The origin of ONGC dated back to 1956, when it existed as Oil and Natural Gas Directorate. To function efficiently in the task of oil exploration and exploitation in October 1959, The Directorate was converted into a statutory body viz. Oil and Natural Gas Commission. Up to the fifties in most of India, oil wealth was undiscovered. The infrastructure to achieve this gigantic task of oil exploration was missing. ONGC filled this void within a short span of three decades made oil exploration and exploitation a wellplanned countrywide operation. ONGC made its debut in 1959 with the discovery of Cambay field. Since then, it has been steadily expanding its operation to cover the entire length and breadth of the country from the desert of Jaisalmer to the dense tropical forest of Assam, from tricky terrains of Himalayas to the deep waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. ONGC has discovered oil reserves onshore in Cambay basin in Tamilnadu. ONGC maintains about 200 onshore and 150 offshore production installations and network of 7,9000 kms. on land and2,800 kms. Submerse pipelines to carry oil and Gas. Its total Assist base exceeds Rs. 20,000 Crores. ONGC had significant successes in its harden venture, in the seventies. In 1974, oil was struck in Bombay High in western offshore. This was further consolidated with unprecedented growth and expansion in the eighties; oil was also struck in Eastern Offshore (Ravva field). In1989, ONGC was ranked at 275th position among the fortune global 5000 companies with a turnover of 4.8 billion. Though there was some slow down in the early nineties, a turnaround has been achieved in 1993 and the position has been further consolidated during 1994-1995 with the Crude oil production to 30.01 MMT and Gas production touching 20BCM. But ONGC could not sustain the increase in oil production in late nineties and the production comes down to 26.18 MMT in 1999-2000.ONGC also maintains its prominent position between the PSU‘s as the highest profit earning company with a net profit of Rs. 10,529 Crores for the year ending 2002-2003. ONGC today ranks among the top 20 oil Companies of the world with production exceeding 1 Million tones of oil and OEG and accounts for about 90% of India‘s production of crude oil and Natural Gas and has attained technological expertise in various aspects of upstream hydrocarbon exploration.


ONGC also strives to acquire hydrocarbon reserves abroad through its wholly owned subsidiary-ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL). OVL currently has a production-sharing contract in Vietnam jointly with British Petroleum and state oil (NORWAY) where 2 Trillion cubic feet gas reserves have been discovered. OVL has also taken stakes in production sharing contracts in Tanzania and Gulf of Suez in Egypt

1.1.1 Functions, Activities & Objectives
The main functions, activities and objectives of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited are as under: Functions Exploration & exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves is required to cater the petroleum requirement of the country. In addition, alternative resources of energy are to be developed to meet the energy requirement of the country. Activities ONGC is the premier entity through which the Government explores for and develops oil and natural gas resources in India. Its activities are mainly the exploration and production of oil and natural gas. It had also started in participating in ―down stream activities‖ such as petroleum refining or distribution and related activities of refined products. Throughout its existence, it has been actively engaged in planning, promoting, organizing and implementing programmes for the development of petroleum resources with the objective of bringing India closer to its goal of self reliance in its petroleum needs. Since its formation, it has established 5,716 billion tones of oil and oil equivalent gas. The figure includes oil and oil equivalent gas of 372 billion tones in respect of the fields offered under joint venture and fields operated by private enterprises. Reserves of oil and oil equivalent gas on 1st April1997 (including reserves pertaining to the fields offered to joint venture and private parties) were as follows: OIL 698.55 MILLION TON GAS 648.71 BILLION CUBIC METERS Soon after independence, the Government formulated a national policy, which made development of oil resources the exclusive responsibility of the state. As first step towards the implementation of this policy, a Petroleum Division was created in October 1955 for


exploration in the country within Geological Survey of India, which grew in to the Directorate of Oil& Natural Gas and was then raised to the status of Commission on 14th August 1956. The Commission was later on converted in to a statutory body on 15th October 1959 with Headquarters at Tel Bhavan, Dehradun. Objectives To acquire the whole or any part of the undertaking, business, the assets/ liabilities, rights, obligations, power, goodwill, privileges, functions and associated establishment and personnel of whatever nature of Oil & Natural Gas Commission (established under Oil & Natural Gas Commission Act [No.43 of 1959] and for the purpose to enter into and carry into effect such agreements/ contracts/arrangements as may become necessary. To plan, promote, organize, exploit and implement programmes for the efficient development of petroleum and petroleum products and alternate resources of energy and the production, distribution, conservation and sale of petroleum and other products/services produced by it and for all the matters connected therewith. To carry out exploration and to develop and optimize production of hydrocarbons and to maximize the contribution to the economy of the country. To carry out geological, geographical or any other kind of surveys for exploration of petroleum resources, to carry out drillings and other prospecting operations, to probe and estimate the reserve of petroleum resources, to undertake, encourage and promote such other activities as may lead to the establishment of such reserves including geological, chemical, scientific and other investigations. To carry on all or any of the business of the sale and purchase of petroleum and other crude oils, asphalt, bitumen, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, chemicals and all kinds of petroleum products and to treat and turn to account in any manner whatsoever any petroleum and other crude oils, asphalt, bitumen, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and all kinds of petroleum products, chemicals and any such substances as aforesaid.


Natural Gas. Calcutta  West Bengal Project  Mahanadi Bengal Purnia Project (MBP)  Coal Bed Methane (CBM) 4 .2 Major Products of O. 1.3 Regions and Work Centres of ONGC:Headquarter  Dehradun  New Delhi Mumbai Offshore Project with Headquarter at Mumbai  Regional Office. Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Crude Oil. Mumbai  Other establishment in Maharashtra Coast  Uran Project  Hazira Plant Central Region with Headquarter at Calcutta  Regional Office.1.N. Ethane/Propane.1. Superior Kerosene Oil. Natural Gasoline.1.G.C. Achromatic Naphtha.

Eastern Region with Headquarter at Nazira  Silchar  Shivsagar  Nazira  Jorhat  Agartala Northern Region with Headquarter at Dehradun  Western Ganga Valley other than Dehradun Southern Region with Regional Office at Chennai     Chennai Rajamundary Karaikal Hyderabad Liaison Office Western Region with Regional Office at Vadodara       Vadodara Ankleshwar Ahmedabad Cambay Mehsan Jodhpur 5 .

 Safety Audits and Environment Studies 6 .  Erection and Maintenance of Gas Sweetening Plants  Corrosion and Maintenance: onshore and offshore. platforms and pipelines  Equipment Management and Quality Assurance.1.  Drilling operation including horizontal and drain hole.  Computer Application in petroleum Industry.  Engineering and construction of offshore. Down hole completion system.  Reservoir management.  Training of manpower.  Design erection & maintenance of oil and gas production installation.  Wells loading operation.  Artificial left design.1.  Stimulation Techniques.  Basic Evaluation.  Estimation of Reservoir and Reserves.  Long distance transportation of oil and gas.  Corrosion Studies in offshore structure.4 ONGC’S Specialization  Geochemical studies. Bio-stat graphic Analysis.  Formation analysis and reservoir Modeling. techno-Economic Analysis.

