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UFPPC (www.ufppc.org) Digging Deeper: September 6, 2004, 7:00 p.m.

Dana Priest, The Mission: Waging War and Keeping Peace with America’s
Military (New York & London: W.W. Norton, 2004).

Introduction: Pax Americana. Gen. Ch. 2: The Rise of the American


Anthony Zinni visits embattled Yasir Military. Clinton reaches modus vivendi
Arafat in Ramallah in April 2002 (11-12). with military tasked with new
Zinni: “No military solution to terrorism” responsibilities (41-49). Sec. of State
(11). “Yet U.S. leaders have been turning Madeleine Albright (51-54). Gen. John
more and more to the military to solve Shalikashvili (54-57).
problems that are often, at their root,
political and economic. This has become THE COMMANDERS
the American military’s mission and it
has been going on for more than a Ch. 3: The CinCs: Proconsuls to the
decade without much public discussion Empire. Zinni in Vietnam (61-65). Role
or debate. Vanquishing terrorism is the in post-Gulf War Kurdish relief mission
latest example” (11). “New (65-66). CinC Central Command (66-69).
unilateralists” in the Defense Department Youth, values (69-70). Regional CinCs as
(12). U.S. military “unmatched by factors power centers (71-77). Biannual
of ten” (13). Political and economic role redrawing of CinCdoms (73). Staff,
“de facto”: “The military simply filled a intellectual centers, training and
vacuum left by an indecisive White educational programs, intelligence
House, an atrophied State Department, centers (74-76). Travel, communications,
and a distracted Congress. . . . But aides-de-camp (76-77).
“decision-makers understand less and
less about their military” (14). Women in Ch. 4: The Royal CinCdoms of the
Vitina, Kosovo, press bill of rights on U.S. Persian Gulf. Gulf states: “The United
infantry officer in Nov. 2001 (14-16). States hired out its military as a regional
CinCs (16-17). Special forces (=Special mercenary force for Arab rulers who
Operations Forces) (17-18). Mismatch of could not raise their own armies. . . . no
military culture and new mission (18-19). coherent strategy” (78-79). U.S. Middle
Methodology: 1998-2002 research; 18- East policy (82-85). “Central Command”
month leave from Washington Post; visits (83). Permanent troop presence in
to 13 countries with 4 CinCs; visited Kuwait disguised as “exercise” (84).
special forces teams in Colombia, Vinnell Corp. (85). Zinni’s visit in May
Nigeria, Kosovo, & Afghanistan, U.S. 1998 with Senator Ted Stevens, chair of
Army Special Forces Command at Fort the Senate Appropriations Committee, to
Bragg, NC, and 5th Special Forces Group Saudi defense minister, Prince Sultan bin
at Fort Campbell, KY; special research on Abdul Aziz [one of the “Sudairi Seven,”
82nd Airborne Division in Vitina, Kosovo. the seven sons of the favored wife of
Abdul Aziz (a.k.a. Ibn Saud, the king and
Ch. 1: A Different Kind of World. founder of modern Saudi Arabia), father
Rumsfeld shakes up military, rejects of Bandar Bush, a passenger in the space
“military engagement” supported by shuttle Discovery in 1985, heard from
Generals Shelton, Zinni, and Franks (21- and gave Osama bin Laden the
34). 9/11 (34-37). “Rumsfeld’s impression he had accepted (though he
campaign to rein in the armed forces” did not) a proposal to wage jihad against
ends abruptly on Sept. 11 (38-40). Saddam Hussein after invasion of Kuwait
in 1990, alleged to have funded several
Islamic charities that provided al-Qaeda
at least $6 million acc. to Craig Unger’s Force” units (126). 1st SFG works in
House of Bush, House of Saud (2004)]: Pacific Command [its 2nd & 3rd battalions
“Come! Please. Sit with me. You are my are based at Fort Lewis], 3rd SFG in Africa
shield!” (85-86) Zinni’s view of Saudi exc. Eastern Horn, 5th SFG in Central
Arabia as benevolent monarchy (87-89). Command, 7th SFG in Central and S.
Confused lines of authority in U.S. America, 10th SFG in Central & E. Europe,
policymaking (89-91). Problem of Balkans, Turkey, Israel, & Lebanon, and
military organization and service rivalries 19th & 20th SFGs are reserve groups
(91-95). Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 (126). SFGs are staffed and trained
(95-96). Cheney, Aspin, Perry, Cohen as under U.S. Army Special Forces
secretaries of defense (96-98). Command at Fort Bragg, but are
deployed as assets of regional CinCs
Ch. 5: The Invisible Front Line of (126). Navy (SEAL units) and Air Force
Central Asia. Zinni promotes also have specialized special forces units;
engagement with the “‘stans’ of Central together, all SF units are called Special
Asia” ― Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Operations Forces (SOF); the Marines,
Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, exempt from the 1986 legislation that
Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan (99-104). created U.S. Special Operations
Oil reserves; terrorism (105-08). Human Command, maintain “forward-deployed
rights; debate whether to engage or to Special Operations Capable Marine
isolate authoritarian regimes (108-09). Expeditionary Units” (127). Training and
Pakistan (109-14). Sanctioned, but “the mission (127-29). Alpha-male culture
Pentagon found a quiet way to maintain (129-35). Origins of special forces;
relations . . . By 1993, Special Operations Vietnam (135-38). Delta Force (138-39).
Command had essentially created its Nunn-Cohen amendment to 1986
own separate foreign policy track” (110- Goldwater-Nichols Act elevated special
11). After Musharraf’s coup and Clinton’s operations to its own joint command
protest, Musharraf calls Zinni (112-13). (139). SOFs are now “the unofficial fifth
CinCs’ overseas “engagement programs” service,” with a classified budget, civilian
hidden from Congress (114-15). Zinni: oversight conducted by an asst.
“We [CinCs] already have [political secretary of defense, and self-determined
authority]” (115). Fourteen-day May force structure, funding requirements,
2000 visit to Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and equipment procurement, training, and
Turkmenistan (115-17). Zinni finds lack deployment (139). Panama, Gulf War,
of U.S. “leadership” (117-18). Somalia (139-40).

