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http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_motivation.html# For more TEDTalks ESL lessons, please visit: http://esltedtalks.blogspot.com/ A. I need to make a confession at the (1.)outset here. A little over 20 years ago I did something that I regret, something that I'm not particularly proud of, something that, in many ways, I wish no one would ever know, but here I feel kind of (3.)obliged to reveal. (Laughter) Late 1980s, in a moment of youthful (2.)indiscretion, I went to law school. (Laughter) Circle the word that has the same meaning as the corresponding word in the passage. 1. start 2. earnestness 3. grateful honestly point for luck rage embarrassed pity strange
B. Now, in America, law is a professional degree. You get your university degree. Then you go on to law school. And when I got to law school, I didn't do very well. To put it (4.)mildly, I didn't do very well. I, in fact, graduated in the part of my law school class that made the top 90 percent possible. (Laughter) Thank you. I never (5.)practiced law a day in my life. I pretty much wasn't (6.)allowed to. (Laughter) Circle the word that has the same meaning as the corresponding word in the passage. 4. strongly enthusiastically thought about decided tastefully considered interested in weakly liked permitted
5. worked with 6. forbidden
C. But today, against my better (7.)________________, against the advice of my own wife, I want to try to dust off some of those legal skills, what's left of those legal skills. I don't want to tell you a story. I want to make a (8.)_________________. I want to make a hard-headed, evidence-based, dare I say lawyerly case, for rethinking how we run our (9.)___________________. Find a word from the list that fits the empty spaces and write it in. data judgement show businesses case
as a platform for the candle. It was (11. In the sentence.)____________ in 1945 by a psychologist named Karl Duncker. I give you a candle. “Doesn’t work. take a look at this. Underline the mistakes and write the corrected sentences or sentence fragments in the spaces below. Now I want to tell you about an experiment to use the candle problem. How would you define functional fixedness? 15.)__________________ of experiments in behavioral science. done by a scientist named Sam Glucksberg. And eventually. 13. What are the two solutions that don’t work and what is the solution that does in this problem? pretend variety ruined F. It's an awesome idea. And here's how it works.” There are three mistakes in the paragraph above.S. try to adhere it to the wall. some thumbtacks and some matches. "I'm going to time you. So. "Your job is to (12. ladies and gentlemen of the jury.D.)________________ the candle to the wall so the wax doesn't drip onto the table. You look at that box and you see it only as a receptacle for the tacks. Here's what he did. who is now at Princeton University in the U.” what is missing? 14. Suppose I'm the experimenter. And I say to you." Now what would you do? Find a word from the list that fits the empty spaces and write it in. Some of you might have seen this before. This is called the candle problem. He gathered his participants and he said. most people figure out the solution. Now many people begin trying to thumbtack the candle to the wall. The candle problem. “I'm going to time you to establish norms. Some people have a great idea where they light the match. How quickly you can solve this problem?" To one group he said. The key is to overcome what's called functional fixedness. . 16. some people. after five or 10 minutes. Karl Duncker created this experiment that is used in a whole (10. I bring you into a room. and I saw somebody kind of make the motion over here. But it can also have this other function. melt the side of the candle. which you can see here. 18. 17. created attach E. Somebody. This shows the power of incentive. Doesn't work. averages for how long it typical takes someone to solve this sort of problem. Doesn't work.
“three and a half minutes longer. 26. c. This is not normal. H. What does it refer to in the sentence. 20. But for a lot of tasks. Exactly what finding is being ignored by business? .” twice? 23. Adjusted for inflation. you reward them. But that's not happening here." Now this is several year ago. b. “It’s not an aberration?” a. often. understood 27. “It dulls thinking and blocks creativity?” 24. "If you're in the top 25 percent of the fastest times you get five dollars. weak d. 19. their own reality show. This has been replicated over and over and over again. work in some circumstances. To the second group he offering rewards. And what's interesting about this experiment is that it's not an aberration. then you get that. This is normal. Incentivize them. This is abnormal. they do harm. Three and a half minutes longer. I believe in free markets. Right? Bonuses. This is one of the most robust findings in social science. It dulls thinking and blocks creativity. That's not how it's supposed to work. He said. Question: How much faster did this group solve the problem? Answer: It took them. You've got an incentive designed to sharpen thinking and accelerate creativity. it's a decent sum of money for a few minutes of work. That's how business works. 21. commissions. 25. This in peculiar. Right? (Laughter) If you want people to perform better. three and a half minutes longer. d. Which of the following means the opposite of “robust?” a. These contingent motivators. Which of the following most closely matches the meaning of. if you do this. Why does Dan say the phrase. they actually either don't work or. And it does just the opposite. 22. And also one of the most ignored. for nearly 40 years. healthy b. What are five other incentives that you can think of? I. There are three mistakes in the paragraph above. strong c. Underline the mistakes and write the corrected sentences or sentence fragments in the spaces below. If you're the fastest of everyone we've testing here today you get 20 dollars. on average. Now this makes no sense right? I mean I'm an American.G. It's a nice motivator.