‖ ONGC Mission: To be a world-class oil and gas company. knowledge excellence and exemplary governance practices. INTEGRATED IN ENERGY BUSINESS WITH DOMINANT INDIAN LEADERSHIP &GLOBAL PRESENCE” NEW VISION OF ONGC ADOPTED ON 26TH APRIL’2010 ―To be global leader in integrated energy business through sustainable growth. openness and mutual concern to make working a stimulating and challenging experience for our people  Strive for customer delight through quality products and services.1. 7 .5 ONGC Vision & ONGC Mission ONGC Vision:“TO BE A WORLD CLASS OIL &GAS COMPANY.  ONGC is dedicated to excellence by leveraging competitive advantages in R&D and technology with involved people.  Imbibe high standards of business ethics and organizational values.1.  ONGC also Fosters a culture of trust.

quality and productivity. ONGC has set up various institutions to meet its Research and Development need in exploration to exploitation.1. risky and complex oil and gas exploration and development industry in the energy sector with view to ensure managerial effectiveness. The institute is with highly qualified experienced scientist and engineer‘s carriers. IDT: Institute of Drilling Technology. The institute is founded in Nov. ONGC Academy: ONGC Academy. Dehra Dun in Uttrakhand was established in house the largest computing facility of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. Dehradun. geological and reservoir engineering is carried out. 1983 for innovation and development of the future plans 8 . Dehra Dun and its activities are focused towards development of new concepts for exploration and exploitation. The institutes have developed multidimensional expertise. IEOT: Institute of Engineering and Ocean Technology. Over the years the institute has emerged as a premier R&D center in South East Asia. And is one of the few centers around the world where integrated processing and interpretation of different geosientific data from seismic to petro physical. KDMIPE: Keshav Dev Malaviya Institute of Petroleum Exploration. development of hydrocarbon resources generation and up gradation of geoscientific data and computer application. over the year in diverse fields of the upstream petroleum industry by harnessing the leading state of the art technologies form the international areas through acquisition and collaboration coupled with in R&D efforts.6 Various Institutes of ONGC The National Oil Company of India. Panvel in Mumbai. Dehra Dun previously known as Institute of Management Development is an institution committed to excellence in the cause of HRD and the availability of the appropriate system and procedures for the knowledge and technology intensive. It is engaged in relentless efforts in R&D and has rendered excellent services in the area of oil and gas well drilling technology. List of important institutes of ONGC are: GEOPIC: Geodata Processing and Interpretation Centre.1. capable of providing advance technical knowledge through training and offering plausible solution to field problems.

Panvel in Mumbai. (No longer Present) 9 . IRS: Institute of Reservoir Studies. process and the environment. The institution was founded as a single source and multi service reservoir engineering agency with objectives to integrate the skills and technologies for better reservoir management. IOGPT: Institute of Oil and Gas Production Technology. The institution has developed expertise in the field of concept evaluation and risk analysis.of ONGC to achieve self-reliance in related technology. Ahmedabad. Health & Environment Management. IPSHEM: Institute of Petroleum Safety. damage to property. health and environment in petroleum sector in India. geotechnical engineering and materials and corrosion engineering. prepare development plans for new discovery to select and design enhanced oil recovery schemes. INBIGS: Institute of Biotechnology & Geo-tectonic Studies. maximize hydrocarbons recovery keeping the cost in mind with market realities. develop techniques for importing well productivity. The Institute is committed to upgrade and develop human resources with a view to minimize the overall risk to human life. The institute is developed for improving production technology of ONGC. Health & Environment Management was established 1989 with the objective of promoting standards of safety. : Institute of Petroleum Safety.

The company was incorporated in Netherlands and has 25% participating interest in the Greater Nile Oil Project in Sudan producing crude oil from on-shore blocks earmarked for the purpose.  Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL): This is a 71.1.  Kakinada SEZ Limited: In tune with the recent initiatives of Ministry of Commerce and Industry. 24% and 26% respectively.  ONGC Mittal Energy Limted (OMEL): This is the joint venture between ONGC Videsh Limited and Mittal Investments Sarl in the ratio of 49. Kakinada Seaport Limited (KSPL).02% with SBI Capital holding the remaining 2%. It is the only other listed company besides parent ONGC within the ONGC group. in turn. Government of Tripura and ONGC with an equity share of 50%.  ONGC Mittal Energy Services Limited (OMESL): This is the joint venture between ONGC Videsh Limited and Mittal Investments Sarl with the same ownership structure as that of OMEL.1. Govt. ONGC/MRPL has become co-promotor under 10 . to set up an export-oriented refinery of 7. This joint venture will be involved in trading and shipping of oil and gas (including LNG) sourced by OMEL from abroad. IL&FS and AP Government.5 MMTPA capacity at Kakinada in coastal Andhra Pradesh which is envisaged to be integrated with bio-diesel facility.98% : 48. (OTPCL): ONGC has embarked upon a project for generation of power with 750 MW gas based closed-cycle power plant. is 100% owned by ONGC. for declaring Special Economic Zones (SEZs) to boos industrial growth in the country.60% subsidiary of ONGC.7 The ONGC Group of Companies comprises of: ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL): OVL is the wholly own subsidiary of ONGC which has been mandated to carry out international E&P business operations of the parent company. Ltd.  Kakinada Refinery & Petrochemicals Limited (KRPL): This is a public private joint venture company formed pursuant to an MOU between MRPL. 3800 Crores and is expected to be commissioned during the first quarter of 2008. The project is estimated to cost around Rs.  ONGC Tripura Power Company Pvt. The project is being developed by a SPV between IL&FS.  ONGC Nile Ganga BV (ONG BV): This is the wholly owned subsidiary of ONGC Videsh Limited which.of India. This joint venture aims to source equity oil and gas from abroad for securing India‘s energy independence.

which will examine the techno-economic viability of establishing a well-head refinery of 7. The SEZ will be an SPV with Karnataka Industrial Areas Development Board (KIEDB).  Mangalore SEZ Limited: With a view to providing synergy with MRPL.public-private partnership to form this joint venture company and it is envistaged that KRPL and other gas infrastructure units will be located within the Kakinada SEZ to liverage financial initiatives and to bolster economic growth. Karnataka Chambers of Commerce and Industry (KCCL) and ONGC between them bringing in 49% equity with ONGC contributing 26%. ONGC is currently engaged in implementing its C2-C3 extraction project. its PSC partner in Rajashtan Block.  Dahej SEZ Limited: ONGC participating in the initiative of Govt. MRPL. of Gujarat has formed a joint venture company under public private partnership to establish and develop necessary infrastructure facilities within a land of 1740 hectares in cooperation with Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation. MRPL has been nominated by Govt.5 MMPPA Capacity and if found feasible will implement the same at a suitable location in Rajasthan. With view to optimizing the capital cost during the construction of the project and subsequently promoting sale of petrochemical intermediates.. This SPV is in the process of being incorporated. large petroleum and petrochemicals based projects are envisaged to be developed at Mangalore. in coordination with Cairn Energy.  Rajasthan Refinery Limited (RRL): With the recent discovery of waxy oil in Mangla and other adjoining structure by Cairn Energy India. IL & FS has offered to take the remaining 51% equity. and as per due facilitation by Rajasthan Govt. a decision was taken to associate with a special economic zone (SEZ) Contemplated for development at Mangalore. 11 . of India as its nominee for buying the crude oil to be produced from this block. has proposed to form a joint venture company named Rajasthan Refinery Limited (RRL). which will be located within this SEZ.

