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Design Modules for a Project

Process Plant Layout And Piping Design Module 1 : The Basics of Plant Layout Design The Plant Layout Designer Project Input Data Basic Layout Philosophy Abbreviations, Standards, and Terminology The Components of Specification Module 3: Plot Plans The Plot Plan in the Process Unit Definition Plot Plan Development Types of Plot Plans Equipment Location Pipe Racks Roads, Access Ways, and Paving Buildings Equipment Spacing Sample Plot Plan Arrangement Module 4 : Compressors Auxiliary Equipment Centrifugal Compressors : Nozzle Orientations Types of Compressor Drives Lube Oil System Seal Oil System Surface Condensers and Auxiliary Equipment Compressor Maintenance Compressor Arrangement and Location Elevations of Machines Inter and AfterCoolers Housing and Platform Requirements General Compressor Layout Module 5 : Drums Types of Drums. Location of Drums, Nozzle Locations Platform Arrangements Piping Arrangements Drum Instrumentation

Maintenance Further Considerations Module 6 : Exchangers Exchanger Construction Exchanger Location and Support Nozzle Orientation Exchanger Piping Exchanger Maintenance Module 7 : Furnaces Basic Operation and Primary Parts of a Furnace Types of Furnaces Terminology Burners Combustion Air Preheating Systems General Arrangement of Furnaces Piping Layout for a Furnace Tail Gas Incinerator and Waste Heat Unit Module 8 : Pumps Pump Terminology NPSH Requirements Types of Pumps Pump Locations Pump Piping Pump Piping Supports Module 9 : Reactors Process Operation Design Considerations for Reactors Location of Reactors Support and Elevation Nozzle Locations and Elevations Platform Arrangements Piping Arrangements Maintenance Module 10 : Towers The Distillation Process Types of Towers Design Considerations for Towers

Tower Elevation and Support Nozzle Elevation and Orientation Platform Arrangements Tower Piping Tower Instruments Maintenance Module 11 : Pipe Racks Establishing Width, Bent Spacing, and Elevations Setting Line, Valve, and Instrument Locations Pipe Flexibility and Supports Structural Considerations Other Considerations Module 12 : Structures Design Features. Structural Terms Structural Details Small Structures MediumSized Structures Large Structures Stair Structures Drill Structures Operations Platforms Module 13 : Underground Piping Industry Standards Terminology Types of Systems Construction Materials Oily Water and Storm Water Systems Chemical and Process (Closed) Sewers Process and Potable Water Fire Water System Underground Electrical and Instrument Ducts Underground Details Double ContainmentUnderground Systems Fabrication Underground Composite Module 14 : Instrumentation Types of Instruments Instrument Locations Miscellaneous

Module 15 : Process Liquid Storage Tanks Codes and Regulations Terminology Types of Tanks Spill Containment Dike Access Sizing Tanks and Dikes Tank Details Tank Supports Module 16 : Stress Analysis Introduction to Piping Stress Pipe Stress Analysis Work Process Impacts of Excessive Pipe Stress Causes of Pipe Stress Layout Solutions for Weight Stress Layout Solutions of Thermal Loads Layout Solutions for Other Stress Module 17 : Computer-Aided Design Basic CAD Applications Integrated Modeling Systems Systems Engineering and Instrument Design CAD Benefits Summary Electronic Spool Sheets

Piping & Instrumentation Diagram


P&ID shows all of piping including the physical sequence of branches, reducers, valves, equipment, instrumentation and control interlocks. The P&ID are used to operate the process system. A P&ID should include:

Instrumentation and designations Mechanical equipment with names and numbers All valves and their identifications Process piping, sizes and identification Miscellaneous - vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers, increasers and swagers Permanent start-up and flush lines Flow directions Interconnections references Control inputs and outputs, interlocks Interfaces for class changes Seismic category Quality level Annunciation inputs Computer control system input Vendor and contractor interfaces Identification of components and subsystems delivered by others Intended physical sequence of the equipment

This figure depict a very small and simplified P&ID:

A P&ID should not include:


Instrument root valves control relays manual switches equipment rating or capacity primary instrument tubing and valves pressure temperature and flow data elbow, tees and similar standard fittings

extensive explanatory notes

Stress Calculation Check List


PROJECT NO: _________________________ Analysis By: ________________ Date: ________ STRESS FILE:__________________________ Checked By: _______________ Date: ________ MARKINGS FOR CHECKING PROCEDURE (Analyst and Checker are responsible for the assigned column) Analyst / Checker ( INPUT CHECKS <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->CHECK THE GENERAL LAYOUT OF MODEL Starting and terminating points agree with model. Modifications to existing piping have been avoided. If expansion joints are used, approval has been obtained by Client. <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->CHECK THE FOLLOWING PIPING INPUT PARAMETERS: (AGAINST P & ID, DWGS.) PIPE METHOD Diameter Plot Diameter, List Elements Wall Thickness Plot Thickness, List Elements Insulation Thickness Plot ( I ), List Elements Insulation Weight List Elements Contents List Elements Pressures (Ensure they meet line spec) Plot Highlight Pressures Temperatures (Ensure they meet line spec) Plot Highlight Temperatures Allowable Stresses Material Properties (Check E, V, Sa) Plot (M), List Elements Corrosion Allowances Plot (C) Sifs/ Tees / Elbows (Default to Unreinf. Fab. Tees) Plot (T,B) List SIFS Requirements for reinforcing pads (Pressure + Stress) (Calculate per B31.3) ) Checked / Not Applicable / Unchecked ( / X / Blank)

Valve Weights, Flange Ratings List Rigid Expansion Joint Rates and Tie Rod Orientation List Bellows/ Restraints, Plot <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->CHECK THE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Restraints (Anchors, Other Supports) Plot Restraints, Anchors, Springs Displacements (At Vessels, Etc.) Plot/List Displacements External Forces/Moments (correlate with iso) List Forces Spring Settings (Ensure proper vendor is used) List Forces Uniform Loads List Uniform Loads Wind Loads List Wind Friction Coefficients List Restraints <!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]-->CHECK IF PROPER SCOPE HAS BEEN APPLIED TO MODEL Model has been extended to existing anchor - or Model has been run on a point where further effects would not affect new system Beginning elevation (Optional) Overall lengths, and critical lengths around sensitive equipment <!--[if !supportLists]-->5. <!--[endif]-->CHECK FOR VARIOUS UPSET/ ABNORMAL CONDITIONS Hydrstatic Test Loads (for pipe sizes 8 diameter and above) Steam-Out Weight with No Contents Safety Valve Discharges Dynamic Loads (Hydraulic Shock, Water Hammer, Earthquake, TwoPhase Slug Flow) High Pressure Cases (Use B31.3 Chapter 9 Allowables, f, Etc). <!--[if !supportLists]-->6. <!--[endif]-->SPECIFIC TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS: <!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]--> Greater of High temperature / Ambient differential and Low Temperature / Ambient differential used <!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]--> Maximum Differential Temperature Range Minimum Design Metal Temperature Concurrent pressures at temperatures <!--[if !supportLists]-->7. <!--[endif]-->EQUIPMENT INPUT CHECKS Movements at Nozzle Connections Lengths Through Rotating Equipment STRESS CASE CHECKS <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->CAESAR II SETTINGS: Ensure Liberal Allowable Limits are not being used on new piping.