THE SPECIAL FORCES Ch. 7: A-Teams in Afghanistan.


Account of Team 555 of Army’s 5th SFG in
Ch. 6: Inside the Wire with Special Afghanistan. Rendez-vous with “Hal” and
Forces. Visit to Camp Bondsteel in “Phil,” CIA paramilitary operatives (142,
Kosovo in Nov. 2001 (121-22). Special 148-49). “UW,” or unconventional
forces culture (122-23). Rick Turcotte, warfare (154-55). “Terminology game”
Team 055 sergeant (123-25). Army permits civilian targeting (155-58; 163).
organization: A-team (10-12 men), TSC-93 satellite terminal (159).
Operational Detachment Bravo (5 A- Technology supporting warfare
teams & HQ), Operational Detachment distinguished from technology of warfare
Charlie (3 Bravos & HQ), Special Forces by 1st Sgt. Mike Murray (160). Team
Groups or SFGs (3 Charlies + support 595’s sergeant: “The problem we have
group company + HQ = approx. 1,380 as soldiers is we don’t make policy”
men); also, there are Operational (161). Unity-of-command doctrine
Detachment Delta, the covert “Delta controverted (165). Team 574; bombing
error (168-71). Team 532 builds an army supporters in the Pentagon, worked
for Jeff Naderi/Sayyed Jaffar, then around congressional and State
become embroiled in local political Department roadblocks to maintain
struggle (171-74). military ties (218-19). Commander
Subianto Prabowo of Kopassus
Ch. 8: Below the Radar in Nigeria. SF (Indonesian special forces) (219-22).
training project (delivered by a Russian Military uses Joint Combined Exchange
helicopter owned by a joint U.S.-Russian Training (JCET) program to evade
charter company [175,188]) leads to Congressional restrictions (222-24).
anti-American violence after Sept. 11 Abuses lead to suspension of JCET in May
(175-78). Operation Focus Relief (179). 1998 (224-5). Adm. Dennis Blair as CinC
Theme of book: “Using the American in the Pacific vs. Ambassador Robert
military to address global problems had Gelbard (226-42). Resumed military
become almost a reflex in Washington. relations (242-43).
But even the best U.S. troops could deal
only with the symptoms, not the causes, THE CINC AND HIS SOLDIERS IN KOSOVO
of incipient problems. Military programs
did little to help political systems move Ch. 11: Force Trumps Diplomacy in
from dictatorship to democracy, or the Balkans. Gen. Wesley Clark’s
economies from government control to advocacy of war intervention in Kosovo
free market” (179). “The two CinCs who (248-50). Clark’s background (250-52).
divided Africa” ― Zinni & Wesley Clark ― SACEUR (Supreme Allied Commander,
debate “engagement” in the Ritz-Carlton Europe) post (252-54). Defining the
in the Pentagon City mall in Nov. 1998 military’s role (255-57). Clark advocates
(180-81). Corruption in Nigeria (182-83). aggressive, improvisational post-war
Nigerians want weapons and planes, not practices (257-64). Clark’s conduct of
training (183-85). Nigerians resist the war (265-74).
complying with Leahy amendment
requiring vetting of foreign soldiers Ch. 12: Waging Peace in Kosovo.
receiving training (185-86). 3rd SFG has Restrictions on Apache helicopters
done training in 26 African countries; followed by limits on peacekeepers (275-
soldiers as diplomats (187). Benue 79). Peacekeeping mission in Kosovo
massacre: “human nature in its rawest (279-83). Frustration at lack of clear
form . . . man’s evil soul,” says an SF mission (283-91).
major (188-89). Training at the Serti
camp (190-92). Nigerian troops in Sierra Ch. 13: Drita’s Kosovo. Drita Perezic,
Leone (192-94). Albanian-American from Staten Island
hired as a translator in Kosovo war (292-