6% lower price to the oil major compared to the June 2009 quarter. which stood at $58.1%. In the June 2010 quarter. However.667 crore. This amounted to nearly $33 per barrel of discount.515 crore as discounts — highest in past seven consecutive quarters and 12-times the year-ago number. Its attempts at diversifying the revenue base will also start giving results as its two petrochemical complexes and a power plant 12 . ONGC‘s subsidy. with the government decontrolling petrol prices and raising diesel prices in June. the oil industry‘s under-recoveries rose to Rs 20. Although the company made nearly Rs 850 crore higher profits on this count its net profit fell 24%.1. every barrel of oil sold during the quarter fetched 22. The 7% appreciation in rupee against the year-ago period played another trick on the company‘s financial numbers as it bills its customers in rupees. which appeared only 17. The subsidy burden was so heavy that the benefits of decontrolled gas prices failed to make a mark.5% lower on y-o-y basis in dollar terms. the upstream oil companies were required to contribute towards the under-recoveries only on autofuels. In other words. which stood at Rs11.04. increasing the share of upstream companies to Rs 6. With over 80% of this shared by ONGC. Given that the oil industry‘s under-recoveries for FY11 will be higher than in FY10 in spite of the recent price increases. However .25 in June 2009 quarter. it basically was the higher revenues in its gas business that enabled ONGC to restrict fall in net sales to mere 8. which is expected to add Rs 3. the subsidy sharing formula is set to change going forward. The administered pricing mechanism was dismantled in April on the 48. with its production likely to increase gradually over next few years. The company‘s future prospects appear healthy. which shows the severity of these subsidies. was actually 22. The company continues to remain fundamentally strong.500 crore to its bottom line on an annualised basis. While the company‘s oil production stagnated.6% down in rupee terms. Till June 2010 quarter. pulling lower the company‘s net realisation to $48. the government‘s ever-changing subsidy-sharing policy poses the keyrisk. it had to shell out Rs 5.000 crore. is unlikely to ease. Even the ONGC management couldn‘t help call the subsidy burden ‗excessive‘. The net realisation on crude oil.555 crore in FY10 .5 mms cmd gas sold from nominated fields.2 INDUSTRY ANALYSIS:ONGC‘s profit for June 2010 quarter plummeted more than expected as the subsidy burden surged.

the subsidy uncertainties continue to make it a doubtful investment candidate for retail investors. At the same time. Sharma listed employee attrition and rising payout on kerosene and LPG subsidy as areas of concern. Even though the selection process of PESB invited professionals from private firms to apply." he wrote.1OPPORTUNITIES:The Indian petrochemicals industry is finally discarding its nascent stage tag and the companies are now vying for a major chunk of the global pie of the petrochemicals market.3THE PRIORITIES :R S Sharma.024 crore in 2006-07. high subsidy payouts.3. the Prime Minister's Office refused his confirmation in February. Besides finding new reserves of oil and gas. Sharma was again selected and his appointed confirmed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on July 2.000 ONGC employees after being appointed as chairman and managing director. Though he was selected for the top job by government's headhunting panel PESB in August. Sharma. ONGC and IOC are planning entry into the business in a major way as this is in line with their forward integration plans. 1. constraints of oil field services. In his message to more than 34. has set his sight on reversing decline in production from ageing fields and cutting rising expenditure during his tenure till 2011. Sharma promised tackling issues of morale and motivation of employees and opening promotional avenues to arrest the brain drain. The petrochemicals cycle is currently on a global uptrend thanks to growing demand from China and other developing nations. expressed concern at rising subsidy payout that increased 42. "The concern areas are decline in production from ageing fields. In the 13 . who was recently appointed as the permanent head of Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) after an uncertainty of over 13 months. has been the acting head of the company since then. however. Indian major Reliance has recently acquired a German polyester major Trevira GmbH and this marks the private sector giant's entry into the European markets in a big way. However. He.come up over next 18-20 months. who was director (finance) when the government in May 2006 refused extension of service to flamboyant Subir Raha. 1. the PMO wanted the invitation to be more explicit.4 per cent to Rs 17. rising exploration and production expenditure. under-recoveries in gas business and employee attrition.

crates. sheets Automotive tyres and tubes. Major beneficiaries of this uptrend are the integrated players such as Reliance Industries. monofilament yarn. cables. woven sacks. luggage. ropes Water pipe. cartons. cable coatings Fertilizers. extrusion wires. going forward: 14 . conveyor belts and footwear Let us now do a SWOT analysis on the industry so as to have a better understanding of the prospects for the industry. growing activity in infrastructure and construction segments coupled with strong growth in the auto sector on the back of lower interest rates have actually boosted the performance of the petrochemicals sector. household packaging.domestic markets. GAIL and IPCL (to some extent). pipes Polypropylene (PP) PVC Polybutadeine (PBR) Rubber Cement packaging. The following are the major uses of the products: Polymer Products and the uses Product LDPE/LLDPE HDPE Uses Consumer packaging/film. A low per capita consumption of 4 Kgs of plastic as compared to a global average of 20 Kgs leaves enough scope for capacity expansion resulting in ONGC and IOC venturing into the business. electrical wires.

Refineries realize the import parity prices on naphtha produced and in case of high feedstock prices. 15 .3. Of the three companies mentioned. thereby reducing external dependence to a large extent. Rich natural gas is evacuated into the pipelines and after separation of the hydrocarbons such as ethane. petrochemical players have little bargaining power against the suppliers. To put things in perspective. On the other hand. would add further to the profitability of these integrated companies.2 Strengths: Consolidation: The Indian petrochemicals industry has witnessed consolidation over the last few years and nearly 85% of the polymer capacity in the domestic market is with the top three participants (Reliance. 1. while naphtha is an expensive source of feedstock. as this would help reduce duplication of production. Reliance Industries uses naphtha from its own Jamnagar refinery as a feedstock for the petrochemicals production. the companies might not be able to pass on the rise to the consumers as the prices of products is highly influenced by factors such as international prices and supply. Further. the lean gas is transmitted to consumers such as power and fertilizer industry. Synergies: Most of the petrochemical players have integrated facilities. Further. Such high concentration is likely to benefit these players. Low Bargaining power vis-à-vis customers: In case of increase in input costs.3 Weaknesses: Low bargaining power vis-à-vis the suppliers: Input costs form nearly 50% to 60% of the raw material costs.3. These players are therefore vulnerable to raw material prices. IPCL and Haldia Petrochemicals (HPL)). IPCL uses Reliance's vast and widespread marketing network to reach out to global consumers. propane and butane. IPCL forms a part of the Reliance stable while GAIL is set to pick up stake in HPL. petrochemicals business being a high value add. GAIL utilizes natural gas for its petrochemicals capacity.1. gas prices are regulated but in short supply.