Follow all Caesar II settings as described in Stress Analysis Procedures (elsewhere) <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->LOAD CASE CHECK: (Other conditions may need additional studies.) <!--[if !supportLists]-->A. <!--[endif]-->NORMAL LOAD CASES <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->W+T1+P1 (OPE) OPERATING CASE FOR T1 USUALLY DESIGN <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->W+T2+P1 (OPE) OPERATING CASE FOR T2 USUALLY OPERATING <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->W+T3+P1 (OPE) OPERATING CASE FOR T3 USUALLY MDMT <!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]-->W+P1 (SUS) COLD SUSTAINED CASE CODE CHECK <!--[if !supportLists]-->5. <!--[endif]-->WNC (SUS) WEIGHT - NO CONTENTS SUSTAINED CASE (OPT.) <!--[if !supportLists]-->6. <!--[endif]-->DSI-DS4 (EXP) EXPANSION CODE CHECK FOR T1 <!--[if !supportLists]-->7. <!--[endif]-->DS2-DS4 (EXP) EXPANSION CODE CHECK FOR T2 <!--[if !supportLists]-->8. <!--[endif]-->DS3-DS4 (EXP) EXPANSION CODE CHECK FOR T3 <!--[if !supportLists]-->9. <!--[endif]-->DSI-DS3 (EXP) MAXIMUM DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION CODE CHECK <!--[if !supportLists]-->B. <!--[endif]-->WIND LOAD CASES (OPTIONAL/SITUATIONAL) (NOTE 4) <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->W+T1+P1 (OPE) OPERATING CASE FOR T1 (Other cases may be required) <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->W+P1 (SUS) SUSTAINED CASE <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->W+T1+P1+WIND (OPE) EFFECTS F WIND DURING OPERATION <!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]-->DS3-DS1 (OCC) NET EFFECTS OF WIND WITH NON LINEAR MOVEMENT <!--[if !supportLists]-->5. <!--[endif]-->ST2 + ST4 (OCC) CODE STRESS CHECK FOR WIND LOADS. <!--[if !supportLists]-->C. <!--[endif]-->HOT SUSTAINED LOAD CASES (OPTIONAL /SITUATIONAL) <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->W+T1+P1 (OPE) <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->W+P1 (SUS) <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->TI (EXP) INTERMEDIATE EXPANSION CASE <!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]-->DS1-DS3 (SUS) HOT SUSTAINED FOR T1 (Other temperatures also needed) NOTES: <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->If springs or other forces are present, all (OPE) , (SUS) cases need FI

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->If displacements are present , operating cases need DI <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->Size spring manually if spring loads appear inappropriate <!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]-->Wind can be replaced by Ux for earthquake loads <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->SPECIAL CASES CHECK: (Not Applicable )(Other conditions may need additional studies.) Spring supported vessels (Refer to Stress Analysis Procedure Differential temperature between piping and vessels, multiple case studies OUTPUT CHECKS <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->STRESSES All cases pass allowable limits <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->HOT SUSTAINED OUTPUT CHECK Ensure supports do not lift off or Run a hot sustained Caesar check (conservative) <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->MOVEMENT Comment on excessive sag location in sustained case (over ) Comment on large movements (over 2) in thermal runs <!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]-->BOUNDARY CONDITION CHECK Comment on all new restraint loads. Comment on existing piping lateral/axial restraint loads over 2000 lb. Comment on existing piping support loads over 5000 lb. Indicate deficiencies in Special Instructions if any boundary assumptions are made. <!--[if !supportLists]-->5. <!--[endif]-->EQUIPMENT CHECKS (Not Applicable ) WRC-107 analysis of non-critical vessel shells. FE/Pipe / Nozzle Pro check on critical vessel shells or shells falling out of the WRC-107 range. FE/Pipe \ Nozzle Pro check on tank nozzle connections or use chart in Piping Analysis Procedures. API-610 checks on each individual API pump nozzle. Vendor allowable check on all ANSI pumps, non-standard equipment (Glass/ Graphite/ FRP/ etc.) NEMA SM23 check through turbines, resolved at discharge flange (Use 1.0 X NEMA limits) API-617 check through compressors, resolved at suction flange (Use 1.0 X API-617 limits) API-560 checks on all fired heater nozzles (Use 1.0 X API-560 allowable limits)

API-661 checks on all fin fan cooler nozzles (3X the allowable limits w/ Mechanical confirmation) <!--[if !supportLists]-->5. <!--[endif]-->SPRING CHECKS (Not Applicable ) Cold loads do not vary from installed setting Cold loads are near to center of spring range Cold/ Hot loads are within spring range Isometrics are marked with figures, sizes, rates, cold loads, hot loads, and movements Hydrotest loads greater than 2 X the design loads are marked on the isometrics Constant force springs are marked with actual and design movements <!--[if !supportLists]-->6. <!--[endif]-->EXPANSION JOINT CHECKS (Not Applicable ) Movements are within allowable limits (Axial, Lateral, Angular, Torsional) Torsional stiffness is rigid, or torsional rate and movement specified on drawings Appropriate movements for tie rod orientation. Tie rod orientation indicated on isometric drawings and bellows purchasing record Indicate as preliminary analysis in Special Instructions until actual vendor rates are obtained. <!--[if !supportLists]-->7. <!--[endif]-->SNUBBER CHECKS (Not Applicable ) Indicate Pin-to-Pin dimensions, Cold Setting, and Stroke on isometrics Ensure snubber weight has been included in analysis around equipment or springs <!--[if !supportLists]-->8. <!--[endif]-->FLANGE LOAD CHECKS (Not Applicable ) (Mandatory for Category M services) At equipment connections At observed highly loaded connections

Types of Valves
Angle Valves: Angle Valves are important industrial fittings, deriving their name from the the 90 configuration of inlet and outlet ports. Metallic angle valves in material such as stainless steel, bronze, brass are used for cryogenic applications requiring extreme temperatures, ranging from 450 to -250C. High quality of materials used and workmanship ensure longevity and trouble-free service of these valves. Types of Angle Valves Manual Pneumatically Air to open/spring to close Motorized

Application of Angle Valves Angle Valves are widely used in commercial and industrial applications such as: Hot and cold water HVAC Steam Compressed air Gas and other general utility services Globe Valves: Globe valves derive their name from the rounded bodies/spherical shape and are widely used in fitting industry to regulate fluid flow in both on/off and throttling service. These linear motion valves consist of moving parts including disk, the valve stem, and the hand wheel. The stem is used to connect the hard wheel and the disk; the valves are threaded and fit into the threads of the valve bonnet. These specialty valves allow fluids to pass the spaces between the edge of the disk and the seat when open. Types of Globe Valves These valves are available in three main body types, namely : Angle Design, Y-design and Multi-piece Design. Angle valves are a type of globe valves, so designed, that the inlet and outlet are perpendicular, for transferring flow from vertical to horizontal. Ydesign valves derive linear action from the incline between the axis of the inlet and outlet ports. The inlet and outlet are not of single piece construction. These valves offer precise throttling and control and have high-pressure limits. They also offer a low coefficient of flow and are however not good selections in applications requiring cleanliness or sterility.

