This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
mass. Consequently, working with them in the laboratory requires a large collection of them. How large does this collection need to be? A standard needs to be introduced. This standard is the "mole". The mole is based upon the carbon-12 isotope. We ask the following question: How many carbon-12 atoms are needed to have a mass of exactly 12 g. That number is NA - Avogadro's number. Thus, NA is defined by NA x (mass of carbon-12 atom) = 12 g Careful measurements yield a value for NA = 6.0221367x10^+23. This is an incredibly large number almost a trillion trillion. For example, if we stack NA pennies on top of one another how tall would the stack be? The answer is it would be so tall that the stack of pennies could reach the sun and back almost 500 million times! A convenient name is given when there is an Avogadro's number of objects - it is called a "mole". Thus in the above example there was a mole of pennies. 1 mole = NA objects The mole concept is no more complicated than the more familiar concept of a dozen : 1 dozen = 12 objects. From the penny example above one might suspect that the mass of a mole of objects is huge. Well, that is true if we're considering a mole of pennies, however a mole of atoms or molecules is a different story. Recall that the atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom. Consequently we have the relation NA x 12 amu = 12 g Thus, a mole of carbon-12 atoms has a mass of just 12 g. What about other atoms? In the periodic table the atomic mass of the elements is given. For example the atomic mass of magnesium is 24.305 amu. This is the average isotopic mass of naturally occurring magnesium. What is the molar mass of magnesium in grams? From the equation above we get 1 amu = 1g/NA or 1 amu = 1.66054x10^-24 g. Thus, a mole of magnesium atoms has a mass of NA x 24.305 amu x (1.66054x10^-24 g/amu) = 24.305 g. A mole of magnesium atoms has a mass of 24.305 g. This example demonstrates that the atomic mass of magnesium can be interpreted in one of two ways: (1) the average mass of a single magnesium atom is 24.305 amu or (2) the average mass of a mole of magnesium atoms is 24.305 g; A similar conclusion follows for all of the other elements. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACID AND BASE Acid vs Base Acid and base are chemistry terms which refer to different potentialities of chemical substances. An acid, in chemistry, is usually a liquid, that contains hydrogen and has a pH value of less than seven. The hydroen can be replaced by a metal to form a salt. The pH value of a base is always more than 7 and it usually combines with an acid to form a salt. A pH value is a scale to define the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. Acids and bases can also be combined to form water, salt water and ionic salts. Based on this differentiation, acids are good conducturs of electricity as they have H+ ions while bases are not and more slippery in texture. Bases contain OH-ions. Bases, while dissolving in water, release hydroxide ions which are one hydrogen and one oxygen atom each with a negative charge. On the other hand, acids release only hydrogen ions.
An acid and base are of opposite polarities and therefore, they neutralize each other. Acid and bases react with other substances in a caustic manner. Also, when it comes to chemical interaction, acids function as proton donators while bases function as proton acceptors. Both acids and bases may be classified as weak or strong. In the case of weak acids and bases, the conjugate result is strong but the weak acid or base does not dissociate properly in water. However, strong acids and bases manage almost complete dissociation in water though their conjugate acid or base is weak. As regards physical properties, acids are sour in taste and can burn or destroy substances they come in contact with. They leave a stinging effect on mucous membranes. Bases, on the other hand, taste bitter and have a soapy or slippery texture. Both acids and bases can be dangerous to the human body if of a high pH value. pH value of an Acid is lower than 7 and the pH value of a Base is higher than 7. Freshly distilled water has a pH value of 7. ACIDS AND BASES Acids Terms acetic acid acetylsalicylic acid ascorbic acid Carbonic acid Hydrochloric acid nitric acid Definitions food preservation and preparation, when in solution with water it is known as vinegar pain relief, fever relief, to reduce inflammation, known as aspirin
antioxidant, vitamin, also called vitamin C carbonated drinks, involved in cave stalactite and stalagmite formation and acid rain digestion as gastric juice in stomach, to clean steal in a process known as pickling, commonly called muriatic acid to make fertilizers, colorless, yet yellow when exposed to light to make detergents, fertilizers and soft drinks, slightly sour but pleasant taste, detergents phosphoric acid containing phosphates cause water pollution car batteries, to manufacture fertilizers, and other chemicals, dehydrating agent, causes sulfuric acid burns by removing water from cells
Bases Terms aluminum hydroxide calcium hydroxide magnesium hydroxide sodium hydroxide ammonia Definitions color-fast fabrics, antacid, water purification, sticky gel that collects suspended clay and dirt particles on its surface leather-making, mortar and plaster, lessen acidity of soil, called caustic lime laxative, antacid, called milk of magnesia when in water to make soap, oven cleaner, drain cleaner, textiles, paper, called lye and caustic soda; generates heat (exothermic) when combined with water, reacts with metals to form hydrogen cleaners, fertilizer, to make rayon and nylon, irritating odor that is damaging to nasal passages and lungs
TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Direct Combination or Synthesis Reaction In a synthesis reaction two or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product.