Let me show you what I mean. And so. where you just see the goal right there. If-then rewards work really well for those sorts of tasks.J. And what's alarming here is that our business operating system -. One group defeated the other group. What is a synonym of “deal” in this paragraph? a. situation c. 28. What does he mean when he said that one group kicked the other group’s butt? a. like this up here. If you look at the science.think of the set of assumptions and protocols beneath our businesses. there is a mismatch between what science knows and what business does. how we motivate people. What is “carrots and sticks” referring to? 30. d. often doesn't work. So Glucksberg did another experiment similar to this where he presented the problem in a slightly different way. That's actually fine for many kinds of 20th century tasks. In this case the incentivized group performed better than the nonincentivized group. around carrots and sticks. narrow our focus. What is his explanation for this? L. by their very nature. c. and often does harm. matter d. One group kicked the other group in the butt. where there is a simple set of rules and a clear destination to go to. a narrow focus. that mechanistic. reward-and-punishment approach doesn't work. One group assaulted the other group. Same deal. life 33. I spent the last couple of years looking at the science of human motivation. how we apply our human resources -. particularly the dynamics of extrinsic motivators and intrinsic motivators. the incentivized group kicked the other group's butt. it's not even close. But for 21st century tasks. zoom . You: we're timing for norms. According to Dan. One groups intimidated the other group. Okay? Attach the candle to the wall so the wax doesn't drip onto the table. And I'm telling you.it's built entirely around these extrinsic motivators. exchange b. Why? Because when the tacks are out of the box it's pretty easy isn't it? (Laughter) 31. 32. What do you think would be the difference between 20th and 21st century tasks? K. concentrate the mind. What happened this time? This time. for tasks like this. Rewards. You: we're incentivizing. b. That's why they work in so many cases. what is alarming? 29.
34. conceptual kinds of abilities. be the first to solve a complex mathematical problem d. Think about your own work. According to the speaker. Let me tell you why this is so important. creative d. The solution is not over here. the things around which we've built so many of our businesses. certain kinds of accounting. rule-based. you don't want to be looking like this. The rules are mystifying. That routine.do they have a clear set of rules. be the first to think of ten interesting ways to build a house 35. be the first to recite the alphabet c. Think about your own work. fairly easy to automate. if it exists at all. So what really matters are the more right-brained creative. or even the problems we've been talking about here. The solution is on the periphery. That reward actually narrows our focus and restricts our possibility. Low-cost providers around the world can do it cheaper. concrete d. be the first to write a beautiful poem c. Software can do it faster. in many parts of Asia. d. routine 39. be the first to paint a fence red b. innovative c. is surprising and not obvious. Everybody in this room is dealing with their own version of the candle problem. has become fairly easy to outsource. According to the speaker. they work really well. And for candle problems of any kind. In Western Europe. be the first to drive a car around a track 36. are those kinds of problems -. which of the following tasks would work the best with incentives? a. rule-based c. You want to be looking around. certain kinds of computer programing. in North America. which of the following tasks would work the worst with incentives? a. 37. don't work. But for the real candle problem. Why are white-collar workers doing less left-brain work and more rightbrain work? N. ordered b. solve ten addition problems as fast as you can b. What is the difference between the two candle problems? M. those if-then rewards. left-brain work.straight ahead to it. What kinds of work are white-collar workers doing more of? a. and more of this kind of work. in Australia. in any field. and a single solution? No. white-collar workers are doing less of this kind of work. Are the problems that you face. certain kinds of financial analysis. automated b. What kind of abilities are considered right-brain? a. . monotonous 38. find as many different solutions as you can to get a tennis ball out of a cage. The solution.
