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Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics

1.1 Understanding Physics [……/13 x 100 = ………..]


 explain what physics is
 recognize the physics in everyday objects and natural phenomena

1. A phenomenon is an ……………… that can be perceived by our…………….

2. In physics, we study …………………. ……………………, such as the eruption of volcano,


rain fall, formation of rainbow and the ………………. of matter, such as length, temperature
and volume.

3. There are many fields of study in physics, including ………., ………….., ……, ……….., …
……, ………………, ……………….,

…………………….. and ………………. ………………….

1.2 Understanding Base Quantities and Derived Quantities [……/70x100=………..]


 explain what base quantities and derived quantities are
 list base quantities and their units
 list some derived quantities and their units.
 express quantities using prefixes.
 express quantities using scientific notation
 express derived quantities as well as their units in terms of base quantities and base units.
 solve problems involving conversion of units

1. A physical quantity is a ………………… ………………..that can be………………

2. Base quantities are ……………. ………………. that cannot be defined in terms of other …
….. ……………..

There are ……… base quantities:………….., …………., …………., ……………… and ……


……………..

Physical Quantity Base S.I. Unit


Base Quantity Quantity Symbol S.I. Unit Unit symbol
Length …etre

Mass …ilo…ram

Time …econd

Electric Current …mpere

Temperature …elvin

Table 1

3. Derived quantities are…………. ……………. consisting of combinations

of ………… ……………..., by …………………, ………………, or both operations.


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4. Derived quantities as well as their units are expressed in terms of base quantities and S.I. units
as follows:

Given that l : length, m : mass, t : time, I : electric current, T : temperature.


Derived quantities Expressed in base quantities Derived units
(symbol)
Area
(A)

Volume
(V)

Density
(ρ)

Speed
(v)

Work or Energy
(W or E)

Power
(P)

Velocity s m
(v) v= Unit v =
t s
= m s −1
(read as metre per second)
Acceleration v-u ms −1
(a) a= Unit a =
t s
u = initial velocity = m s −2
v = final velocity
(read as metre per second per second)
t = time taken

Force F = ma Unit F = kg x m s −2
(F) m = mass
= kg m s −2
a = acceleration
=N
(read as newton)
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Impulse Ft = change of momentum Unit Ft = kg x m s −1
(Ft) = mv – mu
= kg m s −1
m = mass
u = initial velocity =Ns
v = final velocity (read as newton second)

Momentum p = mv Unit p = kg x ms −1
(p) m = mass = kg m s −1
v = velocity
=Ns
(read as newton second)
Pressure F N
(P) P= Unit P =
A m2
F = force = N m −2
A = area = Pa
(read as pascal)
Specific heat Q J
capacity c= Unit c =
mθ kg oC
(c) Q = heat energy = J kg −1 0C −1
m = mass
J
θ = change in temperature =
kgK
= J kg −1 K −1
(read as joule per kilogram per kelvin)
Frequency 1 1
(f) f= Unit f =
T s
T = period of swing; unit: = s −1
second (s) = Hz
(read as hertz)
Electrical charges Q = It Unit Q = A s
(Q) I = electric current =C
t = time (read as coulomb)
Resistance V V
(R) R= Unit R =
I A
V = voltage; unit: volt (V) = V A −1
I = electric current =Ω
(read as ohm)
Table 2
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5. Prefixes are used to express some physical quantities that are either very big or very small.

Prefix Symbol Value


Tera

Giga

Mega

kilo
deci

centi

mili

micro

nano

pico
Table 3

6. Standard form or scientific notation:


A x 10n where 1≤ A < 10, n is an integer (integer positive or negative)

Standard form or Scientific


Physical Quantity Value
notation
Mass of earth 6 020 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg
Diameter of an oil
0. 000 000 000 74 m
molecule
Speed or light in the
299 792 458 m s-1
vacuum
Radius of earth 6 370 000 m
0. 000 021 kg
Mass of hydrogen atom

Time of a day 86 400 s


Temperature of the
6 000 000 K
centre of the earth
Size of a flu virus 0.000 000 2 m
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Table 4

1.3 Understanding Scalar and Vector Quantities [……./34x100 = ……..]


 define scalar and vector quantities
 give examples of scalar and vector quantities.

1. Scalar quantities are quantities that have ………………. but no ……………..

2. Vector quantities are quantities that have both ………………… and ………………….

Scalar Quantities Vector Quantities

3. Example :
Distance(s) Displacement(s)

• Total ………. of • Distance between …….. ……………


measured along a specific direction
the……………………….

• ………….. quantity • ………….. quantity

Speed Velocity

• Rate of …………… • Rate of …………

of …………………. of …………………..

• Speed = • Velocity =

• …………… quantity • …………………. quantity


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4. Annie the ant is traveling down the road to buy an umbrella for these rainy days. She
walks from her nest, A to B, B to C in 10 minutes’ time as shown in the picture below:
(a) What is the distance she traveled?
(b) What is her displacement from A?
(c) What is her speed?
(d) What is her velocity?

U Annie the ant


A

4m
C
B 3m
Solution:

(a) Distance traveled =

= …………….