Ball Valves: Ball valves are widely used industrial fittings, for a wide range of fluid applications in process, power and instrumentation. The valves are quarter-turn, straight through flow valves having a round closure element with complementing rounded seats, permitting uniform sealing stress. The type of seat can vary according to the valve pressure rating and materials of construction. These are wide duty valves, enabling transfer of gases, liquids and liquids with suspended solids (slurries). Common ball valve are available in materials including brass, bronze, copper, cast iron, ductile iron, stainless and other steel types, metal alloys and plastics including PVC and CPVC. In contrast to other types of valves, ball valves provide superior ease of operation and can maintain and regulate high volume, high pressure and high temperature flow and often offer rugged construction providing for a long service life, and a comparably low cost. These specialty valves are available in a variety of configurations for positive leak tight shut-off and control and are used for both manual as well as remote valve actuation. The popular and standard configurations include:

Miniature 2-way 3-way Swing-out Spring-loaded Manifold valves are widely used in the industrial fittings to reduce the cost of installation and prevent potential leakage. They help to simplify piping, improve the appearance and reduce the space requirements. These valves can further be customized according to a preferred connection type such as sockets, threaded, flare or o-ring face etc and are available in different configurations and styles for a wide range of process control applications.

Manifold Valves:

The device helps to control flow, pressure, level, distribution and blow down of water. Valve Manifolds are also available in either a block, single flange or double flange connection for remote or direct installation. The popular and standard configurations include :

2 Valve Manifold : This valve consists of either a single flange or double flange connection for direct installation. 3 Valve Manifold : This valve consists of two isolation and one equalizing valve.

5 Valve Manifold : This valve consists two isolation valves, two equalizing valves and a vent valve. Rigid Mount Specialty Manifolds

Butterfly Valves: Butterfly valves are throttling valves used to control flow through a circular disc by turning the valves main axis at ninety degree or right angles towards the direction of flow in the pipe. These valves use an inflatable seat to seal with air pressure, thus requiring less torque and a smaller actuator, resulting in lower overall valve cost. The demand for actuated butterfly valves is growing because actuated butterfly valves can provide: precise, repeatable control for industrial process, complex automatic sequencing for process control. These important industrial fittings control the flow of gas or liquid by means of a disk, which turns on a diametrical axis inside a pipe or by two semicircular plates hinged on a common spindle, which permits flow in a single direction. These compactly designed valves offer a rotary system movement of less than 90 degree. The valves are manufactured in materials including stainless steel, plastic, ceramic and PVC. Advantage of Butterfly Valves These valves can be used in areas where space is limited, this is so, because butterfly valves are available in small dimensions and are used in a variety of chemical services. Needle Valves: Needle valves are kind of throttle valves, similar in operation and designing of globe valves. These valves have a slender, tapered point at the end of the valve, which is lowered through the seat to block flow. These valves are used to control flow into delicate gauges, which might be damaged by sudden surge of fluid under high pressure and also to control the end of a work cycle. Needle valves are available in stainless steel, bronze, cast iron etc depending on the kind of application and are designed with a metallic needle in materials including brass, bronze, stainless steel, along with seat generally made form PVC, CPVC, PTFE etc. Needle valves are normally manually operated, but can be modified to act as a variable restrictor. These valves are available in different types of end connections including double ferrule type, NPT, BSPT and many other standard connections and in various packing materials for different applications depending on requirements, temperature and medium to be moved. Application of Needle Valves Aerospace

Zoological science Gas and liquid dispensation Instrumentation control Power generation A check valve is a mechanical device used as an industrial/plumbing fitting, which normally allows fluid or gas to flow through it in uni-direction. A double check valve is often used to prevent back flow and to keep potentially contaminated water from siphoning back. Clapper valves, a type of check valve is used in or with firefighting, and has a hinged gate (often with a spring urging it shut) that only remains open in the outflowing direction. Types of Check Valves

Check Valves:

Single Disc Swing Valves : These valves can be mounted both vertically as ell as horizontally and are designed with a closure element attached to the top of the cap. This closure element can be pushed aside by the flow, but swings back into the close position upon flow reversal. Double Disc or Wafer Check Valves : These valves consist of two half-circle disks hinged together that fold together upon positive flow and retract to a fullcircle to close against reverse flow. Lift-Check Valves : These valves can operate in either vertical or horizontal mounting. Silent valves : These valves are quite similar to lift check valves with a center guide extending from inlet to outlet ports. Ball-Check Valves : These valves are good for most services and can even handle fluids that produce gummy deposits. Since the disc is free to rotate, this all helps to keep the valve seats clean. Cone Check Valves : These valves use a free-floating or spring loaded cone resting in the seat ring as the closure element. Incase of a reverse flow, the cone is forced back into its seat preventing back flow.

Application of Check Valves Few types of irrigation sprinklers and drip irrigation emitters have small check valves built into them to keep the lines from draining when the system is shut off. Offshore Oil and Gas Civil Engineering Gas-Turbine Systems

Pressure Relief Valve:

A pressure relief valve is a device mounted on a hot water heater or boiler and is designed to release any high steam pressure in the tank and thus prevent tank explosions. These specialty valves are used for systems that contain gases and liquids in a variety of pneumatic, hydraulic, and cryogenic applications to provide protection from over-pressure in steam, gas, air and liquid lines. The working involves letting off the steam when safe pressure level is exceeded and then closing of the valve after the pressure level drops to the preset level; Back pressure regulating valve helps to maintain upstream pressure at the desired level by allowing excess upstream pressure to flow downstream. These self-operating valves are installed to prevent over pressurization of the system. Application of Pressure Relief Valve

Petrochemicals Pneumatic equipments Hydrocarbons Chemical Processing A Control Valve is an important industrial fitting device used to modify and control the fluid flow rate in a process system. Also known as proportional valve, this poweroperated device can be used to modify pressure rate in a process system.