(Laughter) This is a fact. I will give you some cake.. I'm an American. consider P. Why does the audience laugh? What is funny about “true fact” and Washington D. Ladies and gentlemen of the jury. trying to convince you of something 44. he and three colleagues. I'm making a case. Games that involved creativity. What happened? As long as the task involved only mechanical skill. If you finish the project late then you will be allowed to turn it in without penalty. present b. 41. gather c. rewards are often used in business. If we think about our own jobs. b. This is not a feeling. Unfortunately.C. did a study of some MIT students. Okay? But once the task called for even rudimentary cognitive skill.? 43. What would be the best example of an if-then reward? a. and concentration. building a suitcase b. Now. O. a larger reward led to poorer performance. What would be the best summary of this paragraph? a. Or. They gave these MIT students a bunch of games. The work we do is often complex without just one answer. then I will have an apple. (Laughter) (Applause) Let me give you an example of what I mean.40. for performance. If you get all of the questions correct. Let me marshal the evidence here. And this is not -. collecting ideas d. our solutions to help workers to solve those problems don’t work. If you finish this project early. If you give me an apple. bonuses worked as they would be expected: the higher the pay. I don't believe in philosophy. three levels of rewards. b. Small reward. medium reward.here's the thing. 42. Making a case means: a. we realize that we all go to work. interpret d. d. . and motor skills. some evidence: Dan Ariely. This is not a philosophy. gathering information c. Okay? I'm a lawyer. We all have to solve complex problems such as the candle problem. We all have our own difficult problems and to help us succeed. as we say in my hometown of Washington D. c. In this sentence the best synonym for marshal is: a. Okay? If you do really well you get the large reward. large reward. the better the performance. one of the great economists of our time. a true fact. And the offered them. on down.C. I mean it makes me crazy. follow rules and solve problems. Because I'm not telling you a story. I don't believe in feelings. you can start another project after.
How is touchy-feely used in the paragraph above? a. What would be the best summary of this paragraph? a. Q. But this time. some evidence?” 46. Using an experiment to test if rewards are effective. A bunch of games. higher incentives led to worse performance. impossible to tell 52. "Okay. Why do you think this happens? R. And do you know who sponsored this research? The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States. What were the results? 50. b. b. Which sentence using rudimentary makes the most sense? a. from Carnegie Mellon. The results are invalid because there was a right-wing bias. from the University of Chicago. Is this some kind of touchy-feely socialist conspiracy going on here? No. When working with MIT students. positive b." Standard of living is lower. 51. What happens? People offered the medium level of rewards did no better than people offered the small rewards. one can conclude that thinking too much about a problem will result in poorer performance. three levels of rewards. “Ladies and gentleman of the jury. they did the worst of all. India and test this. These are economists from MIT. Then they said. 47. 48. people offered the highest rewards. c. What is the speaker trying to tell us about the research in this paragraph? a. His knowledge of English is rudimentary.45. let's see if there's any cultural bias here. The runner’s speed is rudimentary. Lets go to Madurai. neutral d. What does he mean when he says. We saw a rudimentary lion at the zoo. He just arrived in this country. That is such a rudimentary cloud! d. Same deal. Dan Ariely concluded that rewards works only if the tasks are mechanical. is more meaningful there. That's the American experience. In eight of the nine tasks we examined across three experiments. Why did they move the experiment to India? 49. a reward that is modest in North American standards. The results are invalid because there was a left-wing bias. negative b. . In Madurai. b.