Dow Chemicals and Shell into the business. Import duty on polymers has been steadily reduced and is currently at 20%. With commitments to reduce and eliminate tariff and non-tariff barriers. might witness entry of global majors such as ExxonMobil. These global majors with deep pockets can actually lead into a pricing war. with huge market potential. India. of late. As part of its commitment to various multilateral and bilateral trade agreements.3.1. Growing competition: The domestic industry is likely to witness immense competition going forward with IOC all set to enter the segment with its Rs 64 bn project in FY06. Further. 16 .4Threats: Customs duties: Historically. which could result in squeezing margins. the domestic industry has been protected from overseas competition by high import duties imposed by the government. ONGC is also venturing into petrochemicals business. However. the government is likely to reduce duties going forward and this is likely to reduce the cushion enjoyed by the domestic players as against the landed cost of imported products.

17 .

in which the investor can currently invest. In my project report working capital Analysis in ONGC ltd..Got acquainted with the organization to understand its setup in Order to be able to appreciate its functioning.e. 18 . 2.  To know which is the most profitable company.Studied the annual financial reports of the company for the last five years and the relevant data was sorted out from the maize of information therein.Classified the relevant data and carried out the required calculations to determine the ratios to be analyzed.2.2 Objective of the study The main objectives of the research undertaken are as follows:  To find out and compare the ratios of other exploration companies with ONGC Ltd.3 Primary Data It means collection of information for the first time. the primary data collection is not used since it is based on secondary data which is already available. and suggest remedial measures to improve the same in future. to be constructed and information is collected from the respondent. 2.1 Problem Formulation Following steps have been carried out for the project undertaken: Step 1. In order to collect such type of information questioner i. Step 2. To assess the ratios of ONGC Ltd. Step 3.

2. In order to carry out my project successful I have relied on the secondary data already available.com Library of ONGC at KDMIP 19 .ongcindia.com OIL-INDIA LTD website:www. Oil-India and Chevron ONGC LTD website: www.5 Sources of Secondary Data      Annual report of ONGC Ltd.4 Secondary Data Secondary data are information. which has already been collected by others.com CHEVRON LTD website:www.chevron. 2.oilindia.

similarly owners concentrates on the firm profitability and financial condition . Long term creditors on the other hand are more interested in the long term solvency of the firm .or even legal tangles resulting in the closure of the company .LIQUIDITY RATIOS It is extremely essential for a firm to be able to meet its obligation as they become due. will result in a poor creditworthiness . In view of the requirements of the various users ratios . we may classify them into four important categories. a very high degree of liquidity also bad .     Liquidity ratios. management is interested in evaluating every aspects of the firm grows profitably. Activity ratios.RATIO ANALYSIS Several ratios are calculated from the accounting data . loss of creditor‘s confidence . provide a quick measure of liquidity . Leverage ratios. 3. The most common ratios which indicate the extent of liquidity and the lack of liquidity are : - 20 .the parties interested in financial and short and long term creditors mainly interested in liquidity position or shortterm solvency of the firm.1:. liquidity ratios measures the ability of the firm to meet its current obligation . but liquidity ratios by establishing a relationship between cash and other current assets to current obligation . the failure of a company to meet its obligation due to lack of sufficient liquidity . idle asset earn nothing . Profitability ratios. it can be grouped In various classes according to financial activity or function to be evaluated . the firm‘s funds will be unnecessarily tied up in current assets therefore it is necessary to strike a proper balance between high liquidity and lack of liquidity . in fact analysis of liquidity needs the preparation of cash budgets and cash and fund flow statements .

semi-finished and finished goods.1. such as marketable securities . Current assets includes  Inventories  Debtors  Cash and bank balances  Loans and advances Current liabilities includes  Sundry creditors  Liability for royality/sales tax  Depositors  Other liabilities  Unclaimed dividend Current assets of a firm represents those assets which can be converted into cash within a short period of time not exceeding one year and include cash and bank balance.47 As on 31 March10 387850 139932 2. Idle current ratio = = 2:1.income tax liability and long term debt maturing in the current year.77 As on 31 March09 326279 105951 3. debtors and inventories .all obligation maturing within a year are included in current liabilities .08 As on 31March08 285477 108763 2. As on 31 March12 Current Assets Current Liability Current Ratio 476443 211051 2. debtors. marketable securities.3.1 CURRENT RATIO Current ratio = current assets /current liability Current assets include cash and those assets which can be converted in to cash within one year . bill receivable and prepaid expenses. prepaid expenses are also included in the current assets as they represent the payments that will not be made by the firm in future . net provision for bad debt and doubtful debts.26 As on 31 March11 434298 176083 2. accrued expenses . inventory of finished material. short – term bank loan . bills payable .62 21 . current liabilities include creditors .

doubtful and long duration outstanding debtors. 22 . Thus.Current Ratio 4 3 2 1 0 2012 INTERPRETATION 2011 2010 2009 2008 Although the high ratio shown by the graph says that the company can easily meet its current liabilities. On the other hand a company with a low value of quick ratio may really be prospering and paying its current obligation in time if it has been turning over its inventories efficiently. This represents the poor investment policy of the management as this amount can be utilized elsewhere. Generally a quick ratio of 1 to 1 is considered to represent a satisfactory current financial condition. 3. yet too high a ratio is also not beneficial for the company as it shows that due to the poor investment policy of the management.48 which mean that the money is lying idle either in the organization or in the form of bank balance.2 QUICK RATIO Quick ratio also called acid test ratio establishes a relationship between Quick. a company with a high value of quick ratio can suffer from the shortage of funds if it has slow paying. Inventories are considered to be less liquid. assets and current liabilities. or liquid. Inventories normally require some time for realizing into cash.1. The cash and bank balance is 121405. An asset is liquid if it can be converted into cash immediately.