Control Valves:

There are various specifications and parameters which must be considered for these power-operated valves including diameter, working pressure and operating temperature. Available in choice of material including copper, brass, bronze, cast iron and stainless steel, and other plastic material such as PVC AND CPVC, these valves are the most used fittings. Types of Control Valves Globe, Gate, Diaphragm, Needle, Butterfly, Ball and Plug Valves are all, kinds of control valves and are used for different applications in large number of industries. Application of Control Valves

Waterworks Fire Protection Irrigation Industrial Petroleum Aviation Fueling

Y-Strainer: Y-Strainer are special devices, used for mechanically removing solids from flowing liquids or gases by using a perforated or wire mesh straining element/equipment. These strainers are used in pipelines to protect equipment such as pumps, meters, control valves, steam traps and regulators. These strainers are generally used where the amount of material to be removed is small and when frequent straining is not needed. Y type strainer are widely used for handling steam, these compact and cylindrically shaped strainers are very strong and can handle high pressures. These strainers can be installed both horizontally as well as vertically. Cast iron, bronze, carbon steel, or stainless steel are the common materials used to manufactured these specialized strainers. Iron is most widely used because it costs the least. Gate Valves: Gate valves, also known as Slide or Knife Valves, are named after a wedge-shaped internal plastic barrier, called a gate which rises and falls inside the valve as a handle is turned. These are linear motion valves in a which a flat closure element slides into the flow stream to provide shut off and are designed to minimize pressure drop across the valve in the fully opened position and stop the flow of fluid completely. Knife valves effectively regulate flow rates from zero to full flow, they work well with solids-laden water, and these valves can be serviced in place. Knife Gate valves work well in applications involving slurries as the gates can cut through the slurry, also these valves are advantageous in applications involving viscous liquids such as heavy oils, varnish, molasses etc. Types of Gate Valves

Parallel Gate Valves: These valves use a flat disc gate between two parallel seats located upstream and downstream. Wedge-Shaped Gate Valves: These valves use two inclines seats and a little mismatched inclined gate allowing tight shut-off.

Application of Gate Valves Viscous liquids such as heavy oils, creams etc. Slurries

Pipe Fitting Types


Pipe Adapter: A pipe adapter is a fitting that is used to connect pipes of different materials or pipes that require different joining methods. For example, it can join a pipe that is threaded to a pipe or tube that is not threaded, one of the most important type of pipe fittings. Adapters are available in various materials like aluminum, brass, bronze, copper, steel, stainless, plastic etc, depending on their final application. Apart from being available in various materials, these are also custom made in a large range of sizes, depending on their Inner and Outer Diameters (ID and OD). Some of the popular types of adapters are : Female Adapters Male Adapters Terminal Adapters Hi Low converter Adapters Twist to lock Y cord Adapters Auto Converter Adapters Conduit Box Adapters Reduce Drive Adapters Red Adapters

Male and female adapters from a popular classification criteria. Female Adapters are used to add a female threaded pipe connection on a solvent welded pipe (they must never be used when converting to a metallic pipe as the metal male pipe threads tend to split the PVC fittings). Also, metal male threads should never be inserted into any female threaded PVC fitting. Male Adapters are used to add a male threaded pipe connection to a solvent weld pipe section. Features of industrial adapters are that they are :

Sanitary or Food Grade Rated Insulated Plated

Pipe Offset: An Offset means a combination of pipes and/or fittings that brings one section of the pipe out of line but into a line, parallel with the other section. These offset fittings are available in a number of materials like titanium, tantalum, zirconium, nickel, monel (Ti, Ta, Zr, Ni, Mo) etc.Apart from different materials, these offset pipe fittings are manufactured in a wide range of dimensions (degrees and length) as per the specific requirements of the applications. Also, these fittings encompass a large variety like offset flange, offset bends, offset out adapters, equal spread offset, soil pipe offset etc, each one performing a similar function with other pipe fittings. For eg, a soil pipe offset is a fitting that is designed to join two parallel soil pipes which are different parallel levels. A look at some of the popular Offset in this category are :

Single Pipe Offset (67 1/2 ,60 , 45, 30,15, 11 1/4 ) Equal Spread Offset (67 1/2,60,45, 30 ,22 1/2,15, 11 1/4 ) Solving 45 Pipe Offset With a Steel Square Starting Point of a Piping Offset With the Pipe Touching a Beam Starting Point of a Piping Offset Around a Corner of a Wall Starting Point of a Piping Offset Around a Tank or Post Locating the Center of an Offset From the Corner of a Wall 22 1/2 Welding Elbow Offsets 30 Welding Elbow Offset 45 Welding Elbow Offset 60 Welding Elbow Offset Offsets for 90 Welding Elbows (Used With Less Than 90 Welding Elbows) Fabricating Odd-Angle Elbows From 90 Long-Radius Welding Elbows

Pipe Cap: A pipe cap is a fitting with a female (inside) thread. It is used like a plug, except that the pipe cap screws on the male thread of a pipe or nipple. A cap may have a solvent weld socket end or a female threaded end and the other end is closed off. If a solvent weld cap is used to provide for a future connection point, it must be left several inches of pipe before the cap (as when the cap is cut off for the future connection, there will need to be enough pipe present to glue a new fitting onto).Available in a wide range of sizes, caps can be made from Aluminum, Delrin, Ethyl Vinyl Acetate Monel, Nylon, Polyetheretherketon (PEEK), Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Silicrub Styrene Butadiene, Steel Stainless steel etc.

The industrial caps can be round; square; rectangular; U shaped; I shaped and have Round Hand Grip or Flat Hand Grip. Features of these caps are that they can be:

Threaded Tapered Anti-roll Knurled Slot Head / Slotted Head Ret Ring / Retaining Ring Tear Tab Hanger Tip Pull Tab Vented

Pipe Plug: Pipe Plugs/Sewer Pipe Plugs are designed to provide a quick and simple means to perform a variety of jobs such as stopping flow in a pipeline (for maintenance or repair), down stream pipeline acceptance testing, or to stop flow so that infiltration of a section can be measured etc.Thus, a Sewer Pipe Plug is thus a device that is used to arrest the flow of contents further in the pipe. It is available in a variety of styles, sizes, and configurations so as to match your specific job requirements. Plugs are mainly used in fluid plumbing applications to plug off a FPT fitting, have varying pressures (from low pressure to high pressure) and are available as expandable, mechanical and inflatable, something just right for virtually any application. These plugs simplify the maintenance of all types of shell and tube heat exchangers and speed the performance of in-service inspection of pipe, pipelines, piping systems and pressure vessels. Some of the popular types of plugs are :

Mechanical pipe plug : Mechanical Pipe Plugs are designed for use in concrete, clay, and some plastic pipes. They dont require air and are good for long term applications. Pneumatic disk pipe plug : These sewer pipe plugs are designed for use in concrete, clay, plastic as well as steel pipe. They have slim profile, bolt together sections, higher back and test pressure capabilities more than other low pressure plugs. Single size pneumatic all rubber pipe plug : These are designed for use in a wide variety of pipe types and styles. Their advantages include their ability to seal

most slightly out of round pipes and are economical to use when only one pipe size is needed. Multi-size pneumatic pipe plug : These Plugs are designed for use in a wide variety of pipe types and styles as well as job requirements. Their usage does not require the need to know the exact pipe size and they are compatible with a variety of pipe sizes. They also seal most slightly out of round pipes and are excellent for standard low pressure air testing. These plugs are also used for blocking or leak locating. Multi-size flow-through pipe plug : These pipe plugs seal multiple line sizes and the major application includes blocking, testing and diverting. They are most useful for by-pass pumping, leak locating or blocking and gravity flow diversion. High pressure pipe plug : Available in a large number of sizes and pressures, they are used for testing or blocking of lines up to high pressures (around 150 PSI).