or threaten them with a sharper stick. and if we really want high performance on those definitional tasks of the 21st century. "We find that financial incentives can result in a negative impact on overall performance. unexamined. LSE. inside of companies. What is the origin of carrot and stick? a. According to the speaker. And what worries me. Training ground for great economic thinkers like George Soros. And the good news about all of this is that the scientists who've been studying motivation have given us this new approach. Summarize this with a two-word or three-word sentence. And if we really want to get out of this economic mess. what will happen if we continue to do more of the wrong things? a. What school will you be the alma mater of? 54. d. is that too many organizations are making their decisions. 58.c. because we like it. 21st century tasks will become less defined." 53. and Friedrich Hayek. economists at LSE looked at 51 studies of paid-for-performance plants. Here's what the economists there said. Tie a carrot to a stick to make your donkey go forward. and Mick Jagger. Let's go across the pond to the London School of Economics. We won’t get out of the current economic mess. the solution is not to do more of the wrong things. “We find that financial incentives can result in a negative impact on overall performance. b. Use a carrot and a stick to hunt rabbits. and rooted more in folklore than in science. Crush a carrot with a stick to get carrot juice. It's an approach built much more around intrinsic motivation. We will use more incentives. based on assumptions that are outdated. because they are part of something . c. What is the whole new approach Dan proposes? U. d. We’ll be able to rebuild our economies more quickly. We need a whole new approach. The results are valid because there wasn’t a right wing bias. There is a mismatch between what science knows and what business does. S. To entice people with a sweeter carrot. as we stand here in the rubble of the economic collapse. just last month. b. 57. c. The results are valid because there wasn’t a left-wing bias. (Laughter) Last month. Why did people laugh when Dan mentioned Mick Jagger? 55. London School of Economics. their policies about talent and people. because they're interesting. d.” T. Around the desire to do things because they matter. Alma mater of 11 Nobel Laureates in economics. 56. A carrot tied to a stick will attract flies.
that new operating system for our businesses revolves around three elements: autonomy. What this means -. Traditional notions of management are great if you want compliance. Purpose. Getting the issue of money off the table. Because something is interesting. the desire to get better and better at something that matters. and purpose. Autonomy: Mastery: Purpose: V. And then giving people lots of autonomy. In your own words. 59. The 20th century came up with this idea of management. Because what it means is paying people adequately and fairly.important. Let me give you some examples of some kind of radical notions of selfdirection. mastery. What is not a characteristic of intrinsic motivation? a. Okay? Somebody invented it. What is a traditional management philosophy effective with? 64. selfdirection works better. I want to talk today only about autonomy. But if you want engagement. And it doesn't mean it's going to work forever. Let me give you some examples. the yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves. mastery and purpose. Management is great. What is the opposite of intrinsic motivation? 60.you don't see a lot of it. What are the two radical notions of self-direction he cites? . How is management like a television? 63. Management did not emanate from nature. Autonomy.it's not a tree. paraphrase how the speaker defines autonomy. Management is like -. Mastery. 61. What does a self-directional management philosophy work well with? W. absolutely. the urge to direct our own lives. 62. but you see the first stirrings of something really interesting going on. It's a television set. 65. These are the building blocks of an entirely new operating system for our businesses. And to my mind.
Okay? Radical amounts of autonomy.done. their technique. their team. X. spend 20 percent of their time working on anything they want. How many of you have heard of the company Atlassian? It looks like less than half. about half of the new products in a typical year are birthed during that 20 Percent Time. 71. in this wild and woolly all-hands meeting at the end of the day. And it's worked so well that Atlassian has taken it to the next level with 20 Percent Time .66. They have autonomy over their time. "Go for the next 24 hours and work on anything you want. And then. Work on anything you want. Getting the issue of money off the table means – a.so that engineers use this time to come up with a cool patchwork coat. Why? Because you have to deliver something overnight. as long as it's not part of your regular job. (Laughter) Atlassian is an Australian software company. But it's pretty clever. It's not bad. Paying people their salary. Then they present all of the stuff that they've developed to their teammates. A few times a year they tell their engineers. Explain what a trademark violation is. c. their task. 70. Removing any money from a table. It's pretty. 67. Things like Gmail. solar energy designs d. b. They call them FedEx Days. famously. to the rest of the company. d. And they do something incredibly cool. Probably what is something that Atlassian would not want their engineers to work on during this special time? a. a new board game b. being Australians. What could be the motivation for a company to pay their workers to do things not directly related to their job descriptions? 69. at Google . a new beer recipe c. as many of you know." . Use a few words to describe what you thing would be a wild and woolly all-hands meeting. And at Google. Orkut. . (Laughter) That one day of intense autonomy has produced a whole array of software fixes that might never have existed. Google News. It's a huge trademark violation.where engineers can work. everybody has a beer. Losing money gambling. come up with an elegant hat. Making sure that money is not a distraction of the real issues. software 68. Y. What has happened as a result of the FedEx Days? Z.