Ch. 9: Gambling with Green Berets in 302). “The growing civilian-military gap”
Columbia. Background (195-203). (298-99). Cultural difference and
Military assistance limited to Fighting prejudice (300-02).
drug trafficking (203-12). Training
exercise (212-14). Ch. 14: Ellerbe’s 82nd Airborne
Division. Lt. Col. Michael Ellerbe (303-
Ch. 10: The Indonesian Handshake. 05). 82nd Airborne mystique (305-06).
The Indonesian military (TNI) (216-17). Command Sgt. Maj. Kalinofski
East Timor atrocities lead Congress to indoctrinates recruits from the
ban Indonesia from Int’l Military environment (civilian world) (306-08).
Education and Training (IMET) program Ellerbe’s optimism (308-11). Kidnapping
(217-18). Indonesia “a case study in how of two Serbian teachers (311-12). Ellerbe
persistent CinCs in the Pacific, and their determined to investigate (312-15). Brig.
Gen. Craig Peterson studying crime barracks at Fort Leavenworth (362).
networks, encourages Ellerbe’s research Army investigatory report (363-64).
(315-19). Ellerbe, Lambert, Serafini, and Donnelly
later promoted (364). Army abandons its
Ch. 15: Vitina and the New Mafia. offensive against “the political-criminal
“Criminal” element in Vitina includes axis that has come to control Kosovo, a
Albanian MRP members (320-21). Capt. dishonor to Merita’s memory” (364).
Kevin Lambert placed in charge by
Ellerbe (321-25). Italian carabinieri form Ch. 17: Vitina, One Year Later. Army
MSU crime-tracking unit (325-26). Some major in charge of public affairs office
army units cultivating MRP (326-27). doesn’t recognize national flag of Albania
Platoon leaders Donnelly and Serafini (367). Capt. Darrell Driver evicts
(327-28). Ellerbe’s aims jive with Gen. squatters from town drunk’s brother’s
Ricardo Sanchez’s (328-29). Donnelly house (368-84).
and Serafini investigate murder (329-34).
Staff Sgt. Frank Ronghi, obsequious and Afterword: The Mission. “Postwar
vicious, leads squad that roughs up Afghanistan was postwar Kosovo times
civilians (334-36). Serafini, Ronghi, and ten” (385). Bagram Air Base (386-87).
SSgt. William Langham beat up suspect “Miniscule American postwar
(336-37). Donnelly and Serafini closure reconstruction effort outside Kabul”; Maj.
of café leads to seizure of KLA founding Brian Cole (387-88). Lack of security
member Xhavit Hasani and Heset Baftjari (389). Former CinCs astonished and
(338-42). disgusted (390). U.S. has no effective
reconstruction corps; compared to the
Ch. 16: Dishonoring Merita. 11-year- Marshall Plan, triumph of rhetoric over
old Merita Shabiu raped and murdered by reality (390-92). Local warlord’s plea:
Frank Ronghi (343-45). He and Pfc. “You promised many things for
Stegemoller bury body (345-47). Afghanistan and we want you to keep
Stegemoller turns in Ronghi (348-49). your promise” (394).
Repercussions (350-52). Ellerbe’s effort
to pacify Mitrovica, where Serb-Albanian List of Interviews. Approx. 200
violence has broken out, leads to a riot interviewees.
(352-59). Failure due to a lack of “a clear
and reasonable peacekeeping doctrine Acknowledgments. Washington Post;
that could be taught” (360). Lambert John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur
and Ellerbe reprimanded (360-61). Foundation; Jennings Randolph fellowship
Hasani’s rendition to Macedonia provokes program at the U.S. Institute of Peace.
crisis; Hasani released (361-62). Merita’s
funeral paid for and her family given Notes. 8 pages.
$5000, but her family falls into
destitution (362). Ronghi in disciplinary Index. 23 pages; fairly useful.