5 1 0.388542059 Quick Ratio 3 2.5 0 As on 31st As on 31st As on 31st As on 31st As on 31st march12 march11 march10 march09 march08 INTERPRETATION Generally a quick ratio of 1:1 is considered to represent a satisfactory current financial condition. 23 .792743816 2. Since the inventory does not play a major role in the current assets. This can be explained by the fact that ONGC being into an exploration sector requires fewer amounts of raw materials. The inventory is 40606.71which shows that there is not much difference between the current and quick ratio.554898093 2.5 2 1. since the company does not have much raw material as the company is into the exploration sector.268770977 2.Quick assets =current assets-inventory As on 31st march12 435836 As on 31st march11 399492 As on 31st march10 387512 As on 31st march 09 295894 As on 31st march08 259785 Quick ratio= quick assets/total current liabilities 2. the difference between quick and current ratio is not high.0650743 2.

meaning that a change in revenue will result in a larger change in operating income. This will increase the proportion of fixed. Measuring leverage:A good deal of confusion arises in discussions among people who use different definitions of leverage.28 As on 31st March11 369 369 21388.99 605213 699435 619239.Common ways to attain leverage are borrowing money.3 525337.76 1069.87 597850.26 541440 614099 539596.87 915729 640583 780848 706173.12 As on 31st March10 696 696 21388.69 494832 535934 468454. The more it borrows . costs. the less equity capital it needs.35 LOANS DEBT SHARE CAPITAL RESERVES AND SURPLUS EQUITY CAPITAL EMPLOYED NET WORTH 267. so any profits or losses are shared among a smaller base and are proportionately larger as a result.3. Important examples are: A public corporation may leverage its equity by borrowing money.28 454194. as opposed to variable. A business entity can leverage its revenue by buying fixed assets.To judge the long term financial position of the firm financial leverage ratios are calculated. The term is used differently in investments and corporate finance. There are different kind of leverage ratio we will consider debt ratio.39 As on 31st March09 1069. and has multiple definitions in each field.76 14259.35 21389 765965. leverage is a general term for any technique to multiply gains and losses .15 421416 463142 24 .87 684785. As on 31st March12 UNSECURED 267.39 As on 31st March08 1490 1490 14259.2 LEVERAGE RATIO :In finance. buying fixed assets and using derivatives.

Like all financial ratios. bank borrowings. Total debt will include short and long term borrowings from financial institutions. debentures/bonds. The firm may be interested in knowing the proportion of the interest bearing debt in the capital structure. a company's debt ratio should be compared with their industry average or other competing firms.3 DEBT RATIO:Debt Ratio is a financial ratio that indicates the percentage of a company's assets that are provided via debt. a company with $2 million in total assets and $500. deferred payment arrangements for buying capital equipments.3. fixed assets.000 in total liabilities would have a debt ratio of 25%. As on 31st As on 31st March12 DEBT RATIO = TOTAL DEBT/CAPITAL EMPLOYED 0. Public deposits and any other interest bearing loan.002166545 0. or alternatively: For example. Several debt ratios may be used to analyze the long term solvency of a firm. It is the ratio of total debt (the sum of current liabilities and long-term liabilities) and total assets (the sum of current assets.000527569 0.003548244 25 .0004168 March11 As on 31st March10 As on 31st March09 As on 31st March08 0. and other assets such as 'goodwill').001287116 0.

The ratio states that the company has only used 0.4 ACTIVITY RATIO:Activity ratios measure company sales per another asset account—the most common asset accounts used are accounts receivable.004 0.Debt Ratio 0. Accounts receivable is the total amount of money due to a company for products or services sold on an open credit account.0025 0.002 0.3% of debt financed cost structure for the last 5 year.0015 0.0035 0. 26 . Activity ratios measure the efficiency of the company in using its resources. For the last 5 year show that the company has been more faithful to equity finance. This is because the company is not involved in investment activities hence does not need outside finance thus the ratio has decreased over the year. these accounts are used in the denominator of the most popular activity ratios. inventory. Since most companies invest heavily in accounts receivable or inventory.001 0. and total assets. 3.4% to .003 0.0005 0 As on 31st March12 As on 31st March11 As on 31st March10 As on 31st March09 As on 31st March08 INTERPRETATION The debt ratio ONGC Ltd. The accounts receivable turnover shows how quickly a company collects what is owed to it.

Accounts Receivable Turnover = Total Credit Sales ──────────────── Accounts Receivable For a company to be profitable. and allows a more direct comparison with other companies. because it is money invested that does not earn a return. it must be able to manage its inventory. The best measure of inventory utilization is the inventory turnover ratio (inventory utilization ratio). which would overstate the actual inventory turnover. the average inventory cost is used in the denominator. Total Annual Sales or Cost of Goods Sold Inventory Turnover = ─────────────────────────────── Inventory Cost Using the cost of goods sold in the numerator is a more accurate indicator of inventory turnover. 27 . since different companies would have different markups to the sale price. which is the total annual sales or the cost of goods sold divided by the cost of inventory. In seasonal businesses. where the amount of inventory can vary widely throughout the year.

5.635528331 Cash Ratio 2 1.04 in 11.7 1. 28 .98 0 130150. Moreover a higher ratio in all the years shows that the company has improved its needed short term financial position. CASH Marketable securities Current liabilities Cash ratio As on 31st march12 121405.467164055 88169.65 0 65270.550476865 As on 31st march09 42792. The above graph shows that the cash and balance for the year 10 has declined and has come down to 121405.5 1 0.90 0.11 0.655623991 As on 31st march08 58488. and therefore is of interest to short term creditors. This means that there has been a decrease in the short term financial position of the company.48 from 160143.42 1.3.5 CASH RATIO The cash ratio measures the extent to which a corporation or other entity can quickly liquidate assets and cover short term liabilities.e.06 0 92030.5 0 As on As on As on As on As on 31st 31st 31st 31st 31st march12 march11 march10 march09 march08 INTERPRETATION The above graph shows that the concerned ratio is quite satisfactory in all the previous years because it is much higher than the rule of thumb i.04 136705.61 0.9328018 CASH RATIO As on 31st As on 31st march11 march10 160143.08 0 0 109151.

the better it is.2 17.00% 5.00% 15.6 OPERATING EXPENSE RATIO The operating expense ratio explains the changes in the profit margin (EBIT to sales) ratio. because it will leave higher margin of profit on sales.00% For 11-12 INTERPRETATION The operating ratio is the measurement of the efficiency and profitability of the business enterprise. For 10-11 For 09-10 For 08-09 29 .3.93% For 08-09 76762 482009 15.00% 20. b) Change in the demand for the product. A higher operating expenses ratio is unfavorable since it will leave a small amount o operating income to meet interest.00% 10.36% ratio Operating Expense Ratio 25. Lower the operating ratio.00% 0. dividends etc.76% For 09-10 102016 569123.1 17.93% Operating expense 19. temporary or long lived can occur due to several factors such as: a) Change in the sales prices. The ratio indicates the extent of sales that is absorbed by the cost of goods sold and the operating expenses. The variations in the ratio. c) Ch For 11-12 Operating expense 123812 Sales 639681 For 10-11 106823 601370.

