RAFAEL JOSHUA LEDESMA DON CHARLES REYES IV-MAXWELL ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Rhus coriaria Introduction Plants are able

to produce different compounds that be used to protect themselves against different types of pathogens (1). Interest in medicinal plants has revived as a consequence of current problems associated with the use of antibiotics (2). Spices are mainly used in foods mainly because they give desirable flavors and aromas; in addition it shows antimicrobial activity Medicinal plants are important elements of indigenous medical systems in Palestine as well as in other developing countries. R. coriaria (Anacardiaceae) commonly known as sumac (also spelled as sumach), is a wild bush that grows in all Mediterranean areas, including Palestine. Phytochemicals in R. coriaria are being used as antibacterial, antidiarrheic, antidysenteric, antihepatoxic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, astringent, candidicide, hepatoprotective, hepatotonic, protisticide, analgesic, antigastric, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiulcer, fungicide, cyclooxygenase-inhibitor and lipoxygenase inhibitor due to their contents of ellagic acid, gallic acid, isoquercitrin, myricitrin, myricetin, quercetin, quercitrin and tannic acid (4). The acidic tasty of R. coriaria fruits is made into a condiment and sour drink in the Middle East dishes. Its sour taste is derived form the citric and malic acids found in its juice. In Palestine, R. coriaria is a well-known spice, popular and has been utilized extensively in many different meals, such as in zater (dukka) which is a blend of sumac, thyme and citric acid with seasame seeds; almusakhan which is composed from fragmented chicken, small fragments of onions and sumac, as well as in salads and others. Due to lack information about the effect of R. coriaria seeds on bacterialactivity this study was conducted in order to study the antimicrobial effect of water, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of R. coriaria against five clinical species of bacteria.

Materials and Methods: Extract preparation: R. coriaria fruits were collected from plants grown in mountains in North of Palestine. The taxonomic identity of the plants was confirmed by us as described by Flora Palaestina (8). Air-dried andmpowdered of R. coriaria ripe berries (30 g) were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 80% ethanol; the extracts were filtered through Watman No. 2 filter paper under suction. Extracts were concentrated to dryness in vacuum and weighed.

156 mg/ml against B. The test plates were incubated at 37 °C for 18 h. The bacterial inoculum size was adjusted to the turbidity of the 0. The endpoint (MIC) is taken as the lowest concentration of drug at which the microorganism tested does not show visible growth. multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial activity: The antimicrobial activity was determined by the well diffusion method (9). 10 mg/ml. Abu-Safiya. No effects were detected for water extract on P. D. Results: The antibacterial activity of R.625.5 #1McFarland standard so as to deliver a final inoculum of approximately 105 colony-forming units (CFU/ml). coriaria seeds water. . 0. Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae. enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 (EHEC). Triplicates of each concentration for each bacteria species were prepared. 1. The reconstituted ethanol extract was diluted in Mueller Hinton broth to give a final concentration of 0. subtilis. Using a micropipette. Abu-Shanab 149 (MRSA). Plates were seeded with a 24 h old culture of the bacterial strains.Adwan and M.0195.Test Bacteria: Five bacterial strains isolated from clinical material from patients were used in the study: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus B.Gh. 0. respectively. P. subtilis.156. aeruginosa and K. 0. The MIC of ethanolic extract was 1. 2. 0. 50μl of the standard microbial broth culture were introduced into the wells. coriaria seed extracts are shown in Table 1. Plant extracts were added to the wells. 15 to 25 mm and 15 to 22 mm for R.313. vulgaris. The inoculated plates were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The standard tetracycline disk (30 μg) was used as a control. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution method (10). Abu-Shanab. EHEC. aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. The average diameter of inhibition zones ranges from 0 to 19 mm. Wells of (6 mm diameter) were made in Mueller Hinton agar. a concentration of 5 mg/well. 0.078.25.0391.25 mg/ml against MRSA. The largest diameter of inhibition zone was observed from ethanolic and methanolic extracts on the growth of MRSA and B. pneumoniae. while 0. K. Adwan.5. P. 5. The inhibition zones vary depending on bacterial species and type of extract. A reference strain [Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633] was also tested. ethanolic and methanolic extract. The diameter of the inhibition zones were measured for each plate and the average reading of the three replicates for each antibacterial species are shown in Table 1.

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