James Kelly Director of Technology September, 2002

Heat Resistant Alloy Welding Carbon Steel versus Stainless Surface Preparation Shielding Gases Cold Cracking versus Hot Cracking Distortion Penetration Fabrication Time Welding Austenitic Alloys Alloys Under 20% Nickel Alloys Over 20% Nickel 10 Age Hardening Alloys

1 2 2 3 4 5 7 7 8 9

Martensitic Stainless

Copper and Copper-Nickel Alloys

Dissimilar Metal Welds

Welding Processes 11 Gas Metal Arc Welding 11 Flux Cored Arc Welding 13 Shielded Metal Arc Welding 14 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding 16 Plasma Arc Welding 17 Submerged Arc Welding 18 Resistance Welding 19

Weld Fillers Suggested Weld Fillers 20 Guidelines for Dissimilar Metal Joints 21 Heat Resistant Weld Filler Chemistries 22 Heat Resistant Alloy Specifications, Base Metal 23 Weld Filler Specifications & Tradenames, American vs. German 24 Bolts 25 Weld Filler Consumption 2 6 References 2 7

Bulletin 200 James Kelly ©Rolled Alloys 2001
Revised May 23, 2001. Issued March 10, 2001 Heat Resistant Alloy Welding is based on Rolled Alloys’ experience and information from suppliers such as Avesta Welding AB and Sandvik AB. For additional copies of this pamphlet, contact Marketing Services, FAX +1-734-847-3915 e-mail marketingservices@rolledalloys.com

To buy on-line, or for technical information on all Rolled Alloys products, log on to our new website www.rolledalloys.com

Disclaimer Clause: The information in this document represents Rolled Alloys experience and opinions, and is believed to be reliable. However, this material is not intended as a substitute for competent professional engineering assistance which is a requisite to any specific application. Rolled Alloys makes no warranty and assumes no legal liability or responsibility for results to be obtained in any particular situation, and shall not be liable for any direct, special or consequential damages. This material is subject to revision without prior notice.

Welding heat resistant alloys is touched on in our Bulletin No. 115, and covered in more detail in Bulletin Numbers 201 & 207 for RA330 ®, 202 for RA 253 MA®, 209 for RA 353 MA®, 211 for RA alloy X, and Bulletin 120 for RA333 ® welding products. Corrosion resistant alloy welding is discussed in Bulletins 203, for alloy AL-6XN®, 205 for 20Cb-3® stainless and 1071 for RA2205 duplex stainless. These alloys are all weldable but they do require more shop time, and a DIFFERENT approach than stainless, or carbon steel. A few important rules: 1. Make reinforced, stringer beads. Do not weave. Shallow fillet welds or broad, flat weld beads tend to crack down the center as they solidify. Cover or fill in craters, to prevent them from cracking.

2. Keep heat input low. Do not ever preheat, except to dry moisture off of the metal. Keep the temperature of the metal between weld passes low, below 212°F (100°C).

E312 weldments are not suited for high temperature service. However. Let us back up a bit. it is important that it not form martensite on cooling. E312 should be reserved for weldments to be used near room temperature —never for austenitic heat resistant alloy. must be fully penetrated.. or E310 as they are very likely to crack. we will cover the important differences between stainless (under 20% nickel) and the higher nickel alloys. This is not an issue with A 36 steel. E309. They embrittle severely with exposure above 600°F (1100°C). as far as the steel is concerned. 1 4. i. Welding higher strength carbon steel requires a somewhat different procedure. . At red heat E312 welds are very weak. as well as brittle. For RA330 specifically. In order to keep the weldment from cracking. it is subject to hydrogen induced cracking. and welding either stainless or nickel alloys. Welding is essentially a heat treating operation. and first describe some of the differences between welding carbon steels. Do not try to weld RA330 with stainless rods such as E308. Weld joints in fans. that it not harden. Incompletely penetrated weld joints are the most common cause of weld failures in high temperature service. as it will be crack sensitive. Incompletely welded areas will open up as cracks during normal heat treat thermal cycles. in particular. Then. within a few hours after the weld cools. E312 may make a sound weld in RA330. If the steel near the weld bead hardens. Do not use AWS E330 weld wire.3. use RA330-04 or RA330-80-15 weld fillers. Because of its very high Ferrite Number. CARBON STEEL This book is written assuming the reader understands how to weld ASTM A 36 structural steel (plain low carbon steel). to ensure that the weld does not crack. Make full penetration weld joints. This is also called ―underbead cracking‖. E312 electrodes are often sold under various tradenames for general shop repair welding and dissimilar metal welds.e.

K. Surface Preparation When fabricating carbon steels it is common practice to weld right over scale. G. or scale. along with manganese. on the metal surface. C.and post-heats are given in the ANSI/AWS D1. ASTM A 387 Grade 11 preheat may range up to450°F. the potential for hardening during welding increases. is in the Welding Research Council bulletin 191. red rust and even paint. K. High sulphur free-machining steels.Y. To prevent hardening. Eighth Edition. Cold cracking vs Hot Cracking D. M. A so-called ―mill finish‖ is a layer of blue-black oxide. including required post-weld heat treatments. Steel in the range of 0. May 1996 CARBON STEEL VERSUS AUSTENITIC STAINLESS Some important differences between welding the carbon or low alloy structural steels and the austenitic stainless and nickel alloys include: A.D. An Experimental Study of Causes and Repair of Cracking of 1¼ Cr— ½ Mo Steel Equipment. Bulletin 411. a hard martensitic zone in the weldment may be unable to withstand impact loading in service. and especially when chromium and molybdenum are added. or crater cracking. Shielding Gases C.30—0. Alloy steels such as 4130 may require preheat in the 300 —450°F range. and 4140 350—500°F. Qiao.P. If there is no source for hydrogen—such as moisture in the flux coating. C.50% carbon usually requires some preheat. On cooling. Khan. along with low hydrogen welding practice. Volume 4. The higher preheats are suggested for thicker sections. Surface Preparation B. air cool. A. P. Carbon steel weld fillers normally contain sufficient deoxidizing agents. the steel may be pre-heated a few hundred degrees. with a required post-weld heat treatment range of 1150—1350°F. Zhou. More detail. Even without hydrogen. such as the AISI 11xx and 12xx series. This is usually a crack down the center of the weld bead.1 Structural Welding Code. Fabrication Time. Welding Research Council. Preheat and interpass temperatures in the 200—400°F range cover most medium carbon steels. may also be subject to solidification cracking. Some pre. This subject is covered well in the AWS Welding Handbook. This reduces hardness and internal stresses. shielding gas or surface contamination —this cracking will not occur. Penetration F. March 1978. . A higher manganese weld filler is suggested in such cases. Liu. Prager. Part 2. Distortion E. this pre-heated steel now has time to transform to some phase other than martensite by the time it reaches room temperature. Lundin.because of its usual location. As the carbon content increases.