ROCE shows a good trend of average 54% in the past five years. while PAT represents residue income of shareholders As on 31st March12 PBIT CAPITAL EMPLOYED 319684 640583 As on 31st March11 314790 604844 52.67% As on 31st March 09 283731 493763 57.00% 50.04% As on 31st March 10 306465 540744 56.77% ROCE= 49.00% 46. Capital employed represents pool of funds supplied by shareholders and lenders.00% 48.00% 56.00% As on 31st March12 As on 31st March11 As on 31st March 10 As on 31st March 09 As on 31st March 08 INTERPRETATION Return on Capital employed judges the overall performance of the enterprise.00% 54.91% PBIT/CAPITAL EMPLOYED ROCE 60.00% 58. It shows the strong profitability and god performance efficiency.RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED The term investment may refer to total assets or net assets. The conventional approach of calculating return on investment (ROCE) is to divide PBDIT or PBIT by capital employed.00% 52.00% 44. 30 .46% As on 31st March 08 246784 419926 58.

As on 31st March12 ROE= PAT/EQUITY 0.22 0. the earnings may be distributed to shareholders or retained in the business. The shareholders equity or net worth will include paid up share capital. A constant trend also helps in increased trust worthiness of organization among its shareholders.25261 As on 31st March09 0. It shows that equity shareholder‘s funds are being used efficiently.27 0.28 0.29 0. share premium and reserves and surplus less accumulated losses.23650 As on 31st March10 0.26052 As on 31st March11 0.26 0.24 0.27714 Return on Equity 0. 31 .26743 As on 31st March08 0.RETURN ON EQUITY (ROE) Common or ordinary shareholders are entitled to the residual profits.23 0. A return on shareholders‘ equity is calculated to see the profitability of owner‘s investment.21 As on 31st As on 31st As on 31st As on 31st As on 31st March12 March11 March10 March09 March08 INTERPRETATION ONGC is capable of earning a return of average 25% on the equity employed in the last five years. The rate of dividend is not fixed.25 0.

86 614099 0.92 463142 0.94 0.76 As on 31st March08 421416 699435 0.88 535934 0. As on 31st March12 CAPITAL EMPLOYED NET WORTH CAPITAL EMPLOYED RATIO 780848 0.82 640583 As on 31st March11 605213 As on 31st March10 541440 As on 31st March09 494832.88 0.86 0.8 0.9 0.CAPITAL EMPLOYED RATIO This is yet another alternative way of expressing the basic relationship between debt and equity.82 0.90 C E Ratio 0.92 0.84 0.78 0.76 As on 31st March12 As on 31st March11 As on 31st March10 As on 31st March09 As on 31st March08 32 .

26 28038.71 34806.5 319684 GROSS PROFIT COST OF GOODS SOLD OPENING INVENTORY CLOSING INVENTORY AVG.1 As on 31st March09 482443.INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIOS Inventory turnover is the ratio of cost of goods sold to inventory.5 30337.94 25691.T.89 34806.09 8.94 25691.65 7.4 8.9 32571.58 30384.T.9 24056.86 43 I. (days) 41 42 51 50 33 .R 8.5 40606.1 198712.98 30361.2 262658.9 220328.37 30337.2 As on 31st March10 569123.48 37706.R.9 As on 31st March08 467112. INVENTORY I.58 30384.42 24874. This ratio indicates how many times inventory is created and sold during the period: As on 31st March12 NET SALES 639493 As on 31st March11 601370.80 8.37 319809 314790 306465 283731 246784 286580.

In other words it holds average inventory for 43 days in 2012. (in Days) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 INVENTORY TURNOVER 10 8 6 4 2 0 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 INTERPRETATION ONGC is turning its inventory of finished goods into sales 8.I. The average inventory figure is more appropriate to use than the yearend inventory figure because the levels of inventories fluctuate over the year.48 times in 2012.R.T. The average inventory figures smoothes out the fluctuations 34 .

03 32318.53 16.14 42221 35599.05 43603. Receivables Debtors Turnover Ratio AVG COLLECTION PERIOD(days) 24 15. This ratio is calculated as: As on 31st March 12 Net credit sales 639493 As on 31st March 11 601370.99 40838.45 21 20 27 23 35 .66 27594.07 Avg.23 As on 31st March 10 569123.66 27594.76 37293.9 As on 31st March 08 467112.89 17.07 23177.DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO Debtor‘s turnover ratio establishes the relationship between the net credit sales and average debtors of the year.48 Opening balance(debtors) Closing balance 43603.61 12.4 37042. Acc. Average debtors are calculated by dividing the sum of debtors in the beginning and at the end by 2.58 37167.06 As on 31st March 09 482443.4 37042.915 30235.98 15.76 37293.

its debtors remain outstanding for 24 days in the year 2012. The graph shows that in the year 10 the average collection period has increased from 21 days in the year 08 to 24 days in 10. 2011 2010 2009 2008 36 . The increased average collection period in the last two years is not a good indicator since it shows the deficiency of collection policies in the management.Debtors Turnover Ratio 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 As on 31st March 12 As on 31st March 11 As on 31st March 10 As on 31st March 09 As on 31st March 08 AVG COLLECTION PERIOD(DAYS) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2012 INTERPRETATION The above graph shows that ONGC is able to turnover it‘s debtors 15.14 times a year in 2012. In other words.

063 O.India is better as compared to Chevron.27 CHEVRON(11-12) 10483 167402 0.NG. From the above graph it is clear that the net profit margin of ONGC and Oil. It establishes the relationship between net profit and sales and indicates the management‘s efficiency in manufacturing.302 OIL-INDIA(11-12) INTERPRETATION The net profit margin shows the relative efficiency of the firm after taking into account all the expenses and income taxes but not extraordinary charges.23 0. rising costs of production or declining demand for the product.05 0 0. 37 .15 0.35 0.NG.40 713971.C (11-12) CHEVRON(11-12) 0.302 NET PROFIT MARGIN 0.3 0.C (11-12) PAT SALES NET PROFIT MARGIN 167016.2 0.25 0. The firm with a high net profit margin is in a better position to survive in the face of falling selling prices.1 0.063 OIL-INDIA(11-12) 216168.NET PROFIT MARGIN O.47 601370.27 0.91 0.

96% respectively.C (11-12) CHEVRON (11-12) OIL-INDIA (11-12) 49.03 664578. However the ROCE of Chevron is only 14. 38 .79 RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED 60. The ROCE of ONGC and Oil-India is 49.NG.70% 50.00% 10.00% 50.B. The high ROCE shows the strong profitability and good performance efficiency. By seeing the figures it is clear that the ONGC and Oil-India has strong profitability and good performance efficiency as compared to Chevron.00% 40.70% 50.C (11-12) P.00% 30.NG.96% 319684 640583 CHEVRON (11-12) 18528 126300 OIL-INDIA (11-12) 338697.90% 14.96% INTERPRETATION The return on capital employed judges the overall performance of the enterprise.RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED O.T CAPITAL EMPLOYED RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED 49.90% 14.00% 0.00% O.00% 20.I.90% and 50.70%.