Coupling - Flexible: Coupling Flexible connect rotating members while allowing some degree of angular or parallel misalignment. The key to a flexible couplings longevity is the elastomeric element that is sandwiched between the coupling halves. Most coupling flexible manufacturers use compressionmolded, rubber-like materials for their standard grommets. Torque tests and shock loads are used to check the strength and durability of these coupling. They can be made from different materials like steel, aluminum, cast iron coupling etc. Some of the coupling types are :

Coil Spring Double Loop Tire Flexible Link Multi Jaw Helical Flex Magnetic Metal Bellows Diaphragm Roller Chain Schmidt Shear Sliding Block Steel Grid Spider Flexible Disc

Rigid Coupling: Rigid coupling provides reliable holding power and maintain alignment when no movement is required. They are ideal for unsupported shafts, shafts running at high speeds and vertical shafts with suspended loads. Rigid coupling transmits around three times the torque of conventional clamp-type couplings, are available with or without a keyway and are easy to assemble and remove. Their simple, robust construction provides for easy installation and adjustment. They are available in a range of standard as well as with step bore combinations, in various sizes and have varying axial load (torque) handling capacity. Rigid coupling are available in the following types : One-Piece Rigid Coupling It is easy to install and is provided with 4 screws. Two-Piece Rigid Coupling It has greater adjustment potential than one piece coupling. It comes with eight screws. Reducer - Concentric: A reducer normally refers to a fitting that is used to reduce the diameter of the suction piping to fit the pump intake. It is thus used to join two pipes of different sizes. Reducer is available in both eccentric and concentric designs. Concentric or eccentric reducers are used to properly reduce into and out of circulating pumps. The various advantages include keeping big pipes and small pipes together as well as reducing noise and vibration at the same time. They are manufactured in a large number of materials, like Rubber, Stainless Steel, Carbon Steel, Copper, Nickel, Polypropylene, PVDF (sanitary control). Also known as tapered expansion joint, the reducers made from rubber connect unequal size pipes that share a common centerline. These joints eliminate the need for metallic reducers and at the same time provide sound and vibration isolation and expansion compensation. The concentric reducer pipe fitting also allows both the inlet and outlet ends to align to a common center line. Some of the important parameters used to select a concentric reducer are pressure/vacuum, max temp compression, approximate force, elongation etc. They are manufactured in various alloys, schedules, sizes and flange configurations. Concentric reducers frequently trap air when used at the suction of the pump.

Some of the industries where they find application are oil, gas, petrochemical, onshore and offshore sectors. They are used in both cargo transfers operations and vapor recovery systems. Reducers for vapor recovery include a pin on one flange and vapor hole on the opposite flange. Concentric reducer save installation space and reduce costs. Piping systems must be anchored when using concentric reducer. Eccentric Reducer: An Eccentric reducer, also called a Bell reducer, has two female (inside) threads of different sizes with centers so designed that when they are joined, the two pieces of pipe are not in line with each other, but they can be installed so as to provide optimum drainage of the line. An eccentric pipe reducer fitting is designed with the smaller outlet off center to the larger end, allowing it to align with only one side of the inlet. The high quality reducer fittings are designed to be welded with ease and offer superior strength and leak resistance. Eccentric pipe reducer must be installed with straight side up to prevent trapping air at the pump suction. They are designed to allows simple connection of different sized pipes. These can be used as pipe reducers flexible connectors and vibration eliminators. Eccentric reducers eliminates noise and isolate vibration in the pipeline, reduces stress, eliminates electrolysis and protects against start-up surges. They are fabricated using different materials like:

Rubber Silicone Viton Alloys Buna-Nm EPDM PTFE

The advantage of an all-rubber reducer over a metal reducer is the flexibility and durability of the elastomer. Filled reducers are usually used on slurry and abrasive applications to prevent the collection of material, which can settle in the arches. Cross / 4-Way Fittings: Cross fittings connect four pipe sections together. Crosses may have solvent weld socket ends or female threaded ends (no female threads available for PVC). They create a great deal of stress on the pipe because they have four connection points. In theory, this is the same principle that makes a 3 leg stool (a tee) more steady than a 4 leg stool (a cross).

If the branch line passes through the tee, the fitting becomes a Cross. If the side inlet passes through the fitting, it would be a 4-way tee. If the cross has a side inlet, it could accommodate 5 different pipes. These cross fittings are mainly find their application in hardware industry and are made of different materials, from PVC and aluminum to any other material of choice. Pipe Return / Trap: It is a pipe fitting that holds water to prevent entry of sewer gases. A Trap or Return is a U or S shaped equipment that inverses the direction of the pipe. Flexible trap and standard trap is an absolute solution for smelly and clogging basins, tanks, sinks etc and provide the plumber with easy to install and practical products. They are used to prevent the passage of sewer gas from the plumbing system into house through the plumbing fixture drain. Return or pipe trap falls under the head of Tubular products along with other fittings that are found under sinks and connect them to the drainage lines. Tubular products are manufactured in a sizing standard that is neither compatible with IPS pipe nor with CTS tubing. These products are made in tube sizes, but the threads used on them are incompatible with other products. They are adjustable, easily removed for repairs or cleaning, and can be assembled without making precise measurements and cuts. Every open drain requires a trap to be installed below it to prevent sewer gas from escaping into the house. This trap is always full of water. The specific configuration of the trap depends on the type of sink under which its installed and the location of the drainage pipe to which it connects. There are a wide variety of trap fittings available to accommodate nearly any situation one might encounter. Some of the popular types of trap available in the market are:

Adjustable P-Trap with Union Bell Trap Drum Trap L.A Psttern P trap P-Trap with Clean out Bell Trap Drain Fittings Drain Grate Vinyl PVC floor strainer

Elbow - 45: 45 degree elbow, also called 45 bends or 45 ells are typically made as LR (Long Radius) elbows. Available in various sizes (in mm or inches), 45 degree pipe elbow is available with different male to female BSP thread connections. Providing a wide choice of colors, these elbows can be manufactured to meet different specifications, in terms of size and diameter. They can be made from different materials like 3 ply material, silicone etc and both long and short radius elbows are available in the market. Applications 45 degree elbow find frequent applications in:

Water supply facilities Food industrial pipeline networks Chemical industrial pipeline networks Electronic industrial pipeline networks Air conditioning facility pipeline Agriculture and garden production transporting system Pipeline network for solar energy facility 90 degree elbow, also called 90 bends or 90 ells, are manufactured as SR (Short Radius) elbows and LR (Long Radius) elbows. SR (Short Radius) elbows have a Center-toFace dimension of 1.0 X diameter and are typically used in tight areas where clearances are an issue. LR (Long Radius) elbows have a Center-to-Face dimension of 1.5 X diameter and are the more common type and used when space is available and flow is more critical.