(b) Displacement of the object from A = 5 m towards the direction of AC

tan θ =

∴θ = …………. o

∴ The displacement of the ant is ………….. in the direction of ……………… from …...

(c) Speed =

=
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(d) Velocity =

=………………………… towards the direction of ………..

1.4 Measuring Instruments [……/89x100=…..]


 Measure physical quantities using appropriate instruments
 Explain accuracy and consistency
 Explain sensitivity
 Explain types of experimental error
 Use appropriate techniques to reduce errors

Accuracy, Consistency and Sensitivity in measurement & Errors


Definitions:
1. Consistency in measurements refers to ……… …………….. …………. there is among the
measurements made when a quantity is measured ……………… …………………..
2. Accuracy of a measurement is …………… …………….. the measurement made is to the …………
….. ………………… of the quantity.

3. Sensitivity of an instrument is its …………. to detect a ………… …………… in the quantity to be


measured in a ……….. ………….. of ……….

4. Figure 1.4.1 shows the result for four shooters A, B, C and D in a tournament. Every shooter shot five
times.

:
Shooter Consistency Accuracy
A

Figure 1
Table 1

5. Error is ……………. caused by measuring ……………… or the …………….. or the …………. …


…………. of the surroundings.
6. Two main types of errors : ………………. …………. and ………………… ………….
Table 2
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Parallax errors
Definition:
A parallax error is an………… in reading an instrument because the observer’s eyes and pointer are not
………………………………………….. to the plane of the scale.

Concept & Explanation:


1. Figure 2, 3 and 4 show the correct positioning of the observer’s eyes to avoid parallax errors.

2. How to avoid parallax error?

(a) position of eyes must be………………………………………with the scale of the reading to


Systematic Error Random Error
 Caused by:  Caused by:
i. Error in instruments i. Surroundings factors, such as
ii. Error in calibration temperature and wind
ii. Carelessness of the observer
 Example  Example
i. ………………. i. …………………..
ii. Error in ……………….
 ………….. be reduced or overcome  …………. be reduced
 Way of correction  Ways of correction
i. Take the error into account i. Take several readings and
calculate the average value.
be taken.

(b) When taking reading from an ammeter, we must make sure that the eyes are exactly in front
of the pointer, so that the………………… of the pointer in the mirror is ……………. ……
……………. the pointer. In other words, the reflection of the pointer on the mirror could not
be seen by the observer, then it is free from………………… ……………..
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Measuring Instruments & Accuracy


Measuring Instruments:
Physical Quantity Measuring Instruments
Length

Current

Mass

Temperature

Time

Voltage

Table 3 Ruler A Ruler B


(A) Instruments measuring length Sensitivity
1. Metre Rule Accuracy
Length of wire
Ruler A
0 1 2 3 4 5

wire

0 1 2 3 4
Ruler B
5
10

Figure 5
2. Vernier Calipers
The same wire is measured by a vernier caliper. The reading is as follows:

4 5
Sensitivity
Accuracy
Length of wire
Figure 6
0 5 10

3. Micrometer Screw Gauge


The diameter of the wire is measured by a micrometer screw gauge. The reading is as follows:

Sensitivity
0 5 25 Accuracy
Diameter of wire
20
Figure 7

Vernier Calipers
1) How to read from a vernier caliper?

Figure 8 shows the use of a vernier caliper to


measure the size of the inner diameter of a
beaker.
Inner diameter
= main scale reading + vernier scale reading
= 3.2 + 0.04
Figure 8 = 3.24 cm
Positive zero error Negative zero error
Fig
ure 10

Negative zero error = - ( 0.1 – 0.08 ) cm


= - 0.02 cm
All measurements taken with this vernier calipers
must be corrected by subtracting - 0.08 cm, which
is adding 0.08 cm to the readings

Figure 9
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Positive zero error = + 0.08 cm
All measurements taken with this vernier calipers
must be corrected by subtracting 0.08 cm from the
readings.

Eample Example

(i) Figure 11 (ii) (i) Figure 12 (ii)

Zero error = + 0.04 cm Zero error = -(0.1 – 0.07) cm


Vernier caliper reading = 0.4 + 0.01 = - 0.03 cm
= 0.41 cm Vernier caliper reading = 3.6 + 0.02
Corrected reading = 3.62 cm
= vernier caliper reading – zero error Corrected reading
= 0.41 – 0.04 = vernier caliper reading – zero error
= 0.37 cm = 3.62 – (-0.03)
= 3.62 + 0.03
= 3.65 cm

Exercise:
1 Write down the readings shown by the following
(a) 7
8

0 5 10
Answer: ……………..
4 5
A B
(b)

P Q
0 5 10 Answer: ……………..
(c)
6 7

Answer: ……………..
0 5 10
12
(d) 0 1

Answer: ……………..

0 5 10

2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.