4). DEBT TO CAPITAL EMPLOYED O.N.G.C (11-12) CHEVRON (1112) LONG TERM DEBT 267 CAPITAL EMPLOYED DEBT TO CAPITAL 0.0004168 EMPLOYED 0.0986 0.428 640584 10130 102691 36263.62 84628.96 OIL-INDIA (11-12)

0.5 0.4

0.2 0.1 0 0.0986 0.428

0.0004168 ONGC(11-12) CHEVRON (11- OIL-INDIA (1112) 12)


From the above graph it is clear that the debt to capital employed is the minimum in the case of ONGC, whereas it is maximum in case Oil –India. The decrease in the debt to capital employed ratio in case of ONGC states that the company does not borrow money from the public whereas Chevron and Oil –India borrow money from the public. The graph states that ONGC is in sufficient to manage its operations. Also Oil- India borrows heavily from the government. 39

YEAR 2008 2009 20010 20011 2012 Table :-7
700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

TURNOVER(IN Rs. million) 467098 482009 569037 601373 639493

diagram  The above graph shows continuous increase turnover of the company fronm yeafr 2008 to 2012,  It has increased approximately at a CAGR of 7.38% in 5 years,  This is mainly due to highest reserve accretion in the current year in last two decades,  This is good for the company and increase the reputation of the company,  Turnover has increased due to high production of 61.85 mote and also to increased oil recovery programs (28n to 33%), 40

3.7.2:-NET PROFIT :NET PROFIT(In Rs million) YEAR









2012 Table :180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 2008 2009






   

The above graph shows continuous increase in the turnover of the company from the year 2008 to 2012 and then a decrease in the year 2010 of approximately 3%, It has increased approximately at a CAGR of 6% in 5 years, This decrease is mainly due to sharing of huge burden under recoveries of oil marketing companies to the extent of Rs 282252. Taking in account the recession this is good performance by the company,


5% in 5 years.7.3:-OPERATING INCOME :YEAR OPERATING INCOME(PBIT) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 220000 184768 199158 211471 216811 198835 210000 200000 190000 Series 3 180000 170000 160000 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012  the above graph shows continuous increase in the operating income of the company from the year 2008 to 2011 and then a decrease in year 2012 of approximately 8.  this decrease is mainly due to high volatility of crude oil prices in the year 2011-12 which went up to 147$ barrel.  it has increased approximately at a CAGR of 1.  taking in account the high volatility of crude oil prices this is good performance by the company. 42 .29%.  this decrease is mainly due to sharing of huge burden under recoveries of oil marketing companies to the extent of Rs 282252 million.3.

3.7.5% in 5 years.  This is favorable for the reputation of the company.4:-NET WORTH :YEAR 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 NET WORTH(IN Rs million) 463142 535934 614099 699435 780848 900000 800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012  The above graph shows continuous increase in the net worth of the company from the year 2008 to 2012 with increase of 12%in the current year.  It has increased approximately at a CAGR of 16.  This is mainly due to increase in reserves and surplus during the years. 43 .

 It has increased approximately at a CAGR of 16% in 5 years. 44 .3.5:-CURRENT LIABILITIES AND PROVISIONS : YEAR 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 250000 CURRENT LIABILITIES AND PROVISION 108763 105951 139932 176083 211051 200000 150000 Series 3 100000 50000 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012  The above graph shows continuous increase in the current liabilities of the company from the year 2009 to 2012 only a decrease of 2.5%in the year 2009.  The reason behind this is that sundry creditors and other current liabilities are increasing.7.

45 .8%.6:-INVESTMENTS :YEAR INVESTMENTS(IN Rs MILLIONS) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 2008 2009 2010 50903 58995 57021 48865 403567 Series 3 2011 2012  This above graph shows continuous decrease in the investments of the company from the year 2008 to 2012 and a increase in year 2008 of approximately 15.3.  This decrease is mainly due to sale of investments in the following years.  And no new investments are done by the company.7.

3.  This shows bad inventory management of the company.  It has increased approximately at a CAGR of 11.7. 46 .6% in 5 years.  This is due to increase in finished goods inventory and raw materials.7:-INVENTORIES:- INVENTORIES YEAR 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Series 3 25692 30385 30338 34806 40607 Table :-13 . Diagram:-12  The above graph shows continuous increase in the investments of the company from the year 2008 to 2012.

oil leads in the stock price.25 MARKET CAP IN(cr) 257.88 298.25 3139.09 404.3.39 73.84 Carin India 31.65 3.55 5891.126.31 GAIL 15969.76 473.32 4734.78 63.68 78.573.73 54.15 10345.25 10649.82 NET PROFIT 16.24 Reliance Natura Petronet LNG 3321.35 60043.38 25103.15 58834.8 :-FINACIAL COMPARISION OF VARIOUS FIRMS WITH ONGC:COMPANIES TOTAL ASSETS ONGC 94771. 47 . turnover and net profit with oil being distant 2nd .80 310.72 SALES TURNOVER 64017. market capitalization .12 MARKET PRICE(Rs) 1204.50 The above table shows the comparision of some financial parameters with ONGC which is way ahead of other firms in case of total Assets .990.

04 48 .32 0.29 0.00 249.27 42.86 4.00 24.74 19667.48 20.32 (INCOME) Sales Turnover Excise Duty Net Sales Other income Stock Adjustments Total Income Raw materials Power.00 9.79 4536.ONGC GAIL Carin india Mar’12 3.19 1011.25 0.51 576.00 10649.00 9802.00 Petronet LNG Mar’12 10.49 Mar’12 24.48 0.68 10905.67 833.95 18.10 -16.33 9671.99 4085.00 10746.003. fuel cost Employee cost Other manufacturing expenses Mar’12 64342.00 31.55 Selling and adminExpenses Miscellaneous expenses Preoperative exp Total expenses -4470.00 270.23 16651.73 276.10 68170.77 0.02 0.831.43 Reliance Natura Mar’12 270.71 752.01 85.29 64.18 19.80 19.68 6.86 32.00 146.53 23.90 0.542.09 92.74 0.00 0.24 507.28 338.20 43.04 0.78 257.71 17.649.292.98 0.00 3.85 495.578.79 176.73 0.784.09 0.77 0.00 279.51 270.44 2.52 5.23 869.00 416.02 146.59 81.