20% fewer working hours 74. d. In a ROWE people don't have schedules. Now some of you might look at this and say. They show up when they want.the ROWE. how Atlassian and Google are alike. How they do it. 77. 79. productivity goes up. a lot of autonomy b. Microsoft started an encyclopedia called Encarta. or any time. A few years later another . how providing autonomy is a radical idea. Specifically. Autonomy. free Gmail c. Make a Venn diagram of how traditionally structured companies and ROWE companies are alike and different. Created by two American consultants. how employee autonomy has helped Google succeed. They had deployed all the right incentives. Cc. 78. in place at about a dozen companies around North America. Meetings in these kinds of environments are optional. many new products d. Turnover goes down. They paid professionals to write and edit thousands of articles.these are the bilding blocks of a new way of doing things." And I say. that sounds nice. and purpose . when they do it. Something called the Results Only Work Environment . "Hmm. "Nope. is totally up to them. 75. Approximately how many companies use the ROWE structure? 76. c. Bb. Let me give you an even more radical example of it. They don't have to be in the office at a certain time. where they do it. This paragraph is about a. how has Google benefitted by allowing its employees to spend 20% of its time on anything they want? Aa.72. b. I has proof. What happens? Almost across the board." Find the three mistakes and correct them in the spaces below. Well-compensated managers oversaw the whole thing to make sure it came in on budget and on time. but it's utopian. Google gives its employees a. All the right incentives. Worker satisfaction go up. Worker engagement goes up. 73. They just have to get their work done. The mid-1990s. why 20% is the best amount of time for autonomy. mastery.
anywhere. 85. autonomy. and said. Do it because you like to do it. If they went head to head. in a knockout. who would win?" 10 years ago you could not have found a single sober economist anywhere on planet Earth. the library 2. a restaurant 4. or a Euro or a Yen. Alright? Intrinsic motivators versus extrinsic motivators. What do you think changed so quickly in 10 years so that all of economists would have been wrong? Ee. who would have predicted the Wikipedia model. Why do you think most economists would not have predicted that the Wikipedia model would be more successful? 83. Joe Frazier b. Let me wrap up. Now if you had. Right? This is the Thrilla' in Manila. Tiger Woods 86. I've got these two different models for creating an encyclopedia. Dd. mastery and purpose. a football field 84. mastery and purpose. 80. No one gets paid a cent. Where else would you most likely find people going head to head? 1. Michael Jordan c. 82. This is the titanic battle between these two approaches. Make a Venn diagram showing the similarities and differences between the two models. Both Ali-Frazier and Thrilla in Manilla refer to which famous athlete? a. Different model. Autonomy. "Hey. What kind of incentives do you think were deployed by Microsoft so they could produce Encarta? 81. if you had gone to an economist. the bank 3. Muhammad Ali d. This is the AliFrazier of motivation. And who wins? Intrinsic motivation. When you wrap up something in this context what do you do? a. versus carrot and sticks. right? Do it for fun. finish . just 10 years ago.encyclopedia got started. make a gift b.
those motivators we think are the natural part of business. modern b. we can strengthen our businesses. One: Those 20th century rewards. The drive to do things for their own sake. The science confirms what we know in our hearts. We already know this. notions of motivation into the 21st century. There is a mismatch between what science knows and what business does. When do these motivators work? 89. And here is what science knows. old-fashioned d. Three: The secret to high performance isn't rewards and punishments. Here's the best part. What are the two intrinsic drive examples that he uses? a: b: Gg. So. The drive to do things cause they matter. the speaker uses 20th century to mean – a. I rest my case.com/pages/view/id/195 . common 88.c. appropriate c. dangerous. maybe. if we get past this lazy. (Applause) 90. make it presentable Ff. If we bring our motivation. but only in a surprisingly narrow band of circumstances. maybe we can change the world. All parts of this document are copyrighted either by TED or Doug Evans and fall under the Creative Commons license. And here's the best part. 87. Here. but that unseen intrinsic drive. we can solve a lot of those candle problems. Two: Those if-then rewards often destroy creativity. re-write the final paragraph. In your own words. if we repair this mismatch between what science knows and what business does.ted. You are welcome to use it in your classroom for non-commercial purposes as long as you follow TED’s usage policy found at: http://www. and maybe. ideology of carrots and sticks. do work. tie something up d.