Consider completing all stainless welding before painting the structural steel in the area. must be clean and free of any black scale from hot rolling. ERNiCr-3. Stainless steel melts at a lower temperature than does its chromium oxide scale. 2500°F (1371°C)1. or commercially pure nickel 200/201. the best weld fillers for this particular joint. melts at a lower temperature. The need to clean or grind down to bright metal is more likely to cause trouble when stainless is being joined to carbon steel. to reduce these surface iron oxides back to metallic iron. Any higher carbon will reduce the metal’s corrosion resistance if welded. plate with the mill hot rolling scale intact. on both sides of the joint. such as 400 alloy (Monel®. with gas shielded processes it is difficult to get the weld bead to even ―wet‖. These are . grease and paint.01% carbon. For this reason it is necessary to clean these alloys thoroughly of all traces of grease and oil before welding. The resultant Mn-Si slag floats to the weld surface. or alloy 82 bare wire.such as manganese and silicon. mill scale. Alloy 62 bare wire. A few users of heat resistant alloys. though. As a result. One can see this in a steel mill when a large ingot is removed from the soaking pit for forging —the molten scale literally drips off of the white hot steel. Keep inorganic zinc paint away from any austenitic alloy! B. that is. Incidentally. Stainless steel. Shielding Gases For gas metal arc welding (a. Iron oxide. With SMAW a weld of sorts can be made. 75% argon 25% CO2 (carbon dioxide) or 100% CO2. or ―scale‖. UNS N04400). Also the very high nickel alloys. Metallic zinc paint is a common way to protect structural steel from corrosion. than does the steel itself. are alloy 182 covered electrode. MIG) carbon steel the shielding gases are usually 95% argon 5% oxygen. That is because in this dissimilar metal joint it is necessary to grind that carbon steel to bright metal. and the stainless weld filler chemistry is not capable of reducing this scale back to metallic chromium. Of course. or stick to. are sensitive to weld cracking from the sulphur in grease. to minimize the hard martensitic layer on the steel side. E309 electrodes are commonly used but may leave a hard layer on the steel side.03% and sometimes less than 0. and ENiCrFe-2 covered electrodes are also appropriate. free of all rust. less than 0. subject to cracking in service. Both those stainless and high nickel alloys which are designed for corrosion resistance are produced to very low carbon contents. do prefer ―black plate‖. as the coating fluxes away most of the scale. This scale is thought to provide additional environmental protection at red heat.k. a scaled piece of stainless. forging or annealing operations. ERNiCrFe5.a. by contrast. Even a small amount of that zinc paint overspray on stainless or nickel alloy will cause the metal to crack badly when welded. ENiCrFe-3. stainless normally comes from the mill with a white or bright finish.

heavy spatter. as they cool from welding. A very small amount of CO2. It is not unknown to hear the complaint ―. It is required for gas metal arc welding RA 602 CA. Weldability may be greatly improved by adding from 10 to 20% helium. tends to stabilize the arc (prevents arc wander). are designed specifically for stainless and nickel alloy GMAW. in European terminology. chromium. . Strictly speaking. This is an argon-based gas with significant nitrogen. The recommended gas is CRONIGON ® HT.25% carbon. With plate it may be necessary to grind starts and stops to minimize lack of fusion defects. ArcalTM 121 and BlueShieldTM 20. it is for ―MAG‖ welding. and the resulting cracking. . Metal Active Gas. and from Linde Gas AG in Europe. far too oxidizing for use with stainless or nickel alloys. about 1% or less. to retard the cooling rate of the weld and avoid martensite . The potential for carbon pick-up from the CO2 is not an issue when welding heat resistant alloys. A fine gas for carbon steel but absolutely not for stainless. such as manganese. Short-circuiting arc welding generally requires the 75%Ar 25%He mix.suitable with carbon or low alloy steel welding wire but far. Shortcircuiting arc welding is used for sheet gages. but a 90%He 7 1/2%Ar 2 1/2%CO2 ―tri-mix‖ is commonly used. . Some of these cored wires are specifically formulated to run best with 75%Ar 25%CO2. and crack. . 4 Stainless and nickel alloys have been GMAW spray-arc welded with 100% argon. and small additions of active gases. Hydrogen pickup from moisture in the air causes underbead cracking in steels that harden as they cool from welding. molybdenum. clouds of red smoke are coming off when I weld your 310. etc. CRONIGON HT may also be used for other highly alloyed heat resistant grades. arc transfer somewhat resembles globular transfer. which helps to burn away that oxide. .. Alloying elements which increase hardenability. a patented gas available from AGA and HOLOX in the USA. At this lower level of argon. High hardness. The weldability of stainless steel is impaired by the stable oxide film which exists on the metal. A helium addition provides a little hotter arc.‖ and then learn that the shielding gas used was 75%Ar 25%CO2. One exception to this high CO2 prohibition is when using flux cored wire. although it will not give a true spray-arc. . 75% argon 25% helium is used. Two proprietary gases from Air Liquide. can make steels of lower carbon content also harden. Carbon dioxide helps reduce ―arc wander‖. C. either stainless or nickel alloy. are more likely when the steel contains over 0. Cold Cracking versus Hot Cracking Carbon steel weldments may harden. To prevent such cracking the steel is usually preheated before welding. by increasing emissivity of electrons from the work surface. The heat resisting alloy RA 602 CATM requires a nitrogen addition to the shielding gas to avoid hot cracking.

nor to post weld heat treat it. less commonly by aluminum. Welds should be sequenced about the neutral axis of the fabrication to balance welding stresses. or for certain applications. which slows down the cooling rate. Austenitic stainless and nickel alloys do NOT harden no matter how fast they cool from welding. This may be from a surface smear of zinc or copper. Postweld heat treatment. Stainless also expands with heat about half again as much as does carbon steel. Distortion2.3 Stainless steel has poor thermal conductivity. rather than spread out.formation. is also applied to some steels. As a matter of fact preheating stainless. is actually harmful. such as A 36 structural steel. the less time it spends in the temperature range where it can tear. Back step welding is also helpful. High nickel alloys are susceptible to cracking in restrained joints. only about one fourth that of plain carbon steel. as well 1 6 4 7 3 8 5 9 2 . Among other things. For this reason preheating. D. This hot tearing/hot cracking has nothing to do with hardness. the weld bead tears rather than stretching. can be positively harmful. as it permits more opportunity for hot tearing to occur. This is a hot tearing (solidification cracking). as the weld bead contracts upon solidifying. The faster a nickel alloy weld freezes solid. Stress relief 1100-1200°F (600-650°C) as applied to carbon steel is only partially effective with stainless or nickel alloys. or stress relief. not a cold crack. beyond what may be necessary to dry it. So. or heavy sections. and may be damaging to the aqueous corrosion resistance. The combination of these two factors means that stainless or nickel alloy fabrications distort significantly more than similar designs in carbon steel. That is. hence minimize distortion. it is not necessary to preheat stainless. This means the welding heat tends to remain concentrated. 5 Stainless steel welds generally do not crack unless contaminated. Tacks should be done in sequence. tack welds need to be more closely spaced in stainless or nickel alloy welds.

joint .6 If the tacks are simply done in order from one end. the plate edges close up 1 2 3 4 5 Weld runs should be done symmetrically about the joint's center of gravity to balance stresses 12 8 4 1 3 6 9 7 11 10 5 2 Double V .

.1 4 3 2 Flange to cylinder 7 Back step welding helps reduce distortion 3 2 1 E. and especially nickel alloy. Penetration The arc will not penetrate a stainless nearly as deeply as it will carbon steel. single or double beveled. Lack of weld penetration is the single most important reason why austenitic alloy weldments fail in high temperature service. joints must be more open. so that the weld metal may be placed in the joint. Increasing welding current will not solve the problem! Stainless. with a root gap. Penetration is even less in high nickel alloys.

it is metallurgically impossible to form any measurable amount of ferrite. when feasible. Whatever phosphorus comes from the raw materials. Phosphorus cannot be removed from stainless steel by current refining methods. and is reported as a Ferrite Number. distortion control measures. usually by slightly higher chromium and reduced nickel. . A good carbon steel shop encountering stainless or nickel alloys for the first time can easily spend twice as long. must be kept below 0. Low silicon. This matter is readily handled in alloys under about 15% or so nickel. mostly from the iron. as in carbon steel. The amount of ferrite in the weld may be measured magnetically. In higher nickel grades. maybe even three times as long.F. This ferrite acts to nullify the effects of the elements responsible for hot cracking in the Ni-Cr-Fe austenitics. sulphur may be removed by the AOD refining process. maintaining low interpass temperatures and even machining add up to more time spent fabricating stainless than carbon steel. to form a small amount of ferrite upon solidification. Fabrication Time Cleanliness. 8 WELDING AUSTENITIC ALLOYS The fundamental problem to be overcome in welding austenitic nickel bearing alloys is the tendency of the weld to hot tear upon solidification. In these stainless grades the weld metal composition is adjusted. as it would the same job in carbon steel. FN.015% in the weld wire itself.6 times as long to complete the same fabrication in stainless. A shop experienced with stainless may require 1. to do the stainless fabrication. is desireable. sulphur. silicon and boron. in particular. over about 20% nickel. These elements are chiefly phosphorus. Phosphorus. Therefore other means of minimizing hot cracking must be used. Foremost among these is to use high purity raw materials in the manufacture of weld fillers. will end up in the weld wire.

