Tunnel Modaksagar
Austrian/Indian Joint Venture on Site to provide Potable Water for a Cosmopolitan City

General Water is a basic prerequisite for any life on earth. At all times, man placed his permanent settlements only on locations, where the precious raw material water was available during the whole course of the year. Along its evolution, mankind learnt to utilize water in multiple manners. As the early settlements grew to cities, the demand for potable as well as industrial water rose in analogy to their populations. Soon, the available water resources of the urban areas did not satisfy the requirements of the citizens any more. The communities began to search for water resources outside of the city limits and with the rising demands the distances of conveyance elongated. Thus, since ancient times, the design, construction and operation of artificial water supply systems for the big cities is amongst one of the most interesting assignments of civil engineering and, quite often, either of tunnelling.

Fig.1 Mumbai´s population is rapidly growing

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2 History and Preview of Mumbai´s Water Supply The required additional resources of potable water will be developed by utilization of the two rivers Vaitarna and Ulhas. with its city population of 13. Page 2 / 8 . Modaksagar (Lower Vaitarna).000. Despite that. Today. to even increase the supply and upgrade it for a daily consumption rate of more than 6.2). when Mumbai reached a population of 700. and since then has been expanded step by step. is one of the most densely populated and rapidly growing cosmopolitan areas in the world (Fig.JOINT VENTURE MODAKSAGAR The Indian sea harbour Mumbai. Fig. Tansa. By that. expected in 2021 (Fig.7 million and with more than 20. during the following years it will be necessary. The construction of the cities municipal water supply system started already as early as 1860. Upper Vaitarna and Bhatsa). the metropolis owns a widely spread network of more than 3. Tulsi. supplying its citizens with 2.000 million litres.950 mld (million litres per day) of potable water from mainly 6 water reservoirs (Vihar.000 kms of mains.1). according to the rising demands of the city.9 million people living within the agglomeration. Mumbais municipal water supply system ranks among the eight largest of the world.

the water will be conveyed 90 kms towards Mumbai within the said (already existing) network of pipeline mains. Both tunnels. the new tunnel Modaksagar can be regarded as an upgrade of the old Lower Vaitarna Project as well as the first step of the MVP. Further from Bell Nallah. Thus. The tunnel will be constructed by an Indian/Austrian Joint Venture. and their outlets within the same existing service. aligned parallel to the new tunnel alignment.3). was built from Modaksagar Lake as the first step of the Vaitarna area development.Site Location Map Page 3 / 8 . with significant involvement of Austrian tunnel know-how. The Tunnel Modaksagar is situated at the very west end of the MVP project area. The Middle Vaitarna Project (MVP) is divided into several subsections. The tunnel will make available an additional supply of 455 mld of potable water until 2012. Fig. approximately 100 kms outside the city of Mumbai (Fig. during the next few years a new dam as a third source will be erected between the already existing two reservoirs Lower and Upper Vaitarna. have their intakes close to the Modaksagar dam.JOINT VENTURE MODAKSAGAR The Middle Vaitarna Project Along the Vaitarna River.and bifurcation chamber at Bell Nallah.3 Modak Sagar . the existing as well as the new tunnel. Already in 1957 a water conveyance tunnel.

The shaft head is situated at an elevation of 198m. The final depth of the shaft works was reached at an elevation of 94m. shotcrete and rockbolts was to apply. by drilling and blasting. after 10 months of excavation. preliminary support of the walls with wiremesh. The shaft works started in February 2008 and were finalized in November 2008. Any excavation in the shaft was done conventional. The intake tunnels will be discharged into the shaft at elevations of 156. in general.0m. The works were commenced in January 2008. due to the exceptional dimensions of the shaft.JOINT VENTURE MODAKSAGAR The Austrian-Indian Joint Venture Modaksagar JV (Östu-Stettin / Pratibha) was awarded with the contract for the works in summer 2007. Intake Structure at Modaksagar Lake The intake structure consists of a 104 m deep vertical shaft and three intake tunnels with lengths between 100 and 200m. the excavated cross section of the shaft will be reduced in sections from top to bottom from 215 m² to 188 m². that a final lining of 80cm is foreseen. 161 m² and finally to 134 m².4 Intake Shaft at Modaksagar – A view from top gives an impression of the huge dimensions Page 4 / 8 . 146 and 136m. Thus. Fig. Each junction will be accessible from surface by a separate gate chamber. The basic shape of the shaft will be a regular hexagon with an edge length of 7. Despite the prevalent expected good rock conditions and the fact. The junctions of the intake tunnels are situated 60° staggered to each other. which is 4m below the planned intake gradient of the Modaksagar tunnel.

