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3. Bacause there are so many Asian countries have been colonized.

This has a huge impact still on things that are happening today. Communism is a classless, stateless society based upon common (not private) ownership of the means of production. According to the reading and lecture, communism became attractive to Asian intellectual because they are trying to minimize the gap between rich and poor economy, it provides a way to understanding what was happening with colonialism and imperialism. In that way, they can seek cheaper resources and cheap labor in order to make a profit. marxism-leninism provided Asian intellectuals with: a way of understanding what was going on in their countries; a concrete plan of action to change it; and not just equality, but a leading role in world revolution. In the early 20th century, many Asian countries were colonized by Capitalism countries. Communism, a newest society structure that is defined classless society base upon common ownership of means of product, and imperialism is considered as the highest stage of capitalism. This history background somehow let intellectuals choose communism. Min the gap between classes, how to get rip of the problem. In China, government told the factory/ farm how much to produce, and sold it at fixed price. Government became the owner of land, and bought private companies at low prices. Then government assigned the job for people. People could get a fixed salary and could not be fired. Collective member In Cambodia, labor is divided based in sex and age. Motivate the entire population to increase product, it just looks like super Great Leap Forward. However, DK failed to achieve economic goal. The party thought the hidden enemies was the main reason. They decided to purify the general populace, many people were killed. Even today, Cambodian cannot forget what happen in the past, they are still living in pain. 4. The reading argues that much nationalism in China today is a genuinely popular, bottom-up phenomenon and that it has origins in contested narratives about Chinas past encounters with Japanese and Western imperialism. Recent expression of anti-Japanese and anti-Western sentiment in China must be understood in the context of Chinese stories about the century of Humiliation, lasting from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, a period that begins with Chinas defeat in the First Opium War and the ceding of HongKong to the British in 1842. Narratives about the Century of Humiliation frame the ways that many Chinese understand themselves today. Most educated, 21 century Chinese are painfully aware of the unequal treaties China signed with the British in 1842 and the Japanese in 1895. Unilateral concession forced on the Chinese such as indemnities, extra-territoriality, and foreign settlements in treaty ports are still perceived as humiliating losses sovereignty. For example, the ruins of the old Summer palace outside Beijing, which are all that were left after the palace was looted and burned by Europeans in 1860, are a recurring symbol of this rape of China. Chinese visions of the century have shaped the Chinese sense of self, and this changing selfconcept has altered the Chinese view of the Century. Past and present, in other words, exist in a dialectical relationship in which stories about the past both constrain and enable Chinese national

identity in the present. The rape of Nanking, which had a major impact on Chinese nationalists, has recently contributed to the transformation of the 1937 massacre into a rape. At the beginning of 21 century, many Chinese focus less on Chinas heroic resistance during the war and more on Chinese victimization. Many Chinese today come to think about themselves as victims. Public debate between Chinese and Japanese over past wars not just about the past, they are primarily about what it means to be Chinese or Japanese in the twenty first century. For many Chinese, painful memories of past trauma have clearly generated a deep anger toward Japan. China and Japan are competing for position in the evolving East Asian security order. Wash clean our national humiliation Declare war on Japan Many people have been taking part in anti-japanese rallies in china The rallies have also been fuelled by anger at the prospect of Japan possible obtaining a permanent seat on the UN security council Boycott of Japanese goods Japanese embassy in Beijing was also targeted, prompting anger and concern in Tokyo Nationalism: a new way of thinking about political power (sovereignty), a new way of thinking about us and them (identity) We will never meet all American face to face, but we have a sense of horizontal comradeship with them Nationalist movements in many Asian countries (including China) were anti-imperialist, but they used certain ideas brought by imperialists (like nationalism) to fight against imperialism.