4% carbon. is harmful. incompletely penetrated welds and open crevices must be avoided in fabrication design. and typically much lower. 9 The distinction between the lower nickel stainless grades. while RA330HC belt pin stock and the cast heat resistant alloys have a nominal 0.010% carbon for good hot strength. 2% Mo contributes to 316 as being the most weldable of the stainless steels. which depend upon ferrite to ensure weldability.5% in 347 stainless. whereas 2 to 4% columbium is quite beneficial in many nickel base weld fillers. A weld deposit chemistry of some 0.04 . or tying it up with a stabilizing element (Cb or Ti) is necessary to prevent heat affected zone (HAZ) intergranular corrosion and polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking (PASCC) due to carbide precipitation. crevices are where carbon (soot) can deposit. The one welding electrode specifically using high carbon to promote sound welds is the heat resistant grade RA330-80-15 (UNS W88338). Serious aqueous corrosion can begin in crevices. Corrosion resistant grades are generally limited to 0. near 0. Likewise a high purity nickel alloy weld filler. Heat resistant alloys by contrast typically require 0.Certain alloy additions such as manganese. Manganese ranges from about 2% in AWS E310-15 covered electrodes to 5% in RA330-04 wire & electrodes and 8% in alloy 182 (ENiCrFe-3) covered electrodes. to about 1/10%. such as the 0. as dilution of the weld bead with nickel from the base metal eliminates this ferrite. High molybedenum may be responsible for the popularity of the various ―C type‖ electrodes (15Cr 15Mo balance Ni) in repair welding. molybdenum and carbon serve in one way or another to reduce the austenitic propensity for weld hot cracking. They may have small additions of columbium or titanium. such as ER320LR. In the absence of a wet corrosive environment a little intergranular carbide precipitation is not particularly harmful. A low level of columbium.03% carbon maximum. grow. Molybdenum isn’t necessarily added specifically for weldability but it does enhance the properties of RA333-70-16 covered electrodes.0. RA 602 CA is even higher. and pry the joint apart like tree roots in rock. Most ferrite containing (stainless) weld fillers are useless with nickel alloy base metal. In both classes of material. In high temperature carburizing service. Restriction of carbon. .85% carbon permits this electrode to make sound welds in both wrought and cast 35% Ni high silicon heat resistant alloys. With respect to welding there are some distinctions between those alloys intended for use above 1000°F (540°C). 316L or carbon steel base metal. and the high nickel alloys.2%. Carbon is slightly elevated in 310 weld fillers. columbium (niobium). One difference is in carbon content. and those meant for aqueous corrosion service. which require high purity weld fillers. is an important one to remember. may be not quite so crack resistant when contaminated by phosphorus from use on cast alloy 20 (CN-7M).

It is even less often considered in repair of high temperature alloy fixturing. The weld filler must also have the mechanical and environmental resistance required for its intended service.For either heat or corrosion resistant alloys. 321. Ferrite does a good job of ensuring sound weldments. RA310. RA309. Usually this point is addressed in fabricating corrosion resistant alloys. The covered electrodes used to weld stainless steel are almost invariably AC/DC titania coated. All save RA310 depend upon some level of ferrite in the weld bead to prevent solidification defects. and run exceptionally well when direct current is used. It is sometimes overlooked in heat resistant alloy fabrication. . weldability alone is not the entire issue. designated either –16 or –17. RA 253 MA. where a higher alloy weld filler is often used. Such electrodes have good welder appeal. ALLOYS UNDER 20% NICKEL Most austenitic grades containing less than 20% nickel are joined with weld fillers that utilize perhaps 4-12 FN (Ferrite Number) to ensure weldability. Wrought heat resistant alloys with 20% or less nickel include 304H.

asp-16x .Schaeffler-de Long diagram from AvestaPolarit’s web site. www.com/template/page_2389.avestapolarit.

. 556. 600. silicon and boron. Because 310 is a difficult alloy to weld. For ER310 welding wire to be of practical use the phosphorus must be kept under 0.50% silicon in the ASTM/ASME specifications. 188. In the past it was possible for 310S (UNS N031008) base metal to contain as much as 1. Titanium may be added for deoxidation. Such chemistry modifications are rarely as effective as is the use of ferrite in the lower nickel stainless weld fillers.030% phosphorus maximum.RA310 stands in an odd position between the stainless and the nickel alloys. and HR-160 may be treated in similar fashion with appropriate weld fillers. Heats on the high side of silicon and phosphorus were a problem to weld (Rolled Alloys had traditionally limited silicon in RA310 to 0. become increasingly important to ensure the soundness of fully austenitic welds. At this level of phosphorus austenitic weld beads are very sensitive to hot cracking. usable only with direct current.75% max). columbium or molybdenum to improve resistance to fissuring and hot cracking. 617. With the advent of 310H (UNS S31009). Techniques include reinforced.75% Si. In practice all 310 varieties now melted in North America have less than 0.75% maximum as well. high carbon.015%. RA 353 MA®. convex stringer beads and low interpass temperature. Haynes alloys HR-120. L605. Even so. RA330 ®. which is of some benefit to weldability. RA333®. The current AWS specification for ER310 weld wire permits 0. alloy X (UNS N06002). Not surprisingly. The lime coating tends to ameliorate the effects of impurities such as phosphorous. Many nickel alloys are joined with matching composition weld fillers. Welding technique and attention to cleanliness. the phosphorus level should be no higher than 0. Other nickel weld fillers contain manganese. Titania coatings tend to be more crack sensitive. having neither ferrite nor any particular alloy addition for weldability. modified only by restrictions on phosphorus. 230 and 214. and Nimonic® 75. 803. RA 602 CATM. ALLOYS OVER 20% NICKEL Heat resistant alloys in this category include RA800H/AT. 310 welds have a reputation for fissuring. The cobalt alloys N155. 601. It may be difficult to achieve sound welds in 310 base metal using an AWS E310-16 AC/DC electrode. sulphur. then. the preferred choice in E310 covered electrodes are the DC lime-type electrodes. ASTM limited silicon to 0.015% maximum.

Normally one uses Reverse Polarity. and the nickel alloy 718. When a stainless rod is deposited on a high nickel base metal. It is strengthened by a four hour aging (precipitation hardening) treatment. electrode positive. Copper Contamination Cracking: Cracking Mechanism and Crack Inhibitors. the resultant weld bead will include some nickel from the base metal. For this reason it runs well. ed.J. already typically a little high in phosphorus. and tends to be readily accepted by welders. with no ferrite at all.J. Usually we think of ―annealed‖ as meaning soft and ductile.A. the stainless weld bead. Gooch ―Solidification Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steel‖.F. having an AC/DC titania coating. Shops accustomed to stainless welding need to remember to switch to direct current. Welding Journal. Weldability of Materials. ISBN: 0-87170-401-3. Sandvik Welding Handbook. How Copper Contamination Affects Weldability of Cobalt Superalloys.W. March 1982 T. 17-4PH is normally sold in the annealed condition. It may be possible for that additional nickel to make the weld bead fully austenitic. nickel alloy covered electrodes are often produced with a lime-type DC coating. ASM International 1990 AGE HARDENING ALLOYS The two age hardening (also called precipitation hardening) alloys to be covered here are 17-4PH® stainless. may crack down the center. Nippes and D. R. that is. Ball. Mahin.F.) depends upon a small amount of deposited ferrite to ensure a sound weld. deCadenet.Cleanliness includes NOT using oxygen additions to the GMAW shielding gases for nickel alloys. pp31 -40. Without ferrite. Welding Metallurgy of Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steels. S. 1975 Berthold Lundqvist. Sandviken Sweden 1977 E. 11 It is worth repeating here that high nickel alloys cannot be reliably welded using stainless steel weld fillers. Stainless steel (308. Welding Journal. and to pay attention to polarity. Cambridge University Press.O. Patterson and K.J. . M. etc. Savage. workpiece negative. Sandvik AB. While stainless steel welding electrodes are usually AC/DC titania. Castro and J. Maddock and W.G. Welding Research Supplement. May 1972 R. RA333-70-16 is an exception among the high nickel electrodes. 17-4PH metallurgy and welding 17-4PH is a low-carbon martensitic stainless steel.J. 309. Matthews.

