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/28 x 100 = ……… %] A student is able to : • describe the effects of balanced forces acting on an object • describe the effects of unbalanced forces acting on an object • determine the relationship between force, mass and acceleration i.e F=ma • Solve problems using F = ma 1. Answer the following questions. (a) What are the effects of a force when acting on an object? A force can…. (i) __________ a stationary object (ii) __________ a moving object (iii) change the ________ / ________ of an object (iv) change the ________ / ________ of an object (b) Force is a ( scalar / vector ) quantity . (c) What is the SI unit for force? The S.I. unit for force is ____________ . 2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate answers for balanced and unbalanced forces. (a) (b) (c) Forces acting on an object are said balanced when the net force is ___________. When the forces acting on an object are balanced, it is either at ___________ or moving with ___________ _____________. An object will ____________________ if the forces acting on it are not balanced. / 12 /4

/8

3. Draw the graph and state the relationship between acceleration, a, force, F and mass, m. (i) a a

F

1 m

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(m is constant) (ii) Relationship :

(F is constant)

a

∝

Relationship :

a

∝

a is __________________ to F (iii) Combine the relationship:

a is __________________ to m

a

∝ ∝

F = k F= ; k is constant (k = 1)

F

**(b) The relationship between F, m and a is derived from Newton’s _____________
**

law of ____________. /4 4. Solve the following. a = 3 m s-2 m = 1000 kg F

(a)

A force, F is required to move an object of mass 1000 kg with an acceleration of 3 m s-2. Calculate F when (i) object is on a smooth surface (ii) object is on a surface where the frictional force is 200 N

Solution : (i)

(ii)

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F

(b)

A block of mass 20 kg is pulled along the ground by a force, F of 60 N. The frictional force is 10 N. Calculate the acceleration of the block.

Solution:

(c)

A car of mass 1200 kg which is travelling at 90 km h-1 comes to a stop in a distance of 50 m when the brakes are applied. What is the average braking force of the car?

16

2.6 ANALYSING IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE [ ……….. / 21 x 100 = ……….% ] A student is able to : • Explain what an impulsive force is • Give examples of situations involving impulsive forces • Define impulse as a change of momentum ie Ft = mv-mu • Define impulsive force as the rate of change of momentum in a collision or explosion i.e F = mv-mu t • Explain the effect of increasing or decreasing time of impact on the magnitude of the impulsive force • Describe situations where an impulsive force needs to be reduced and suggest ways to reduce it • Describe situations where an impulsive force is beneficial • Solve problems involving impulsive forces

**1. Define impulse and impulsive force by completing the following table.
**

Situation From : A ball of mass, m is kicked with a force, F. The time of contact is t. The ball accelerates from u to v. F = ma F=m Explanation

/9

F=

t

mv – mu = change of ……………………… Impulsive force F=

1 F∝ t

F ∝ mv − mu

**mv − mu = ……………………………………………… t ∴ Impulsive force is defined as the ….........................
**

……………………………………. in a collision or explosion. Impulse = Ft = = change of …………………….. SI unit for impulse is ……… or ………..

t

Impulse = force x time

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2) (i) Fill in the blanks with appropriate answers. Impulsive force is a …………… force which acts over a very ………….. time interval during …………………….. and ………………………. (ii) By using the figures given, determine whether the impulsive force acting is large or small.

/ 10

3.

Two eggs of the same mass are released from the same height, as shown in the figure below. Egg A falls on a concrete floor while egg B falls on a thick folded towel.

/1

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Figure A

Figure B

Using Figure A and Figure B, compare the conditions of the eggs after the fall and explain the relationship between the material where the eggs landed and the force acting on the eggs upon landing. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. A tennis ball of mass 45 g travels at a velocity of 70 m s–1 immediately after it is struck by a racket. The time of contact between the tennis ball and the racket is 0.5 ms. Calculate (a) impulse and (b) impulsive force exerted on the ball. /1 Solution :

19

2.7 BEING AWARE OF THE NEED FOR SAFETY FEATURES IN VEHICLES [

…./15 x 100 =.. …%]

A student is able to : • Describe the importance of safety features in vehicles Reinforced passenger compartment Padded ___________ Shatter proof ___________ Automatic air ____ Head ______ Safety seat ________

Crumple zones _______________ _________ (ABS) Side impact bars

Safety features Padded dashboard Head rest

Importance To cushion an impact and increases the ______ __________ of collision so the __________ _______ produced is thereby reduced

To prevent the windscreen from shattering.

