker, solar oven, solar water heater and solar dryer.

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01.10 Characteristics of Solar Energy


Solar power has attracted attention of late as the most advanced of the alternative energy resources. Solar power generation exploits the properties of solar cells, which generate dc electricity when light falls on a cell made from the p-n junction Si (silicon) materials as is used for transistors and integrated circuit elements. Illumination of a 1m2 array of such cells can produce power of the order of 100 W. As energy resources, solar power has the following advantage: Solar power generation produces neither residue nor exhaust gases, nor thus in non-polluting-solar energy is a clean energy. Since solar cells convert light energy directly into electrical energy, there are no moving parts such as the turbines and generators needed in the thermal power, atomic power and wind power generation processes. Therefore, maintenance is simple and automation and unmanned operation are feasible. Such factors make it a desirable power for satellites, unmanned lighthouses and in desert locations. Electricity can be generated where it is needed. Since the solar power conversion rate is constant, irrespective of the scale of the system employed, the power can be generated where it is required, in amounts ranging from very small (for items such as wristwatches and calculators) through medium (for private houses and multiple dwellings), up to very large (e.g. several hundred kilowatts) without needing power transmission lines. With localized power generation at the place of consumption, the need for a power distribution transmission line system disappears. As solar cells have a useful life in excess of twenty years, they can be considered as long-life devices. In opposition to these features,

Generation takes place only when there is tight: this is fundamental to solar cells; furthermore, even though they are called cells, they do not store electricity. Generation of a large amount of power requires a large area. The construction of such a large power station in a city is not feasible. For the present, building sites will have to be in wasteland, outlying island deserts. Generation costs are high. This, at present is the greatest disadvantage of solar power. The present high level of generating costs is due to both production and economic factors.
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solar power has the following disadvantages:

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