While the alloy is relatively soft in Condition A. This makes the base metal more ductile. Condition A material heated at 1400 ± 25°F for 2 hours. treatments in the 950 to 1025°F range are often used. When making welds in heavy cross-sections. as the weldment cools and contracts. For heavy sections. In practice. and age harden. H 1075. air cooled. These high nickel fillers have thermal expansion coefficients more closely matching those of the 17-4PH. The heat of welding will leave some zone of the base metal in the annealed condition. most 17-4PH fabrications are simply age hardened only. Their lower strength and good ductility reduce the welding strains on the base metal. This is followed by a postweld precipitation hardening treatment of 4 hours. it has very low ductility and notch impact strength. to regain strength and ductility in the weld area. it would be preferable to give the welded fabrication a 1900°F solution anneal. But since ―annealed‖ 17-4PH is really untempered martensite. 12 From the strict metallurgical viewpoint. any matching 17-4PH filler metal will be in the annealed condition. Then cool to room temperature. Light gage 17-4PH may be welded in the annealed condition. the fabrication should again be aged for 4 hours. typically about Rockwell C30. Condition A material which has been heated at the specified temperature for 4 hours and air cooled. This heat treatment is used for maximum toughness. it is generally best to first age the metal to condition H-1100 or H-1150. Temperature should be in the range of 950 to 1150°F. For dissimilar welds involving 17-4PH stainless fillers such as 309 have been used. The preferred fillers are alloy 82 (ENiCrMo-3) bare wire or the covered electrodes 182 (ERNiCrFe-3) and INCO-WELD® A (ENiCrFe-2). normally performed by the steel mill. or solution treatment.Annealed 17-4PH isn’t especially hard. H 925. with poor resistance to . So after welding. after welding. air cooled or oil quenched to below 90F. H 1025. Heat treatments for 17-4PH and their designations Designation Condition A* Processing Heated at 1900°F ± 25F for 12 hour. Likewise. and for cryogenic applications to –320°F. and less likely to crack from welding stresses. This is true even though the desired tensile strength may be provided by that condition. then heated at 1150 ± 15°F for 4 hours and air cooled. This is the anneal. 17-4PH should not be used in Condition A. H 1100 H 1150-M * For most applications. the structure is untempered martensite that has low fracture toughness and ductility. However that 1900°F treatment becomes quite impractical with a large fabrication.

GTAW shielding is commonly argon torch and back-up gas. Do not preheat. then air cool. UNS W37410.4 E630. Superior service performance is assured by using 17-4PH in the age hardened condtion. Bare welding wire is in AWS A5. Weld Fillers for 17-4PH 17-4PH is welded with fillers similar. This is the condition in which 718 normally is provided by the mill or by Rolled Alloys. relatively low strength.stress-corrosion cracking. and remove all oxide film before depositing the next bead. for material up to 1/4‖ thick. To maximize the properties of the weldment it is necessary to re-anneal sheet gauges 1700-1850°F. Heat input and interpass temperature should be low. AMS 5827. This reduces the strength and toughness of weldments. condition. Solution annealing 1900-1950°F should redissolve the Laves phase and increase the tensile ductility of the weldment. age hardening) reaction involving columbium.k.9 ER630. Make small stringer beads. furnace cool to 1150°F. Weldments in 718 are subject to formation of a brittle Laves phase during solidification. Freshly cleaned 718 may be covered with plastic wrap to maintain cleanliness before welding. Following . 718 may be welded either in the annealed. For many non-aerospace applications the only heat treatment required after welding is the 1325/1150°F aging. rapid air cool or quench. A commonly used heat treatment is to anneal 1700-1850°F. Strength is achieved by aging at 1325°F for 8 hours. Helium torch and back-up gas is preferred for heavier sections. AMS 5826 13 718 Metallurgy and Welding 718 is a fully austenitic nickel alloy. Cleanliness of both the base metal and the weld wire affect welding this grade. or in the precipitation hardened condition. hold at 1150°F for a total time of 18 hours in the furnace. E-Grade 718 weld wire GTAW wire with thoroughly mechanically cleaned surface is available from stock for critical welding applications.a. but not identical. to the base metal. For highly restrained joints where some reduction in weldment strength is permitted. This does leave a zone near the weld in an over-aged. followed by 1325/1150°F age.The specifications for matching covered electrodes are AWS A5. to strengthen the weld bead and base metal near the fusion line. UNS S17480. 625 offers more strength than alloy W. fillers such as 625 (ERNiCrMo-3) or Hastelloy W (ERNiMo-3) are sometimes used. It is strengthened by a precipitation hardening (a. The effect is more pronounced in plate gauges (over 3/16‖) than in sheet.

For highly restrained joints where some reduction in weldment strength is permitted. Welding of Precipitation-Hardening Nickel Base Alloys. This reduces the strength and toughness of weldments. air cool. February 1968 MARTENSITIC COPPER AND COPPER NICKEL . WRC Bulletin 103.Prager and C. Helium torch and back-up gas is preferred for heavier sections. Harkins. Shira. hold at 1200°F for a total aging time in the furnace of 18 hours. WRC Bulletin 128.G. Following this higher temperature solution anneal the normal aging treatment is 1400°F 10hours.S. air cool. fillers such as 625 (ERNiCrMo-3) or Hastelloy W (ERNiMo-3) are sometimes used. hold at 1200°F for a total aging time in the furnace of 18 hours. Solution annealing 1900 -1950°F should redissolve the Laves phase and increase the tensile ductility of the weldment. F. Weldments in 718 are subject to formation of a brittle Laves phase during solidification. furnace cool to 1200°F. The effect is more pronounced in plate gauges (over 3/16‖) than in sheet. February 1965 M. 625 offers more strength than alloy W. Welding of Age-Hardenable Stainless Steels. furnace cool to 1200°F. for material up to 1/4‖ thick.this higher temperature solution anneal the normal aging treatment is 1400°F 10hours. 14 GTAW shielding is commonly argon torch and back-up gas.

602 CA is a new alloy. 1999 Broadway. relative thermal expansion coefficients of the three metals involved. Section V: Design and Fabrication. Wah Chang. Ni-Cr-Fe Austenitic Alloys Considerations in selecting a filler metal for a dissimilar metal weld joint include the expected service conditions at the joint. Colorado 80202 USA Zirconium Welding Brochure. HT. Bulletin TWCA-8902W. These suggestions are from experience and general metallurgical knowledge. Suite 4300. and freedom from weld metal hot cracking.REACTIVE METALS Titanium Zirconium Titanium Design Handbook for Industrial Applications. Oregon 97321 USA DISSIMILAR METAL WELDING Suggested Weld Filler Guidelines. The final selection should be approved by the end user and weld procedures qualified by the fabricator.316) RA330-04 RA 253 MA RA 602 CA Cast Alloys HK. PO Box 460. Denver. data incomplete Base Metals RA330® RA800H/AT RA333 ® Carbon Steel 182 RA330-04 182 RA333 Stainless (304. Albany. TIMET. HP 617A RA330-04 617 A RA333 RA330-80-15 RA330-04 RA333 RA333 RA330-04 RA333-70-16 .