A + B → AB The combination of iron and sulfur to form iron (II) sulfide is an example of a synthesis reaction: 8 Fe + S8 → 8 FeS Learn More About Synthesis Reactions
Chemical Decomposition or Analysis Reaction In a decomposition reaction a compound is broken into smaller chemical species. AB → A + B The electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas is an example of a decomposition reaction: 2 H2O → 2 H2 + O2
Single Displacement or Substitution Reaction A substitution or single displacement reaction is characterized by one element being displaced from a compound by another element. A + BC → AC + B An example of a substitution reaction occurs when zinc combines with hydrochloric acid. The zinc replaces the hydrogen: Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
Metathesis or Double Displacement Reaction In a double displacement or metathesis reaction two compounds exchange bonds or ions in order to form different compounds. AB + CD → AD + CB An example of a double displacement reaction occurs between sodium chloride and silver nitrate to form sodium nitrate and silver chloride. NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)
Acid-Base Reaction An acid-base reaction is type of double displacement reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. The H+ ion in the acid reacts with the OH- ion in the base to form water and an ionic salt: HA + BOH → H2O + BA The reaction between hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide is an example of an acidbase reaction: HBr + NaOH → NaBr + H2O
Oxidation-Reduction or Redox Reaction In a redox reaction the oxidation numbers of atoms are changed. Redox reactions may involve the
transfer of electrons between chemical species. The reaction that occurs when In which I2 is reduced to I- and S2O32- (thiosulfate anion) is oxidized to S4O62- provides an example of a redox reaction: 2 S2O32−(aq) + I2(aq) → S4O62−(aq) + 2 I−(aq)
Combustion A combustion reaction is a type of redox reaction in which a combustible material combines with an oxidizer to form oxidized products and generate heat (exothermic reaction). Usually in a combustion reaction oxygen combines with another compound to form carbon dioxide and water. An example of a combustion reaction is the burning of naphthalene: C10H8 + 12 O2 → 10 CO2 + 4 H2O Learn More About Combustion Reactions
Isomerization In an isomerization reaction, the stuctural arrangement of a compound is changed but its net atomic composition remains the same. Hydrolysis Reaction A hydrolysis reaction involves water. The general form for a hydrolysis reaction is: X-(aq) + H2O(l) <--> HX(aq) + OH-(aq)
ELECTROLYTE An electrolyte is a compound that ionises when dissolved in suitable ionising solvents such as water. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution of some biological (e.g., DNA, polypeptides) and synthetic polymers (e.g., polystyrene sulfonate), termed polyelectrolytes, which contain charged functional groups. Electrolyte solutions are normally formed when a salt is placed into a solvent such as water and the individual components dissociate due to the thermodynamic interactions between solvent and solute molecules, in a process called solvation. For example, when table salt, NaCl, is placed in water, the salt (a solid) dissolves into its component ions, according to the dissociation reaction NaCl(s) → Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq) It is also possible for substances to react with water producing ions, e.g., carbon dioxide gas dissolves in water to produce a solution which contains hydronium, carbonate, and hydrogen carbonate ions. Note that molten salts can be electrolytes as well. For instance, when sodium chloride is molten, the liquid conducts electricity. An electrolyte in a solution may be described as concentrated if it has a high concentration of ions, or dilute if it has a low concentration. If a high proportion of the solute dissociates to form free ions, the electrolyte is strong; if most of the solute does not dissociate, the electrolyte is weak. The properties of electrolytes may be exploited using electrolysis to extract constituent elements and compounds contained within the solution. EXAMPLES OF STRONG AND WEAK ELECTROLYTES ARE GIVEN BELOW: Strong Electrolytes strong acids HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO3, HClO4, and H2SO4
strong bases salts Weak Electrolytes weak acids weak bases
NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2 NaCl, KBr, MgCl2, and many, many more HF, HC2H3O2 (acetic acid), H2CO3 (carbonic acid), H3PO4 (phosphoric acid), and many more NH3 (ammonia), C5H5N (pyridine), and several more, all containing "N"