Elbow - 90:

This is a fitting device which is bent in such a way to produce 90 degree change in the direction of flow of the content in the pipe. An Elbow is used to change the direction in piping and is also sometimes called a quarter bend. A 90 degree elbow attaches readily to plastic, copper, cast iron, steel and lead. It can also attach to rubber with stainless steel clamps. Available in many materials like silicon, rubber compounds, galvanized steel etc, they connect rigid or IMC circuit together to allow for 90 degree bends. The main application area of an elbow (90 degree) is to connect hoses to valves, water pressure pumps, and deck drains. These elbows can be made from tough nylon material or NPT thread.

Side Outlet - Elbow: Side outlet elbow find its application in diverse areas. They offer solutions for interior and exterior handrail applications; from balconies, roof terraces and patio grab rails to commercial shop fittings and are also used for rigid structures, racks, greenhouses, awnings, fencing, cages. For instance, a stainless steel side outlet elbow fitting is ideal for high use and durability in public areas. Available in a wide number of materials, varying from stainless steel, brass, rugged steel, aluminum, PVC etc, side outlet elbows are given finishings using a number of polishing options. Special care is taken to make them corrosion and rust free. To fit different pipes, they are fabricated in different dimensions, as per the exact specification of the customer. In most of the cases, no welding is involved and so pipe structures are easily reconfigured if the pipe design needs to be changed. They also require no threading, drilling and bolting and are 100% reusable and form one of the quickest ways to assemble structural pipe work. Nowadays, round tubings are combined with square fittings to give a more contemporary feel to the side outlet elbow. A few of the common side outlet elbows are :

A 90 degree corner joint is most frequently used for the top rail of guard railing. It can also be considered for the top corner joint of benches, work tables, and other rectangular structures. A socket elbow with threaded side outlet allows the side outlet to be used as a bypass or temperature sensing point without additional plumbing fittings. It has socket x spigot x female threaded ends. Aluminum side outlet elbow is ideal for making simple, strong, rust free launch pads. Each elbow comes with a hex head screw for easy removal of the legs. They are available in different sizes to accommodate any size of pad. A side outlet tee is similar to a standard tee (a T-shaped device that act as an outlet for the pipe) with a minor change that in addition to the three openings, this side outlet tee has one more opening at the plane perpendicular to the tee plane.

Side Outlet - Tee:

All septic tanks have an opening for the waste to enter the tank and another one for the waste to exit the tank. This exit is called the outlet. Inside the tank, there is either a PVC or metal tee fitting, consisting of a short section of horizontal piping leading into a slightly longer vertical section of piping that is open on both the top and the bottom. The top of the vertical section must extend

above the level of the scum mat, and the bottom of the vertical section must extend below the bottom level of the scum mat. The outlet tee is usually several inches below the level of the inlet tee. A side outlet tee is also another hand rail fitting that is made of made of different materials (like an extremely corrosive resistant aluminum cast, giving a light weight, durable, long lasting, rust proof pipe frame joint) and available in various sizes. This fitting slips on and comes with a set screw to secure the pipe in the fitting. No threading, bending, or welding is needed. A side outlet tee is available in several dimensions, depending on the nature of application, pipe size, tube outer diameter etc. A look at some of the common side outlet tees and their application areas: A solid brass side outlet tee fitting is ideal for high use and durability in public areas. An adjustable Side Outlet Tee is used to form variable angle joints between 60 and 200 degrees. A Split 90 degree Side Outlet Tee / Split Two Socket Cross is used for adding on to and modifying existing structures. Because of its movable components, it can be added to an existing an existing tubular structure. Elbow - Other Angle: Industrial elbows are fitting accessories often used in various industrial sectors in pipe fitting. An elbow is frequently used in pressurized applications and comes in different shapes and sizes for use in various applications. They are manufactured using different plastic compounds for use in flow lines for fluids and gases in industrial processes, medical and many other specialized applications. They are constructed strictly with heavy materials for rigid applications like extreme high/low temperature resistance etc. Numerous elbow-to-elbow combinations are possible (the end of one elbow welded to another). 180 degree bends are easily fabricated this way. The two main types of Pipe elbow are:

Fixed Elbows Adjustable Elbows

Also, while die-stamped fixed elbows offer a smooth, obstruction-free interior, gored fixed elbows dont have as smooth an interior as die-stamped (they still are obstructionfree inside and cost about 20% to 30% less).

For odd angles, an adjustable-angle elbows are the best (the radius must at least be 1-1/2 times the diameter of the pipe and made of 24-gauge metal). Pipe Elbow can be custom made for other angles like :

30 degree 60 degree 130 degree 180 degree

They are popularly used in the following industries : Construction Food Medical Machinery Elbow - Reducing: Reducing Elbows are like a reducing piece and elbow combined into one. They are used to change the direction and quantity of flow in pipe systems. Made up of different materials like silicone, brass, stainless etc, these reducing elbows are mainly manufactured on CNC machines. Pipes of different diameter are connected together by making use of a reducing elbow. Reducing elbows are available in any size and degree, with optional radius. Typical standards are 45 degree and 90 degree. They are also available in different weights and center to end sizes. Apart from various dimensions, they can easily be supplied in different colors and finishes (typically blue, black or red). Tee - Bullhead: When a branch is larger than the other two run openings, it is referred to as a bullhead tee. On a bullhead tee the side outlet is the largest socket on the tee and the side outlet is referred to as the bullhead. Thus, Bullhead Tees are the tees in which the ports of the run are smaller than the port of the branch. In general, the specifications for a fitting indicate the sizes for both ends of the run first, followed by the size of the branch. In the case of run openings being different sizes, the larger run opening would be listed first. In similar fashion, if there are two branches of differing sizes, the larger branch opening would be listed before the smaller branch opening. But in all cases, branches are always listed after run openings.