The least volume of work is done by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). ed. A ―mill finish‖ is not acceptable. is often used in heat resistant alloy fabrication. Two other methods are Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) and Submerged Arc Welding (SAW). All rust. particularly cross wire resistance welding. formerly called ® TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and originally trade named Heliarc . is Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). The Welding Institute. in North America. The most common. 1986 WELDING PROCESSES Five different arc welding processes are generally used with heat resisting alloys. formerly known as MIG (Metal Inert Gas).RA 353 MA® 182 RA 353 MA RA 353 MA RA 253 MA® E309-16 RA 602 CA TM RA 353 MA -RA 353 MA RA330-80-15 617A S 6025 6225 Al 82 182 S 6025 6225 Al 82B B 182 82B B 182 82B B 182 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 A 617 RA 253 MA 182 82 82 182 82 182 E309-16 ER309 E309-16 E310-15 E309-16 E310-15 182 82 82 182 82 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 E310-15 RA 253 MA RA333 A 617 RA600 RA333 RA333-70-16 RA333 RA333-70-16 E309-16 RA 253 MA RA 253 MA -E309-16 RA 253 MA-17 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA330-80-15 RA601 RA309 RA310 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA333-70-16 -- RA446 Note: The carbon steel joint must be ground to bright metal. In addition resistance welding. Nickel alloy weld wire lacks the deoxidation characteristics of carbon steel weld wires. or just plain ―stick‖ welding. N. . blue-black hot rolling scale and paint must be removed before welding with any stainless or nickel alloy weld wires. Bailey. A 617 (ERNiCrCoMo-1) lacks the oxidation resistance of RA 602 CA B These high nickel fillers are quite unsuitable for sulphur bearing environments Welding Dissimilar Metals. using spooled bare wire filler. with covered electrodes. Next in popularity is Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW).

spatter. Although very small amounts of CO2 may be used in argon. The GMAW process is fast and well suited to high volume work. They don’t work well with covered electrodes (SMAW). and low heat input. This is known as short-arc. typically on 2530 pound (11-14 kg) spools. where it makes electrical contact.045‖ (1. At lower current. molten weld metal crosses the arc to the work as a fine spray. the weld filler metal is bare wire.89 mm) wire. through the weld torch and around the wire. Constant Current. The dial on a Constant Current machine reads in amperes. Oxygen above 2% starts burning out major alloying elements. Molten weld filler transfers as either a spray of fine drops.14 mm). The arc between weld wire and workpiece melts the metal.035‖ (0.035‖ (0. and is marked with numbers in the 20-40 range. as for welding long tubes.045‖ (1. individual drops. Current is always Electrode Positive (DCRP. First. and Constant Potential. roughly 100 amperes for 0. and the current is regulated by this dial. or as larger globs. The metal is protected from oxidation by a continuous flow of shielding gas. 15 Gas Metal Arc Welding In this process. Constant Potential (voltage) machines are used for GMAW (MIG) welding. The most common size is 0. In this mode. Welding with relatively high current. Practically speaking it won’t work for GMAW (MIG) welding. and argon shielding is used for the spray -arc transfer mode. usually argon. It can be automated. with 75% argon 25% helium shielding.89 mm) and 0. about 190-220 amperes for 0. the molten weld metal transfers as large.There are two basic types of welding machines.59 mm) are also stocked. though 0. direct current reverse polarity).14 mm) wire. A constant current machine is used for GTAW (TIG) and SMAW (stick) welding. or short-circuiting arc. Wire is fed continuously through a hollow cable to the welding gun. The dial regulates voltage. Choice of shielding gas is important. do not use oxygen additions to the gas when welding nickel alloys and NEVER use 75% argon 25% carbon dioxide for GMAW welding either stainless or nickel alloys.0625‖ (1. CO2 above 5% adds carbon to the low carbon stainless grades. welding. at above 15% CO2 . characterized by a noisy arc.

The care with which the filler metal is wound on the spool does affect how smoothly the wire feeds. However. Because the welding wire must be pushed through a cable.: Many heat and corrosion resistant alloy weld wires are much higher in strength than stainless wire (e. This shuts down the operation until the welder clears it. U groove for copper or aluminum. Use minimal pressure on the feed rolls—more is not better. will do the following: 1.9 for stainless. and serrated rolls for flux cored wire. Form a circle not less than 15 in. (380mm) in diameter and not more than 50 in.g. Adjust the pressure until you just can not hold the wire. For short-circuiting arc transfer 75% Ar 25% He is used. A mix of 75%Ar 25%He is also used.in argon the arc transfer mode is no longer spray. (25mm) at any location‖ Our RA 253 MA wire. If you can hold it back.. The result can be a tangle of wire known. as is the commonly available 90% He 7 1/2% Ar 2 1/2% CO2. appropriately. To improve bead contour and reduce arc wander. then. and A5. is often blamed for feeding problems. Are the feed rolls.7mm) helix. V groove rolls are used with solid stainless/nickel alloy wire. there is not enough pressure. their BlueShieldTM 20 is a nominal 81% argon 18% helium and 1% carbon dioxide. Rise above the flat surface no more than 1 in. from 10 to 20% helium and a small amount of CO2 may be added to the argon. ER308. ranging from 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4 1/2m) long. or bird’s nest. although the transfer mode will then not quite be a true spray-arc. more often than not. Avesta Welding Products. ER316L). then give it another half turn beyond that. and therefore require more care to feed smoothly. proper attention to machine set up will ensure freedom from ―bird’s nests‖. the more tension in the feed rolls. For spray-arc welding the most common gas has been 100% argon. The following discussion is based on information from Ron Stahura. Both AWS A5. for example. when cut from the spool and laid unrestrained on a flat surface. When tangling. there may be feeding problems. . The manufacturer.14 for nickel alloy wire require cast and helix of wire on 12 inch (300mm) spools to be4 ―such that a specimen long enough to produce a single loop. inlet guide and outlet guide all clean? Incidentally. but rather a hot globular transfer with a great deal of spatter. Inc. A rule of thumb is to hold the wire between the fingers as it enters the feed rolls. (1300mm) in diameter 2. One such gas from Air Liquide. respectively. as a ―bird’s nest‖. typically has 36 to 42 inch (915 to 1070mm) cast and 1/2 inch (12. 16 Smooth feeding depends on the cast and helix of the spooled wire. Does this problem occur on more than one machine? How long is the cable—the longer the cable. occurs the first thing we suggest is to examine machine set-up.

and the arc is ―softer‖. 17 Gas Metal Arc Welding GMAW.045 inch (1. .14mm conduit. The oversize conduit won’t hurt. When spray-arc welding the tip runs hot. consider using a 1/16 inch (1.a. A heavy duty contact tip is preferred instead of a standard contact tip. instead of a 0. and the wire may swell into the tip and jam it.6mm) conduit.045‖/1. and can handle more heat.14mm) wire. Flux cored wire is sensitive to moisture pick -up. a. The heavy duty tip simply has more copper. with flux and metal alloy powders inside. and will give more room for the wire to flex. and should be left in its sealed plastic bag until ready to use.For 0. even with nickel alloys! The advantage of flux cored wire is greater overall productivity than when solid wire is used. gas shielding may be 75% Argon 25% CO2. ―MIG‖) Flux Cored Arc Welding FCAW is similar to GMAW except that the wire used is tubular.k. Because this wire contains its own flux.

various alloy additions are made in the coating. and controls the bead shape Adds more alloying elements. but not always. a ―-16‖. RA333-70-16 electrodes do use RA333 core wire.Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) 18 Shielded Metal Arc Welding Covered welding electrodes consist of an alloy core wire and a flux coating. and most RA330-04-15 covered electrodes. more recently. The electrode coating does four basic jobs: 1. a 35%Ni 15%Cr AWS E330 core wire is used. these additions melt in and adjust the chemistry of the weld bead to the specified composition. similar to the base metal in composition. The core wire is usually. Coating type is designated by a ―-15‖. During welding. or. The additional carbon. carbon or chromium Promotes electrical conductivity across the arc and helps to stabilize the arc. 4. Provides a gas that shields the metal crossing the arc from oxidation Produces a molten slag which further protects the molten weld bead from oxidation. affects out-of-position weldability. In the case of RA330-80-15 or -16. so that the weld bead chemistry will not be the same as the chemistry of the core wire itself. a ―-17‖. important when alternating current (AC) is used 3. however. such as manganese. manganese and chromium required in the weld deposit are added to the flux coating. . 2. Often. There are three types of coatings used on Rolled Alloys electrodes.

