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Running head: BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT & MOTIVATION

Behavior Management & Motivation Wendi McMurry, Bethany Bonasera, Nancy Davis & Breanna Exum EDPSY 420A Learning Theory Michelle Toney Warner Pacific College January 29, 2012

BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT & MOTIVATION Behavior Management & Motivation Educators and counselors, are just a few, that can benefit from the use of behavior management, motivation and behavior modification tools. There are several types of behavior management and motivation applications. They can be negative or positive, but have shown to have numerous effects for the individual and the educator. Without motivation, behavior management would not be as efficient or time worthy. Behavior modification is changing unwanted behavior. It is a treatment approach that replaces undesirable behaviors with more desirable ones. It is based on the principles of operant conditioning that uses techniques such as conditioning, biofeedback, and positive and negative reinforcement. Motivation is an internal state that arouses an individual into action. (Ormond, 2008, p.452) Motivation pushes a persons behavior in particular directions and keeps them engaged in certain positive activities. Behavior management is maintaining a behavior. Similar to behavior modification but delivered in a less intensively and consistent fashion. Behavior management consists of the actions and conscious inactions to enhance the probability of people, individually and in groups, to choose behaviors which are personally fulfilling, productive, and socially acceptable All types have similar goals that they are trying to achieve. The different ways of motivating are in hopes that individuals will choose behaviors that are pro-socially acceptable. There are different ways we are all motivated. Some of us are motivated by a paycheck and some of us are motivated just by the satisfaction of completing something. Those types of motivation are called intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Intrinsic motivation begins inside the individual. It is the type of motivation that drives the individual for nothing more than the

BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT & MOTIVATION satisfaction of completing the action. This action will often bring the individual enjoyment and will enhance their self-concept. Extrinsic motivation is the opposite of intrinsic motivation as instead of focusing internally for a reward, the reward is often external and tangible. Extrinsic motivation can also be caused by negative pressure instead of a tangible reward. For example, you may speed to work so you make it on time to get good marks on your work evaluations. Other types of extrinsic motivation are working for a paycheck or completing a task for a tangible reward. Motivation, whether intrinsic or extrinsic will have different effects on an individual. The rewards from motivation often will increase the individuals activity level and focus. They are motivated either by the tangible reward or self-satisfaction. This will help the person accomplish their goals and follow through as it is a personal investment. In a classroom setting there are six target principles that effect motivation. The target principles are; tasks, autonomy, recognition, grouping, evaluation, and time. If the tasks present new topics that are engaging will motivate students to learn. Also, if the student has some choice of what they learn and how they learn that students autonomy will affect their intrinsic motivation. Another factor is if a teacher will give the student positive recognition and shows the student that their own effort affects their success. When students are grouped with multiple people in their classroom they often are more motivated for success and learning. Lastly, the types of evaluations and how the teacher spends their time will also affect motivation. There are two different types behavior management. There are positive ways to manage behavior and there are negative ways to manage behavior. Positive types of behavior management are rewards and praise. The desired effect of positive behavior management is to encourage and repeat the behavior. Some types of negative behavior management are time-outs

BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT & MOTIVATION and consequences. While using negative behavior the desired effect is to eliminate an unwanted behavior. Managing others behavior is a skill that is acquired and mastered through practical applications. It is a skill that seems to be underdeveloped in new teachers and is a large part of the job task. With one incident the classroom can spiral out of control and the initial purpose for being there could be lost. One specific way teachers manage the behavior of students is by keeping them engaged in their instruction and materials; The internal state that arouses us to certain action pushes us in particular directions, and keeps us engaged in certain activities is motivation (Ormrod, 2008, p. 452). Different forms of motivation differ in effects and results. When managing or modifying behavior ideal results are a positive self regulating, confident, individual. Attributes which are obtainable by building on skills and needs through different forms of motivation. Optimal state of affairs is intrinsic motivation. Students learn more effectively and engage in more productive classroom behaviors when they are intrinsically motivated rather than extrinsically motivated to learn and achieve (Ormrod, 2008, p. 482). This can be done by building on competence, self -determination, and relatedness; some of our basic needs. Providing tasks and opportunities that are developmentally appropriate allows success and enhances their level of confidence allowing them to gain a sense of self -worth; Students are more likely to be intrinsically motivated when they feel confident they can succeed (Ormrod, 2008, p. 483). Intrinsic motivation is also increased by autonomy. Providing choices and a sense of control is a way to build on autonomy and the need for selfdetermination; so long as they are realistic and developmentally appropriate. Human beings have the need to interact with others and feel a sense of belonging, initiating daily communication and

BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT & MOTIVATION positive messages allows for a meaningful relationship to develop which is the basis of all behavior management. Self -regulation is also a large part of behavior management.[ Intrinsic motivation sets the stage for self-regulation. Self-regulated learners rein in unproductive behaviors, overcome challenges, and bounce back quickly after discouraging failure while staying optimistic.] (Ormrod, 2008, p. 521) . Behavior management takes place in all settings and is done through some form of motivation. When a behavior is undesired it is because there is a lack of skill or unmet need taking place. When modifying these behaviors it is necessary to consider the forms of motivation that need enhancement and build or strengthen the skills in that domain. Both behavior management and motivation are important and vital when working in any sort of setting. The two go hand in hand with each other making a work environment function efficiently. All though one could possibly function well without the other neither one would function to their full capacity. Behavior management is simply maintaining a certain behavior but that behavior cant be maintained without some sort of motivation, motivation that is either intrinsic or extrinsic. Without the internal drive or external reward the behavior management would fall apart and the management wouldnt exist. Although we did looked into contrasting the two and trying to compare their differences it was apparent that trying to have behavior management without motivation driving it forward behavior management would be effective. On the other hand however motivation can occur and be completely separate from behavior management. Motivation is a drive that pushes things forward or backward. It just so happens that our topics needed each other to function well together and be effective in any type of learning or counseling setting.

BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT & MOTIVATION Behavior management and motivation are two things that are incredibly important when functioning in any type of environment. Its important to have order and drive that allow for things to be efficient and move forward. Behavior management needs motivation to stay the course and keep maintaining efficiency.

BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT & MOTIVATION References Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Human Learning. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.