MUMBAI SKYSCRAPERS Text-Ar.

Suvarna Lele

Shipati Arcade,Tardeo

India is most populous country after China which has a population of more than 1,000,000,000 residing over a land area of around 2,973,190 sq.km. Mumbai occupies area of 437.71 sq.m. This is 14% of the total area of the state of Maharashtra. It is India’s most populated city and sixth most populated agglomeration in world. Mumbai Metropolitan area is divided in City District and Suburban Districts. Mumbai is experiencing a huge building boom, although due to recent recession it seems to slow down a bit.Several high rise buildings along with skyscrapers which are more than 25 floors have come up over last two years. The heights of the buildings seem to rise every year and with increase in F.S.I. from 4 to 8 the floors will rise as high as possible. Possibly current year will see the buildings more than 80 floors. The mill lands as well as the slum areas being redeveloped due to Slum Redevelopment programme the number of this super tall structure would increase. As a result of this development there will be a tremendous pressure on infrastructure in terms of civic amenities, power supplies, and traffic. The already scanty provisions will be severely affected due to increase in population density over certain ares. Moreover an extensive study is done by officials regarding the hazards which would potentially affect city of Mumbai which include natural calamities such as earthquakes, floods, landslides along with the fires, industrial accidents, chemical, nuclear, biologicalhazards ,bomb blasts and terrorist attacks which are the latest additions to these

Mumbai lies in Seismic Zone III as per Bureau of Indian Standards. Expert committee has identified 10 sections along central railways and 12 along western railways prone to serious flooding along with 235 flooding points. Due to haphazard industrial growth the city seems to be prone to chemical, biological and nuclear hazards too.One cannot overlook several other hazards as riots, bomb blasts, terrorist attacks, landslides and cyclones. Taking a general overview of Mumbai ScenarioMumbai has inadequate roads with number of vehicles increasing day by day. The services as water supply, electricity, sanitation are inadequate for such a vast population. Major risk factors also include reclamation of land over the sea. Large numbers of commuting population, oil spills and pollution due to traffic and taking into consideration all this back ground the question arises whether it is appropriate to go for high rise structures and how face problems raised due to their extensive construction?

Elphinstone Mills Tower, Mill Lands: 60 stories

The DC rules 2005 state the inclusion of Multi disciplinary Approach right through conceptual stage to planning, designing, construction, operation and maintenance for the construction of high rise structures. It includes several clauses for building safety such as- two stage building permit, provision of periodic renewal of certificate of occupied buildings from structural, fire and electrical safety point of view. The fire safety norms are revamped providing for prevention safety and protection from fire. Several new features as substitution of halogen base fire fighting systems, promotion of new building materials and techniques, latest provisions for earthquake resistant designs, chapter for prefabricated construction, up gradation for provision of safety in construction are provided in new byelaws. To make a structure sustainable, economic, social and environmental issues are to be considered. A tall building is advantageous in several regards which include economies of scale, standardization of large quantities of building elements, selection of environmental friendly materials, occupation of smaller areas, better use of daylight and thermal mass due to narrower depth of plans. The negative effects include heavier structural frames, lower net gross floor area ratio, wind effects, deeper foundations, complicated services, negative psychological effects, and strain on infrastructure and so on. But in spite of all this, one can see a boom in construction Industry with several skyscrapers coming up. So the detailed study structural and services become quiet significant for actual site work.

In a structure, choosing right type of foundation based on soil conditions is very important consideration. While designing the super structure the exact calculation of wind stress is necessary along with wind tunnel test. Choice of external facades also becomes important in consideration with the climatic conditions which may lead to effective energy saving.

Ventilated Double Skin Façade on the HSBC Headquarters

Design of services is a complicated issue in tall structures. The proper use of daylight can reduce electricity consumption and the of use of photovoltaic cells can add up to the electricity savings. Avoidance of energy intensive air-conditioning is also an important aspect to be considered while design.

Design with photovoltaic panels Lighting may account for 20% of electrical load hence the energy efficient fixtures, placing of openings; use of colour schemes can enhance the day light use and reduce electrical consumption. Fire fighting system plays an important role in design of a tall structure. The prime considerations for fire safety include different aspects such as the standard means of fire escapes, provision of smoke control devices, facilities to assist fire services, use of fire resisting materials, separation of floors, fire escapes firefighting shafts and vertical transportation. An effective water supply and planning for sanitation can save the water to large extent. Rain water harvesting and recycling can save a large amount of water reducing the size of storage tanks.

Low Flow Spray Tap with Sensor Operation Minimises Water Use

Natural elements can be put to utmost use for creating sustainable skyscrapers. Building can be effectively oriented for maximum day light and solar passive energy.

Building can be designed to reduce maximum wind effects. The other important aspects to be considered for maximum energy gain would be floor plate depth, ceiling heights, floor slab thickness and core design. Façade should be designed considering optimization of light, ventilation and reduction of dead mass. Architects in foreign countries are experimenting over these issues since several years. Norman Foster, Renzo Piano, Kean Yeang are few of them.

Commerzbank Heaquarters, Europe’s tallest building

Minara misineaga-A bioclimatic skyscraper by Kean yeang Many new technologies and engineering options are available which include use of natural day lighting and shading, energy efficient PV facades, wind power, systems, sky gardens, rain water harvesting which are effectively used by the above mentioned architects in their designs. Ongoing research in Optimal Building Systems, Operation and Design may play a significant role in design of future skyscrapers. All the structural, mechanical and electrical systems need to be designed to incorporate innovative technologies.

LA Law Courts designed for environmental integration

Building Automation Integrated Computer Controls also be effectively used in energy saving. From a single workstation the controls and monitoring of HVAC, lighting, security, fire fighting systems and vertical transportations can be achieved.

Building Automation

Tall buildings becoming more common, design of buildings can have major impact on sustainability. Orchid Views, Satrasta: two towers of 50 stories each

In Mumbai as per experts comments from town planners, safety and administrative experts they are of a opinion that if the perfect DC rules are followed the high rise structures need not congest the areas or add extra strain on the Infrastructure but the question remains whether the DC rules are strictly followed and implemented and the result needs to be seen in upcoming constructions.

Winter Garden Section (Buchanan)Building

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