0 1

0 5 10

Zero error = …………


(b) The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are 40
pieces of cardboard between the jaws.
5 6

0 5 10

Reading shown = ……………………

Corrected reading = ……………………… = ……………………………

Micrometer Screw Gauge


1. How to read from a micrometer screw gauge?
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Figure 13
Figure 13 shows the use of a micrometer screw gauge to measure the size of a spherical object.
Main scale reading = 5.5 mm
Thimble scale reading = 12 x 0.01
= 0.12 mm
Final reading = 5.5 + 0.12
= 5.62 mm

2. Positive zero error and negative zero error


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Positive zero error Negative zero error

Figure 15
Figure 14
Positive zero error = + 0.04 mm Negative zero error = - 0.04 mm
All measurements taken with this micrometer All measurements taken with this micrometer
screw gauge must be corrected by subtracting screw gauge must be corrected by subtracting -
0.04 mm from the readings 0.04 mm, which is adding 0.04 mm from the
readings
Example Example

Figure 17
Figure 16 Zero error = - 0.03 mm
Zero error = + 0.01 mm micrometer screw gauge reading
micrometer screw gauge reading = 6.0 + 0.08
= 2.5 + 0.35 = 6.08 mm
= 2.85 mm Corrected reading
Corrected reading = micrometer screw gauge reading – zero error
= micrometer screw gauge reading – zero error = 6.08 – (-0.03)
= 2.85 – 0.01 = 6.08 + 0.03
= 2.84 mm = 6.11 mm

Exercise:
1. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.
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(a) (b)
4
0 5 30 5 1 15 5
0

4
25 0

Answer: …………………………. Answer:…………………..


(c) (d)

0 10 0 5 35

5 30

Answer:………………………… Answer:…………………….

2. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

0 0 5
0

45 0

Zero error = ……….. mm Zero error = …......….. mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

5 0 5 20
0
0
15

Zero error = ………… Reading shown = …………………..


=……………………

Corrected reading =………………..


= ……………….

(B) Instrument Measuring Current : Ammeter


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Ammeter ranged …………………….


Sensitivity =……………….
Accuracy =……………….

Figure 18

Doubled ranged ammeter


Upper scale ranged ………………………
Sensitivity =……………; accuracy =……………..
Lower scale ranged…………………………
Sensitivity =…………… accuracy =………………
Reading =…………………..

Figure 19

Miliamm
eter………
……………
……..
Sensitivity =…
……………
Accuracy = ………………
Reading =………………..

Figure 20
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(C) Instrument Measuring Temperature


:Thermometer

Figure 21

Accuracy = …………..

(D) Instrument Measuring Time

Mechanical Stopwatch
Accuracy =…………..
Reading =……………

Figure 22: Mechanical stopwatch

Digital Stopwatch
Accuracy =………………
Reading = ………………..

Figure 23: Digital stopwatch


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1.5 Scientific Investigation […../24x100=…….]


 Identify variables in a given situation
 Identify a queation suitable for scientific investigation
 Form a hypothesis
 Design and carry out a simple experiment to test the hypothesis
 Record and present data in a suitable form
 Interpret data to draw a conclusion
 Write a report of the investigation

Clone of SPM Trial Exam of the Perak State year 2003: Paper 3 / Section B/ Question 2
Notes: MV -manipulated variable; RV-responding variable; C- constant

Keywords to indicate RV
is time of making a Keywords to
complete swing indicate C is Keywords to indicate
mass MV is length

Two twin brothers, Micheal and Jackson, of the same size, are swinging happily on the swings at a
playground as shown in the figure above.

However, the ropes that is holding the swing where Micheal is sitting is longer than Jackson’s. And,
Micheal notices that his swing is swinging slower than his brother, Jackson.
Using this information;
(a) make a suitable inference, [1 mark]
(b) state one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated, [1 mark]
(c) describe how you would design an experiment to test your hypothesis using a bob, strings and other
apparatus. experiment

In your description, state clearly the following:


Pendulum
hinting on the
(i) aim of the experiment apparatus and

(ii) variables in the experiment


the must-use-
Keywords to indicate
(iii) list of apparatus and materials
(iv) arrangement of the apparatus
(v) the procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated
variable and the method of measuring the responding variable.
(vi) the way you would tabulate the data
(vii) the way you would analyze the data [10 marks]
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Answer:
(a) Inference: …………………. influences ………………………………….
(b) Hypothesis: When the ………………… increases, the …………………………… increases.
(c)
Marks
1st mark Aim
1 To investigate the relationship between …………………..
/
and ……………………….
2nd mark MV: RV:
2
/
3rd mark C
3
/
4th mark List of
4 apparatus & ………………, ............., bob, string, retort stand and clamp,
/ materials split cork.
5th mark Arrangement
5 of apparatus
/

6th mark Method to


6 control MV Measure …………………… by using a …………………..
/ (Notes: Active or passive sentences are acceptable. Must have a value +
measuring instrument)

7th mark Method to


7 control RV Measure ………………………….. by using a……………………
/ Calculate period of a swing, T as follows: ………………..

8th mark Repetition : Repeat the experiment with l = ………………………..using the same ……
8 …………
/
9 10
9th mark / : Tabulate data 10th mark / : Analyze data
Plot graph ………..against ……………
……

…………