Automatic air bag

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Safety seat belt

To minimize the force acting from a side- on collision.

Anti-lock braking system To increase the time interval of impact so that the resultant impulsive force is reduced.

2.8

UNDERSTANDING GRAVITY [ …………./ 27 x 100 = ………. % ]

A student is able to : • Explain acceleration due to gravity • State what a gravitational field is • Define gravitational field strength • Determine the value of acceleration due to gravity • Define weight (W) as the product of mass (m) and acceleration due to gravity (g) i.e W=mg • Solve problems involving acceleration due to gravity 1. Complete the following by fill in the appropriate answer. a. b. c. An object will ……….. to the surface of the earth because it is pulled by ………… ……………………………………….. The pull or force of gravity also known as …………………………………………... When an object falls without encountering any resistance and under the force of ………. only, the object is said to be ……………………. d. All objects ……… freely with the same …………… / 18

feather

acceleration regardless of their ……… and ………… e. The constant …………….. of objects falling freely due

vacuum stone

to the force of ……….. is known as ………………… ……………, g. f. Practically, a free ……. can only take place in …………. where there is no air resistance.

21

g.

The …………………. field of the earth is the region around the earth where the gravitional force acts.

**h. The gravitational field strength is defined as the ………………. ………… acting on 1
**

kg mass.

**i. When an object falling freely, acceleration due to gravity, g = ……………
**

An object at the surface of the earth experiences gravitational force, g = ……….

2. State the differences between weight and mass in the table below. Weight 1. the gravitational force act on the object. 2. 3. vector quantity 4. 5. SI unit : Newton (N) Solve the problem below 3. A coconut falls from rest and hit the ground after 1.2 s. (a) What is the velocity of the coconut just before hits the ground? (b) Calculate the height of the coconut before it fall. 1. 2. constant quantity everywhere 3. 4. base quantity, mass = m 5. Mass

/5

/2

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4.

A stone is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 20 m s-1. If g = 10 ms-2, calculate (a) the maximum height reached (b) the time taken for the stone to return to its original position.

/2

23

2.9 %] A • • • • •

ANALYSING FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM

[ ……… / 30 x 100 = …………

student is able to : Describe situations where forces are in equilibrium State what a resultant force is Add two forces to determine the resultant force Resolve a force into the effective component forces Solve problems involving forces in equilibrium / 12

1. Fill in the blanks. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Forces that act on an object are said to be in ……………….. when the object is ……………………. or is moving at ………………… ………………. The net force that acts on an object when two or more forces act on it is known as the ………………… ……………. When …………………. is reached, the resultant force acting on the object is ………… Newton’s …………. law of motion states that to every …………. there is an equal but opposite ……………….. A force can be resolved into component which are ………………… to one another.

Horizontal cpmponent Fx = Vertical component Fy =

2. In the table below, mark and label all the forces that act on the object. i) A box is at rest on a table. ii) An object that is suspended by a rope.

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iii) An airplane flying at a constant velocity.

iv) A trolley being pushed at a constant velocity

v)

60 N 4 kg 30 0

A box of mass 4 kg is being pulled by a force of 60 N at an angle of 30 0 to the surface of a floor. Calculate (a) the componentof the force which causes the box to move forward. (b) the acceleration of the box if the frictional force between the floor and the box is 5 N,

Solution :

vi)

A man pushes a box of mass 40 kg is up an inclined plane. The inclined plane makes an angle of 30 0 with the horizontal floor. The frictional force acting between the inclined plane and the box is 120 N. If the man pushes the box with a force of 400 N, calculate the acceleration of the box.

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vii) 4 kg

Smooth pulley

A 4 kg trolley is connected by a rope to a load of mass 6 kg. The friction between the table and the trolley is 15 N. The load is then released. Assuming that the pulley is smooth and the rope is of negligible mass, find (a) the resultant force that act on the system (b) the acceleration of the system (c) the tension of the rope

6 kg

Solution :

viii)

Two loads of mass 3 kg and 5 kg are connected by a rope which passes through a smooth pulley. If the system is released from rest, calculate the acceleration of the 5 kg load. Solution : 3 kg

5 kg

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3 Forces in equilibrium i A block of mass 6 kg is suspended vertically by a string tied at O to the string AOB. If the system is in equilibrium, draw a vector diagram (triangle of forces) and hence determine the tension of string OA and OB.

/4

A

30

0

O 6 kg

B

ii)

A lamp of mass 1.5 kg is hung from a beam as shown in the diagram. Calculate the tension in the rope. Solution:

1.5 kg

27

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