The expected geology is an alternating sequence of volcanic rocks like compact basalt. located at the bottom of the Intake Shaft The Water Conveyance Tunnel Modaksagar is 7. 50m². The cavern was excavated by drill & blast and has an overall length of approximately 160m with a cross section of ca. The tunnels have an excavated cross section of 10m² each and will get a final lining of 30cm. Page 5 / 8 . The TBM started to drill in July 2009. The maximum cover will be 150m. this cavern was extended towards a main train service and mucking station and reloading point for any materials required during completion of the works.5 View into the TBM Assembly Cavern.100 mm. a TBM assembly cavern was driven from the bottom of the shaft.500 mm. the TBM and backup system was assembled. which is mainly very hard rock to be considered for mechanized excavation. Fig. At a latter stage. After completion of the cavern. commencing in April 2009. the minimum 15m.000 m long and has an excavated diameter of 4. volcanic breccias etc.JOINT VENTURE MODAKSAGAR The excavation of the three D-shaped intake tunnels will be started in 2010. With a final concrete lining of 30cms. amygloidal basalt. Its alignment crosses under several mountain ranges between the valleys of the rivers Vaitarna and Tansa. the tunnel will have an operational diameter of 3. Conveyance Tunnel from Modaksagar to Bell Nallah As soon as the destined depth of the shaft excavation was reached.

Page 6 / 8 . cutterhead thrust Cutterhead torque Rotation speed 25 to 700 to 750 kNm 11. cutter load Max. the backup system is supplemented by a new built probe drill equipment.100 mm 17. Center cutters 24 pcs. According to a clause of the contract. For its mission to India and the special tasks to meet there. Any refurbishment and assembly was prepared in Austria and adjusted to the special requirements of the project. in order to cope with possible groundwater inflow.00 m 160 to 1. together with the aforesaid TBM. Model Type Year of Manufacture Boring Diameter Length Weight Gripper Clamping Force Cutters 17” V-mounted Robbins 112 – 238 “Uttendorf” Open Type – Hard Rock TBM 1987 4. It is designed for a track gauge of 750mm. the TBM was completely refurbished in Austrian workshops before being shipped.90 rpm Table 1: Specification of Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Also the backup .JOINT VENTURE MODAKSAGAR Thus. high-capacity grouting devices and pumping stations are installed.400 to 2x2=4 pcs. allowing investigation drills ahead of the tunnel face. Face + gauge Max.system „Rowa“ – has a well proven asset history. Also. the Modaksagar JV decided to use an open type hard rock TBM Robbins 1112 – 238. This TBM was manufactured in 1987 and since its first operation in Uttendorf proved itself in extreme hard rock conditions at the best.

From this bunker.JOINT VENTURE MODAKSAGAR Fig. Fig. At the shaft bottom transmission station.7 Installation of the Rotary Tippler at the bottom of the Intake Shaft Page 7 / 8 .6 The Cutter Head is pushed forward into the tunnel to drill its way 7 kms to Bell Nallah As rolling stock. the muck cars are dumped into a bunker by a rotary tippler. only new built cars and wagons are applied. the hoisting skip (16 m³ capacity) is filled by belt conveyor. The muck cars have a loading capacity of 5m³ each.

inner lining. will complete the works. 20 m below the Bell Nallah chamber. Start of operation of the new water mains is planned to be during early spring of 2012. The “light at the end of the tunnel” should be reached after 7.000 m of advance. After execution of the main tunnel.JOINT VENTURE MODAKSAGAR With this machinery. Gerhard Brugger Page 8 / 8 . and finally pipeline construction at the surface. the JV is confident to be able to finalize the project successfully. civil works within the shafts and intakes. in time. in summer 2010. and in accordance with the contractual requirements.