Remove all slag or flux after welding! If there is any residual weld flux on the fabrication. These electrodes may be used with 19 alternating current (AC). Residual flux may lead to local sulphidation attack even though the sulphur level is quite low in the surrounding atmosphere. not unless that AC current is turned up so high that the whole electrode glows red and the coating spalls off. that flux will continue to do its job when put into high temperature service. This has been well illustrated in work published by the former Huntington Alloy Products Division. Weld repair with RA333-70-16 covered electrodes is best accomplished using direct current. but not on AC. In fact. The newer coating designation is -17. the electrode simply won’t run. Normally the current is reverse polarity (DCRP. RA330-04-15 and RA330-80-15 both have DC (Direct Current) lime coatings. The result will be one form or another of hot corrosion. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding . they run the best when using DC. That is. Well.DC lime-type coatings are designated -15. now Special Metals. or Electrode Positive). This means that these electrodes can ONLY be used with direct current. Rolled Alloys’ experience has been tha t the flux will promote rapid carburization. The AC/DC titania coated electrodes are designated -16. Electrons are emitted from the work and go toward the electrode. RA333-70-16 and RA330-8016 both have AC/DC coatings. In carbon and sulphur free oxidizing environments that flux will increase local oxidation rates. it will indeed run on DC current. reverse polarity (DCRP). He will not be able to keep the arc going. and the workpiece is negative electrical pole of the circuit. Fluoride containing fluxes are wonderful getters for sulphur. This means it will not extinguish itself as the current reverses direction (and goes to zero) 60 times a second on normal 60 cycle current (50 cycle in Europe). That is. At this writing RA 253 MA-17 is the only electrode we stock with this coating. They have compounds of potassium and titanium in the coating which stabilize the arc. the electrode is the positive. If the welder attempts to use a DC electrode with an AC (alternating current) setting on the welding machine. but every couple of years someone complains that RA330-04-15 ―won’t run‖. dependent upon the atmosphere. DC. which also operates on alternating current. as well as on direct current. AC/DC electrodes may also be used with direct current. In carburizing environments. hence embrittlement. This would seem to be very basic knowledge.

The rest of the weld may be built up with either GMAW or SMAW. Welders sometimes knock the coating off an electrode and use the core wire as GTAW filler. It may be automated for volume production. When using a 2 —4% nitrogen addition for welding RA 602CA or some of the corrosion resistant alloys. is brought in through a nozzle or gas cup which surrounds the electrode. which protects both the hot tungsten electrode and the molten weld puddle. In automatic GTAW the wire is fed into the joint from a spool of wire. Argon is used for manual welding. and not RA330-04 chemistry. and this process makes the best quality weld. cup size and consider the use of a gas lens. where a hotter arc is preferred. This AWS ER330 will make a crack-sensitive weld. No oxygen or carbon dioxide can be tolerated or the tungsten electrode would literally burn up. Do not do this with RA330-04-15 or the RA330-80 electrodes. Minimize the arc length. both of which are faster.5mm). Look at work to tip distance. just like GMAW wire. 20 Shielding gas is normally pure argon or helium. is a potential cause of porosity. The arc between the tungsten electrode and the work is what melts the workpiece. a name still used occasionally. Remember—the core wire of RA330-04-15 covered electrodes is AWS ER330. it is necessary to add 2. For faster welding speed helium is added to the argon shielding gas. without the benefit of the alloying elements which were in the coating. but it is relatively slow. For welding aluminum the electrode is pure tungsten. that is. making the arc hotter. GTAW is often used to make the root pass in pipes or whenever the joint can only be made from one side. used with AC (alternating current). shielding gas flow rates. GTAW weld wire for heat or corrosion resistant alloys is sold as 36‖ (914 mm) straight lengths of bare wire. The electrode is usually thoriated tungsten. A helium addition may be used for automated welding. For the new heat resistant nickel alloy RA 602 CA. nitrogen reduces hot cracking susceptibility. in 10 pound (4 1/2 kg) tubes. direct current straight polarity. Rare earth oxides are also used. Atmospheric contamination.5% nitrogen to the argon. The work is electrically positive and the tungsten electrode is the negative electrical pole. as from strong winds or too long an arc length. no more than 1/4 to 3/8 inch (6-9. This process used to be called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas). tungsten metal with 1 or 2% thorium oxide added to improve the emissivity of electrons. Gas cup size . The welder has the most control when using gas tungsten arc. The weld filler metal is fed by hand into the molten puddle. In this particular alloy. the shielding gas will be just that much more sensitive to atmospheric contamination. The argon shielding gas. For both stainless and nickel alloys the current used is DCSP. and was originally patented as Heliarc ®. the greater the opportunity to entrain air into the shielding gas. The longer the arc length. which remains unmelted. the arc is struck between the workpiece and a tungsten electrode.In GTAW.

a.7mm cup dia). a hopper feeds granulated flux into the arc to shield the arc and molten weld puddle. PAW is an excellent welding process for heat resisting alloys. 21 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW. For the corrosion resistant alloy AL-6XN .depends upon what diameter tungsten electrode is being used. ® Submerged Arc Welding Submerged arc uses a spool of weld wire. to maintain corrosion resistance in the weld bead. An 1/8 inch (3.5-12. This 6% molybdenum grade requires the use of an over-alloyed weld filler. A full 2150ºF (1177ºC) anneal is necessary to restore full corrosion resistance in plasma welds of AL-6XN.k. plasma welding is less desirable. 8 (12. much like GMAW.7mm) cup. a. Instead of shielding gas. typically ERNiCrMo-3. Consider using a gas lens. A 3/32‖ (2. It is this turbulence which causes air to get mixed in with the argon shielding gas. a wire screen which serves to reduce turbulence of the shielding gas flow. TIG) Plasma Arc Welding The plasma arc torch is roughly analogous to a GTAW torch. With plasma arc welding so little filler is used that the weld bead is heavily diluted with base metal and has reduced corrosion resistance due to molybdenum micro segregation. and has been used to weld RA330 without added filler (with GTAW this would be extremely difficult). It generates intense heat in a very narrow zone. No.2mm) electrode requires a No. . 6 to No.4mm) electrode should use anywhere from a No. 8 cup (9. 7 (11mm) being about right.

14 mm) dia.4 mm) are generally preferred. such as Avesta Flux 805 or Böhler-Thyssen’s RECORD NiCrW.6 or 2. rather than 1/8‖ (3. Absolutely do not use acid fluxes or any flux meant for stainless steel.While it is possible to use 0. For nickel alloys such as RA330 a strongly basic flux must be used. 22 SAW is process naturally inclined to high heat input. Heat input must be as low as possible. and for this reason 1/8‖ (3. larger sizes such as 1/16 or 3/32‖ (1. but this heat must be kept to a minimum to avoid centerbead cracking in fully austenitic alloys. It is for this reason that 3/32‖ (2.2 mm) wire is not suggested with nickel heat resistant alloys.045‖ (1. wire is suggested for use with nickel heat resistant alloys. . wire.2mm).4mm).