Tees are always labeled as N x N x N TEE with the side outlet as the last size. The larger of the two sockets is always listed first. Thus a 1 x x 1/2 TEE SST has a 1/2 threaded side outlet (T for threaded) with the remaining sockets being 1 and 3/4 solvent weld sockets (SS for slip, slip). 90 Bullhead Tee is best used in Low Pressure Heating and Air Conditioning Systems. For Dust Collection Systems, Lateral and Boot Tees are used. Boot Tee is commonly used in confined area that does not allow use of 45 Lateral Tee. Tee - Reducing:

Another common type of tee is Reducing Tee. It is similar to the straight tee, except that one of the threaded openings is of a different size than the others. Reducing tee has two ends the same and one end smaller. Thus, a tee with one branch smaller than the run openings is referred to as a reducing tee. In other words, the runport is larger than the branch port. Many configurations of reducer tee are available in the market, meaning that one or more of the sockets is smaller than the others, depending on the nature of application. Reducing tees, regardless of their material composition, are always described in the same fashion. To describe a reducing tee, one must locate the largest size on the run of the tee. The next size indicated in the description of the reducing tee is the side opposite to that with the largest size on the run of the body. The final size in any description of a reducing tee is the branch side. Malleable Iron, Cast Iron, Brass, Copper Pressure, Carbon & Stainless Butt Weld & PVC are some of the common types of materials used for manufacturing reduced tees. These fitting are used to reduce delivery lines, to feed ice makers and other applications requiring a reducing tee fitting. Reducing Tee fitting are able to convey potable water, wine, drinks and alimentary fluids. They are non-corrosive and resistant to most of the chemicals, increasing the range of applications of the pipes. Reducing tee is used where a branch line needs to be smaller than the main End Bell: End Bell is used in concrete vault wall to provide a smooth, safe entrance to the conduit outside. They protect wiring which is being pulled through the vault wall. An End bell is a socket that ideally suits to connect one end of the pipe to the one end of the other pipe. End bell pipe fittings are easier to install than conventional butt welding pipe fittings and can be welded four to seven times faster than the standard butt welding fittings. The wrought cold formed belled end pipe fitting eliminates the

problems of misalignment and wall thickness mismatch that are inherent to butt welded joints. Testing has proven that belled end pipe fittings are equal in burst and superior in fatigue. Manufactured from pipe with starting wall thicknesses that is very close to the actual pipe wall nominal thickness, the belled end pipe fitting when joined to pipe, creates a flex continuum. When a belled end pipe fitting fillet joint is installed in applications involving pipe flexing and vibrations, a longer life cycle can be expected. These can be manufactured from full finished, annealed and pickled minimum wall welded and seamless pipe. The latest cold forming techniques are used to produce belled end pipe fittings of superior quality and reliability. Tee - Standard: A tee is amongst the most common pipe fittings and is available with all female thread sockets, all solvent weld sockets, or with opposed solvent weld sockets and a side outlet with female threads. This is a T-shaped device which has three openings that act as an outlet for the pipe. A tee is used for connecting pipes of different diameters or for changing the direction of pipe runs. A common type of pipe tee is the STRAIGHT tee, which has a straight-through portion and a 90-degree takeoff on one side. All three openings of the straight tee are of the same size. Tees (branch outlets) are manufactured as Equal or Reducing. Equal tees are exactly that, all three ends are of the same size. Reducing tees come with a combination of different outlet sizes. They are used for branch connections in irrigation systems. Typically, standard Tees are belled on all ends but any combination of belled or plain can be produced. There are many different combinations of sizes. Unusual combinations of sizes can also be achieved using component parts of tees, reducing tees and street reducers. Some of the key dimensions while selecting a tee are:

Main Inlet Diameter Main Outlet Diameter Branch Outlet Diameter Installed Length of Reducer

Some of the industrial tees are: Straight Tee Reducing Tee

Double Branch Tee Double Branch Reducing Tee Conical Tee Double Branch Conical Tee Bullhead Tee Conical Reducing Tee Double Branch Conical Reducing Tee Tangential Tee Double Branch Tangential Tee

The above tees are categorized on the basis of their shapes and structure, they can also be classified on the basis of the application they are required to perform. For instance, Sanitary Tees are used for sanitation works (and in vertical position only) where as Combination tees are used to attach PE tubing to PVC pipe and fittings. Expansion Joint / Coupling: Expansion coupling are devices with at least one bellow or airtight chamber, that absorb movement, stress, noise and vibration to protect pipe or duct fittings. They allow for rigid mounting of pipes in constricted areas and eliminate more complicated means of protecting piping from changes. The joints, made usually of rubber or plastic, are manufactured in various sizes to accommodate different pipe and duct sizes. Expansion joints or couplings connect sections of pipe and provide allowance for movement due to service load, shock, or thermal cycles. They may have solvent weld socket ends or female threaded ends. The flexible component of an expansion joint is called bellowand is typically constructed of materials that have high ductile strength to withstand the stresses of deflection. Often, a bellows expansion joint can withstand thousands of deflection cycles without breaking. Expansion joints provide a wide range of deflection capability. A flexible expansion joint may be designed to deflect lateral, axial, angular, or torsional stresses, or a combination of any of these. Some of the expansion joints with a varying deflection capabilities are hinged expansion joints, gimbals and universal expansion joints and elbow expansion joints. Some of the popular types of expansion joints (on the basis of material used in manufacturing) are:

Metal Expansion Joint Fabric Expansion Joint Rubber Expansion Joint

Significance of an expansion coupling/joint : A variety of elements can negatively affect pipe fittings over a period of time. Thermal expansion and contraction, along with minute shifting or vibrations, can lead to costly

and irritating repairs. As the environment around piping shifts, so does the size of the piping. It may be minute, but in a long series of piping, it can result in significant movement and bending. Expansion joints shield the most vulnerable sections of piping from such conditions. Pipe Union: Pipe Union is a fitting equipment that unites two pipes and they can be detached without causing any deformation to the pipes. Small diameter piping connections that require a positive seal and easy assembly as well as disassembly are made with the help of union. Union provides a leak-proof disconnection point in any PVC plumbing application and at a low cost. If a valveddisconnection point is required, use a single-union ball valve. A standard union pipe is made in three parts, consisting of :

A nut A female end A male end

When the female and male ends are joined, the nuts then provide the necessary pressure to seal the joint. Since the mating ends of the union are interchangeable, changing of a device can be achieved with a minimum loss of time. Unions are commonly used for inserting metering and regulating devices into a piping system or for connecting piping system to vessels. There are two types of pipe unions:

Ground Joint Union Flange Union

The Ground joint union consists of three pieces. It most commonly has a brass grounding section between the two halves. A Flange Union is made in two parts. An economical, practical and reliable alternative to welded and screwed systems, a Union Flange joins plain-ended pipe to flange-ended equipment, fittings and valves and on-site installation is simple. Union Flange is a unique solution to the problems which can occur in the use of pro-fabricated flanged piping, such as downtime, reliance on off-site suppliers and inaccurate dimensions. The design of the Union Flange comprises three elements: the flange, the gasket and the restraint. Both types are used for joining two pipes together and are designed so that they can be disconnected easily. Unions are successful in numerous municipal and industrial applications such as fire protection, water and wastewater, and process piping systems.