The metal must be clean and free of all grease. Likewise cool time should be sufficient that welded areas are not remelted. to avoid porosity and cracking. or a sound weld cannot be made. .Resistance Welding3 23 Spot and seam welding parameters for heat resistant alloys will differ from those used with stainlesses such as 304L or 316L. and electrode tip contours may all need to be modified accordingly. Electrode force. In seam welding heat time should be adjusted to ensure that the wheel maintains pressure until the weld nugget has solidified. welding current and time. A restricted-dome electrode is suggested for spot welding. Average dome radius may be 3 inch (76 mm) for material up to 11 gage (3mm). For a larger nugget size in material 16 to 11 gage (1. Heat resistance alloys may have twice the yield strength of stainless and considerably higher electrical resistivity.6 to 3mm) a 5 to 8 inch (127 to 203mm) radius dome is sometimes preferred. and markedly from those used for carbon steel.

RA330-04-15 General: Do choose the weld filler for its performance under the expected service conditions. ENiCrMo-2) weld fillers on RA333 base metal. EL. ERNiCrCoMo-1) -- S 6025 6225 Al (SG-. Alloy 617 (ERNiCrCoMo-1) welds are strong.g. HT.24 Suggested Weld Filler Selections Base Metal RA330® RA333® RA 602 CATM Preferred bare wire covered electrodes RA330-04 -RA333 RA330-04-15 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 Alternates RA333® . do not use high nickel fillers such as RA330-04 Do not use—any stainless weld filler on nickel alloys (e. RA333-70-16 ERNiCrCoMo-1 RA330-04 82. Alternates RA333-70-16. *Where sulphidation is an issue. ENiCrFe-2 RA 253 MA-17 RA330-04* E312-16 RA309 RA310 RA446 ER309 ER310 ER309 ER310 E309-16 E310-15 E309-16 E310-15 HK. RA600. on RA330.NiCr25FeAlY) S 6025 RA333 82 RA 353 MA RA 253 MA RA333 556 6225 Al RA601 RA600 RA 353 MA® RA 253 MA® RA800H/AT 182 RA 353 MA RA 253 MA-17 RA333-70-16 -- RA330-04 -RA333. as well as for weldability issues. RA 353 MA. RA 602 CA). We suggest not using alloy X (ERNiCrMo-2. RA333. but they significantly lack oxidation resistance compared with RA 602 CA for extreme temperature service. The X weld bead may be subject to catastrophic oxidation at the higher service temperatures where RA333 is commonly used. .4627. The welds will crack.. HU RA330-80-15 DC lime is the preferred 35% nickel rod for cast heat resistant alloys. RA601. RA82 RA333-70-16 ERNiCrWMo-1 617 (2.

blue-black hot rolling scale and paint must be removed before welding with any stainless or nickel alloy weld wires. A ―mill finish‖ is not acceptable. All rust. HT.316) RA330-04 RA 253 MA RA 602 CA Cast Alloys HK.25 Dissimilar Metal Joints. 602 CA is a new alloy. The final selection should be approved by the end user and weld procedures qualified by the fabricator. relative thermal expansion coefficients of the three metals involved. These suggestions are from experience and general metallurgical knowledge. Nickel alloy weld wire lacks the deoxidation characteristics of carbon steel weld wires. A 617 (ERNiCrCoMo-1) lacks the oxidation resistance of RA 602 CA B These high nickel fillers are quite unsuitable for sulphur bearing environments . data incomplete Base Metals RA330 RA800H/AT RA333® ® Carbon Steel 182 RA330-04 182 RA333 Stainless (304. HP 617 RA333 617A 617A 6225Al S 6025 6225 Al 617A A RA333 RA330-80-15 RA330-04 RA333 RA333 RA330-04 RA 353 MA 617A RA333-70-16 RA 353 MA® 182 RA 353 MA RA 353 MA RA 602 CATM 182 82 RA 253 MA® E309-16 182 82 RA 253 MA E309-16 82 182 82 182 E309-16 ER309 E309-16 E310-15 E309-16 E310-15 RA 353 MA RA330-80-15 617A RA 253 MA RA333 RA333 RA333-70-16 RA333 RA333-70-16 E309-16 RA 253 MA RA 253 MA -E309-16 RA 253 MA-17 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA330-80-15 RA600 82 182 82 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 E310-15 82 182 S 6025 6225 Al 82 182B 82 182B 82B 182B B B RA601 RA309 RA310 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA333-70-16 -- RA446 Note: The carbon steel joint must be ground to bright metal. Suggested Weld Filler Guidelines Considerations in selecting a filler metal for a dissimilar metal weld joint include the expected service conditions at the joint. and freedom from weld metal hot cracking.

26 Dissimilar Metal Weldments Involving Carbon Steel 27 .

5 2 7.8 0.2 0.08 0.5 0.10 0.07 0.04 Ce N.03 Ce --2.2 Al 0.6 0.8 1 1 1.5 0.17 N 0.7 Cb 0.02 0.2 1.5 0.16 N 0.5 17.6 1.05 0.7 0.7 0.10 0. Ce 0.8 0.5 --W ----3 3 --------14 ---Si 0.7 3 2.7 1.03 0.2 2.1 0.25 0.08 Y 2.4 0.1Ti 0.1 0.2 Al 0.05 0.5 0.5 45 45 10 11 34 35 13 20 63 62 59 52 72 65 Mo ----3 3 --------2 9 --Co ----3 3 ---------12.6 0.85 0.3 Al 1.06 0.05 Ce 0.1 0.5 1.7 1.8 0.5 33.3Al 0.04 Fe 39 43 45 45 17 18 66 65 35 34 61 51 9 10 1.2 5.9 1.8 0.5 0.5 25 25 21 21 28 28 23 26 25 25 22 22 19 16 Ni 35 33.4 Ti 2.5 Other ------0.03 0.Heat Resistant Alloy Weld Filler Metals Grade UNS AWS ----------E309-16 E310-15 ERNiCrFe-12 ENiCrFe-12 ERNiCrWMo-1 ERNiCrCoMo-1 ERNiCr-3 ENiCrFe-3 Cr 19 17.18 0.05 0.5 33.5 1.85 0.309-16 W30910 310-15 W31010 S 6025 N06025 6225 Al -230-W N06231 617 N06617 82 N06082 182 W86182 23 .5 Ti 2Cb RA330-04 N08334 RA330-04-15 W88334 RA330-80-15 W88338 RA330-80-16 W88338 RA333® N06333 RA333-70-16 W86333 RA 253 MA® S30815 RA 253 MA-17 W30816 RA 353 MA® .15 N 0.8 C 0.5 3 7.2 0.5 0.5 17.RA 353 MA-15 .22 0.6 Mn 5.


-SB-408 B 408 .4886 SB-511 B 511 5716 -B 512 SB-535 B 535 SB-710 B 710 -B 739 -B 546 -B 168 . strip Bar Smlss pipe & tube Welded pipe Welded tube N08330 Plate.4851 SB-166 B 166 --5715 SB-167 B 167 . sheet.1. bar. bar. sheet. strip Plate.1. sheet.4893 SA-479 A 479 1. strip Rod. strip Bars & shapes Billets & bars Smlss pipe & tube Welded pipe Welded tube Fusion weld pipe N06025 Plate.4845 SA-312 A 312 -A 176 . strip Bars and shapes Pipe Welded tube S35315 Plate.4833 SA-479 A 479 1. sheet. forgings.wire S30815 Plate. sheet. bar.4633 -B 166 SA-240 A 240 . sheet.4816 SB-166 B 166 5665 SB-167 B 167 SB-168 B 168 5870 2.4833 SA-312 A 312 SA-240 A 240 5521 1.4854 SA-479 A 479 SA-312 A 312 SB-409 B 409 .(1.1.Heat Resistant Alloy Specifications alloy RA333® UNS Product Form ASME ASTM AMS W.1.4763 SB-168 B 168 .4845 SA-479 A 479 5651 1.Nr. strip Rod. sheet.4876) SB-407 B 407 SA-240 A 240 .rings Smlss pipe & tube 24 RA 353 MA ® RA800H/AT N08811 (N08810) S30908 RA309 RA310 S31008 RA446 RA600 S44600 N06600 RA601 N06601 -B 718 5593 2. strip Bars and shapes Pipe Plate. wire Bar. wire Smlss pipe & tube Plate. sheet. sheet Rod. strip Rod and bar Smlss pipe & tube Plate. strip Bars and shapes Pipe Plate.sheet. strip Bars and shapes Pipe Plate.2.4835 SA-312 A 312 SA-249 A 249 ASME Code Case 2033-1 SA-240 A 240 . EN RA330® RA 602 CATM RA 253 MA® N06333 Plate.2. sheet.4608 -B 719 5717 -B 722 -B 723 -B 726 SB-536 B 536 5592 1.


Nr. N08334 W88334 N06333 N06002 N06601 --N06617 N06062 N06082 W86182 N06076 AWS ---ERNiCrMo-2 ERNiCrFe-11 --ERNiCrCoMo-1 ERNiCrFe-5 ERNiCr-3 ENiCrFe-3 ERNiCr-6 W.4613 -2.4806 2. American versus German Grade RA330-04 RA330-04-15 RA333 Alloy X 601 S 6025 6225 Al 617 62 82 182 80-20 UNS No.Weld Filler Specifications & Tradenames.4951 DIN Designation --NiCr26MoW SG-NiCr21Fe18Mo -SG-NiCr25FeAlY EL-NiCr25FeAlY SG-NiCr22Co12Mo -SG-NiCr20Nb EL-NiCr16FeMn NiCr 20Ti 25 .4620 2. --2.4649 -2.4608 2.4627 -2.

to about 1400-1500°F (760-816°C) the choices narrow down to René 41® or WASPALOYTM. At high temperatures relaxation is the primary limitation to the use of threaded fasteners to maintain a clamping load. such as one of those available from Wall Colmonoy Corporation. More of this high temperature bolting experience has been with WASPALOY. one of the grades in ASTM A 193. 26 .com. www. From 900 to 1200°F (480 to 650°C). What appear to us as fairly liberal alloy selection suggestions are offered by the Industrial Fasteners Institute as7: Below 450°F (230°C). Some cautions. and is not nearly so available in various bar sizes. If some of that copper gets carried into an area where the metal is operating above 1981°F (1083°C) it will melt. In addition to selecting a strong bolt material it is important to look at the relative expansion coefficients of the alloy to be clamped. One is to coat both parts with magnesium hydroxide.Bolts—another means of joining heat resistant alloys Bolts are commonly used at elevated temperature to withstand a shear load. that expansion will add to the tensile load in the bolt and may stretch it. Molten copper alloys will embrittle or eat holes through any austenitic alloy they touch. Never. Zinc or galvanized coatings embrittle austenitics and can also embrittle steel bolts at moderately elevated temperatures. is sometimes suggested but it does not have as high a temperature capability as does RA718. The magnesia simply acts as a parting compound. and the alloy from which the bolt is made. For example. There are ways to minimize the strength of this bond. quite inert and harmless to heat resistant alloys. Another approach is to use a braze stop-off. This will calcine to magnesium oxide. Rene 41 or WASPALOY. an age hardening nickel base alloy. commonly available from the local drug store as Phillips® Milk of Magnesia. A good discussion of fasteners in the chemical process industry has been presented by Robert Smallwood6. The most common alloy choice for applications up to 1150 or 1200°F (620-640°C) is RA718. A286. Bolted connections are often difficult or impossible to disassemble after high temperature exposure. even without melting the zinc (melting point 787°F/419°C). NEVER use anti-seize compounds containing copper anywhere near high temperature equipment. low alloy steel. 450 to 900°F (230 to 480°C). so that the assembly is loose once it comes back down to room temperature. Above 1200°F up to 1600°F (650 to 870°C).colmonoy. a less expensive age hardening stainless. A286 and 718 . One of the reasons is that a chromium oxide scale forms on the alloy. Above this temperature. nuts and washers are used to assemble high temperature equipment where loose joints are desired to accommodate thermal expansion & contraction during thermal cycling. This oxide tends to bond male and female threads together. If the metal to be clamped expands faster than the bolt. RA330® alloy threaded rod.

OF JOINT DESIGN PLATE THICKNESS.144 0.52 0.61 0.55 2. APPROXIMATE WEIGHT.7 1.34 0.73 1.15 0.032 0.26 0.064 0.80 0.32 1. inch WELD METAL DEPOSITED PER LINEAL FOOT WITH REINFORCEMENT 0.63 3. IN POUNDS.60 0.038 0.65 "V" GROOVE DOUBLE "V" GROOVE (A) Assumes 50% deposition efficiency (B) Assumes 85% deposition efficiency .94 0.73 1.16 SINGLE FILLET 1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 1/2 5/8 3/4 1 0.29 0. Estimated weight of covered electrodes and spooled wire for various joint configurations is given below.03 1. GTAW WIRE REQUIRED (B) 0.90 2.085 0.072 0.85 0.43 0.95 1.83 COVERED ELECTRODES REQUIRED (A) GMAW.13 0.Weld Filler Consumption Filler metal requirements range from about 2-1/2 to 5 percent of the weight of plate involved in a fabrication.77 0.00 0.37 0.23 1.62 0.53 1.58 1.12 1.90 1.

available from: Industrial Fasteners Institute. Volume 1. Resistance Welder Manufacturers’ Association. First published. 5. 28 . Miami. Florida. Corrosion 91 Paper No. 1989 6.A. Resistance Welding Manual. Massalski. as: Métallurgie du soudage des aciers inoxydables et résistant à chaud. Thaddeus B. Sweden June. Welding Metallurgy of Stainless and Heat-resisting Steels. Sandvik publication 0. Fastener Standards. de Cadenet. Smallwood. ISBN 0-87170-262 American Society for Metals. Sandviken. Ohio 44114 U. ISBN 0-9624382-0-0. 1986 I 2.27 References 1.J. in French. Editor-in-Chief. Houston.14/A5.A. NACE.S. 1977 4. by Dunod. SANDVIK Welding Handbook. 1968. Sweden 1989 3.S.. Philadelphia. Metals Park. Paris. Inf. 1505 East Ohio Building. Cleveland. S-74401 Avesta. Texas 7. Fastener Problems in the Process Industry. ISBN 0 521 20431 3. Sandvik AB.14M-97. Ohio. Specification for Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods. Cambridge University Press. Avesta handbook for the welding of stainless steel.A. 8901.S. J.34 E. ISBN 0-87171-543-0. Berthold Lundqvist. 4th Edition. 1975. 1900 Arch Street.E. Pennsylvania 19103 USA. 6th Edition. R. Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams. The best general reference we know for welding this class of materials is: R. ANSI/AWS A5. U. 1717 East Ninth Street. Castro & J. 161. Avesta Welding AB. U. American Welding Society.

4627 -2.14 ― ― A5.4608 NiCr26MoW W86333 --N06002 A5.4806 2.14 ERNiCrMo-2 2.11 UNS No.4613 SG-NiCr21Fe18Mo ERNiCrFe-11 --ERNiCrFe-12 -2.4951 ASME W. AWS Classification DIN Designation F No. N08334 --W88334 --N06333 --2. RA330-04 RA330-04-15 RA333 RA333-70-16 Alloy X 601 N06601 S 6025 -NiCr25FeAlY 6225 Al -NiCr25FeAlY 617 N06617 NiCr22Co12Mo 62 N06062 82 N06082 182 W86182 NiCr16FeMn 80-20 N06076 ---A5.4620 2. ----?? -SGELSG- --- --- -- -- 43 43 -SG-NiCr20Nb ELNiCr 20Ti . American versus German Grade Nr.4649 ENiCrFe-12 ERNiCrCoMo-1 ERNiCrFe-5 ERNiCr-3 ENiCrFe-3 ERNiCr-6 --2.Weld Filler Specifications & Tradenames.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times