Pipe Ferrule: A Pipe Ferrule is a name for various types of metal objects, of which most consist of a circular clamp used to hold together and attach fibers, wires or posts. A pipe ferrule is thus a ring or cap attached to an object to protect against damage, splitting or wear. It is also known as a circular fitting device that is used to hold the pipes together. A pipe ferrule is used in various industries like hardware, electrical & electronics, fiber optics, lawn and garden instruments, automotive, compressed-gas, fire suppression, welding, furniture, beverage, appliance, farm and lighting industries etc. Ferrule, apart from holding parts of a rod etc together, are also used for giving strength to weakened materials and for preventing wearing or splitting. A few of the applications of Pipe Ferrule :

Ferrules are used in compression fittings for attaching piping. Ferrules are used together with the connector that connects the fiber cable either to another cable or to a transmitter or receiver. They keep the fibers accurately aligned within the connector. In fiber optics, ferrule is used to align and protect the stripped end of a fiber.

Also known as a Tube insert, ferrule can also be a metal, glass, plastic or ceramic tube that is inserted into the end of a heat exchanger tube to provide a specific function. The purpose of a ferrule here is to either be sacrificial to the effects of inlet-end erosion, corrosion, impingement, or induce a fluid to fall on the ID of a tube in a falling film exchanger, or transfer extremely high heat past the tube sheet to the exchanger tubes. Each of the above applications requires a specific style of design. Even though there are some applications where plastic performs satisfactorily, a metal tube insert is more durable in environments where there are concerns of the stability of the product, its tendency to transfer erosion problems down the tube, its durability in an abrasive environment and its reaction to elevated temperatures. In some cases, ceramics also exhibits good performance well like in a situation when the temperatures are extremely high. Also, ceramic bonds well to glass and its expansion coefficient is close to that of the glass fibers, making it environmentally stable. However, ceramics can be subject to breaking. Some of the metal ferrules are :

Brass Ferrule Aluminum Ferrule Stainless Steel Ferrule Copper Ferrule

Pipe Flange: A Pipe Flange can be defined as an external or internal rib, or rim, for strength (as the flange of an iron beam) or for a guide (as the flange of a train wheel) or for attachment to another object (as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc). It allows two pipes to be mechanically connected together, or a pipe to be mechanically connected to a valve, tee, choke or other piece of equipment. Hence, is a connection profile that is used in pipe work and associated equipment to provide a means of assembling and disassembling components.

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The design and specification of a flange relates to the size and pressure capacity of the equipment to which it is fitted. All flanges are sized according to their nominal bore size. For the majority of pipe sizes, this designation does not represent either their actual outside diameter or inside diameter. Working of a Pipe Flange : The basic principle of working is to use a mechanical force (exerted by the bolts) to preload the gasket so that when internal pressure (end cap force) is applied, there is enough contact stress between the flanges and gasket to maintain a seal. The flange itself needs to be connected to the pipe. This is usually achieved by welding, though threaded and other weldless connections also exist. Flange can be made of various materials like :

Carbon Steel Chrome Alloys Stainless Steel Aluminum Hastalloy Inconel Incolloy Monel Copper Naval Brass Titanium Galvanized Carbon Steel

Some of the common types of Pipe Flanges : Weldneck Flange

Slip-On Flange Socket Weld Flange Lap Joint Flange Threaded Flange

Wye - Reducing: A Reducing Wye is used in connecting a reducing branch line into a horizontal drain pipe. Also, it can be used in conjunction with a Twist-Lok plug to provide a clean out in a drain pipe Material used for manufacturing Wye-Reducing: These can be supplied in virtually any size or material, ranging from carbon steel, stainless steel, iron, copper, monel, nickel, CPVC, Polyolefin to titanium or zirconium. Some popular types of Reducing Wye :

Reducing Single Wye Reducing Double Wye Reducing Long turn Wye Reducing Double Long turn Wye

Wye - Standard: As the name implies, this fitting device is Y shaped. The branch runs out from the run port at an angle other than 90 degree. It is a fitting with three openings and is used to create branch lines. A standard wye allows one pipe to be joined to another at a 45 degree angle. Wyes are similar to tees except that the branch line is angled to reduce friction that could hamper the flow and that the connection is typically at a 45-degree angle rather than a 90degree angle. If a branch turns out at the end to be perpendicular to the through line, the fitting becomes a tee wye. PVDF Corrosive Waste Piping Systems utilize wye fittings that feature smooth ID without any irregularities for uninterrupted flow path. These fittings should be able to withstand acids, bases, and solvents, flame-retardant systems withstand intermittent corrosive fluids up to high temperatures. Polypropylene and PVDF Double Wyes and Double Reducing Wyes come in various sizes and are largely used for this purpose. A wye branch allows to split a branch line equally in two directions. The opening sizes can vary for different situations, for instance in situation where a large main line needs to be split into two smaller branches.

Economy wyes are often spot-welded together; industrial wyes have a continuous weld at each seam. A true Wye fitting is also engineered for closed system instrumentation pigging configurations or wherever a smooth pipe branch is required. The end connections of a standard wye can be :

Buttweld BlueSky Clamp Pipe Connector RF or RTJ Flange Special to suit application

Pipe Nipple: A Pipe Nipple is a short pipe (12 inches or less), with small opening which provides way for the liquids or gases to pass through the pipe. It has a male thread on each end and is used for extension from a fitting. Some of the popular usages of Pipe Nipple are : Used in fluid application to connect two FPT fittings. Used in plumbing system or for ceiling and wall supports and extensions. Used for ceiling or wall supports. Used to extend shower riser.

Some of the common materials used in manufacturing Pipe Nipple are : CPVC PVC Stainless Steel A look at popular variants of Pipe Fitting Nipple: Nippple close-NC Usage : Male Pipe to Male Pipe connections NIpple hex-NH Usage : Male Pipe to Male Pipe connections Nipple hex-NH Usage : Male Pipe to Male Pipe connections Reducing hex nipple- RHN (Male NPT Threads) Usage : Male Pipe to Male Pipe connections Reducing hex nipple-LHN Usage : Male Pipe to Male Pipe connections Long hex nipple- LHN (Male NPT Threads) Usage : Male Pipe to Male Pipe connections A few other types of nipples are: Dielectric Nipple

Barbed Nipple Brass Hex Nipple Swage Nipple Threaded Pipe Nipple

Pipe Support Span (For ref.Only)


pipe size 3/4 1 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 pipe O.D. 27 33 48 60 73 89 114 141 168 219 273 324 356 406 457 508 559 610 660 711 762 813 864 914 965 1016 1067 1118 1168 1219 thickness 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Span (mm) W(include water) (kg/M) mimum length 2 3 5 8 12 16 24 35 47 75 111 147 170 211 256 305 358 415 476 541 610 684 761 842 927 1017 1111 1209 1309 1415 3670.57 3915.53 4933.16 5251.77 5804.75 6326.67 7223.65 8030.66 8559.41 9643.71 10651.93 11610.40 12040.79 12622.32 13170.26 13669.74 14129.08 14554.62 14934.07 15306.67 15657.39 15983.02 16297.89 16583.68 16869.95 17139.51 17398.30 17647.23 17882.32 18113.71