06 0.08 71.39 320.95 0.62 0.29 183.00 0.40 22.00 32.253.83 8485.03 0.01 195.24 4122.46 11.288.96 559.388.68 -10.46 790.32 160.43 4355.08 95.497.31 847.ONGC GAIL March’12 Carin India March’12 Reliance Neutra March’12 Petronet LNG March’12 March’12 Operating profit PBDIT Interest PBDT Depreciation Other written off Profit before tax Extraordinary items PBT(Post extra 0rd items) Tax Per share data Share in issue(lakhs) Earnings per share(Rs) Equity dividend(%) Book value 21.05 36338.73 12684.88 167.00 0.96 0.05 101.00 20.00 23.00 133.00 944.13 71.30 7500.331.83 0.32 57.34 132.83 2.95 20.12 116.00 4875.44 168.09 4773.29 0.81 4214.97 760.00 17.02 29.49 4204.50 368.01 75.89 599.43 5.08 71.68 16.53 -142.89 599.00 70.10 0.91 0.03 24.77 18.05 112.30 0.49 8437.40 27853.02 112.80 49 .00 0.966.78 1400.00 0.

66 0.00 14769.70 16035.70 94771.81 4734.48 0.42 0.77 200.00 0.20 101.13 1200. Depreciation Net block 10414.70 2882.990.3.89 0.18 0.06 0.00 76596.00 750.98 8553.89 2138.57 816.67 38.04 2499.00 0.23 17603.00 1800.86 50 61355.90 0.65 .80 0.60 1521.00 100.50 3549.53 0.13 15969.00 2234.67 1896.00 1521.00 983.06 368.000.9:.12 Mar’12 1268.00 0.15 0.57 0.00 31990.61 0.ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF BALANCE SHEET ITEMS OF VARIOUS FIRMS WITH RESPECT TO ONGC Balance Sheet (Rupees in crore’s) ONGC GAIL Cairn india Reliance Natura Mar’12 816.00 0.00 13501.51 666.60 3321.48 1268.88 0.00 0.735.88 2299.00 0.61 50941.32 0.76 Mar’12 1896.80 Total Liabilities Application of funds Gross block Less:Accum.00 78.00 30055.63 1100.38 9050.23 0.00 470.00 31.00 0.69 Source of funds Total share capital Equity share capital Share application money Preference share capital Reserves Revaluation reserves Net Worth Secured loans Unsecured loans Total debt Mar’12 2138.78 Petrone t LNG Mar’12 750.00 1484.00 16035.

05 1064.00 1963.03 29225.25 GAIL 54.80 351.79 1.00 107.84 0.67 4083.09 25692.49 0.00 Total assets Contigent Liabilities 94771.00 33.61 2238.41 1503.78 0.77 0.00 6833.00 Total current assets Loans and advances Fixed deposits Total CA.80 161.16 0.advances Deferred credit Current liabilities Provisions Total CA &Provisions Net current assets Miscellaneous expenses 8305.02 0.76 11352.31 0.52 0.03 3322.244 3976.11 156.17 1318.12 116.32 4060.45 989.00 1.00 74.40 0.48 ONGC 2426.97 155.12 1222.54 139.22 0.40 0.Capital work in progress Investments Inventories Sundry debtors Cash and Bank balance 52923.57 15969.68 1227.00 5661.14 168.00 Carin India Reliance Natura 3.00 51 .67 0.21 2711.37 Petrone tLNG 729.45 2761.11 30657.Loans.3 0.26 337.88 2850.84 874.90 12393.09 2755.00 1071.27 601.46 11.14 31990.00 33.26 503.67 31.85 9638.33 156.34 Book Value(Rs) 368.62 222.74 3321.02 18934.68 1975.00 26854.36 538.74 83204.39 0.12 36024.65 -5.71 0.00 4734.98 57512.95 55964.34 133.33 1737.62 650.06 74.48 3.19 5090.19 85.93 0.

3.81  The current ratio of ONGC is best amongst all the OIL has too high CR which means it has idle cash lying with itself .1.9.42 RATIO 52 .54 0.60 19.005 . 2. 3.008 THE above table shows good market position of all the companies amongst which ONGC has least use of debt hence it has better reputation. similarly in case of SHELL it is too low.06 2.1:-LIQUIDITY RATIOS :COMPANY ONGC OIL SHELL CURRENT RATIO 2.1:-FINANCIAL RATIOS 3.3:-ACTIVITY RATIO :COMPANY ONGC OIL SHELL DEBTOR TURNOVER 15.9.2:-LEVERAGE RATIO:COMPANY ONGC OIL SHELL DEBT EQUITY RATIO .13 QUICK RATIO 2.003 .65 17.70 1.  The quick ratio of ONGC is also best as OIL has high quick ratio and SHELL has too quick ratio from industry accepted levels.

ONGC mainly due to sharing burden of under recoveries of oil marketing companies and also due to sharing of huge subsidy burden of around 11500 crores here OIL performs better with increase in profit.00 SHELL The table here shows ONGC AND SHELL having decrease in profit . %INC IN PROFIT -3% 3.4.00 8.4-PROFITABILITY:3.9.The above graph shows that ONGC has best position on case of debtors turnover hence better position in the industry then the others.60% OIL -52. high 53 .1:-PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN PROFIT:COMPANY ONGC 31.9.2:-ROCE(RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED):COMPANY ONGC OIL SHELL ROCE 49.10 30.9. 3.00 The table here shows ONGC having highest ROCE amongst all due to profit.4. -31.5. 54 .3.9.5:-REVENUES :3. 3. 2:-But OIL is the only company who’s EPS is increasing from previous years.00 38.2:-EPS:COMPANY EPS 75 ONGC 101 OIL 104 SHELL 1:-EPS of SHELL best amongst all companies.00 The above table shows SHELL having decrease in revenue due to decrease in production whereas as ONGC and OIL having increase in revenues.1:-CHANGE IN REVENUES COMPANY ONGC OIL SHELL %INC IN REVENUE 6.

1 FINDINGS On analyzing the performance analysis (ratio analysis) it can be summarized as follows:  ONGC has got a very sound working capital management particular cash & debtors.  The liquidity position of corporation very safe.4.  ONGC has a sound capital and asset based which also indicates that it is in a position to clear all its current liabilities. In fact it has become a debt free company. 55 . this means that ONGC is in a quite credit worthy position.  The corporation operates very efficiently as can be seen from the profit margin.

To increase the work efficiency of the workers as well as of the staff members. 4. For the innovations of new market. manufacturing and labours for that. In order to maximize wealth under uncertainty. the firm should pay dividends regularly. coching classes etc. In order to increase the profit the firm should keep proper control over the expenses retaliating to the purchase of goods. because the company repaid the long term borrowing. The capital structure ratio shows the performance of the company is increasing . 6. select capable market representatives who are more efficient to recover the more market share. 9. For higher the profitability ratio of the firm. seminars. 7. the firm must pay enough dividends to satisfy investors. It should help to increase the moral of the investors and side by side also helps in long term financial strength of the firm. 8. The balance sheet figures are showing the declining trend since last year. So. by increasing profits. it is required to increase the sales along with.4. conferences. This will help the management to know the causes and taling competitive action a to reduce the expense. From the analysis of the liquidity ratio we are able to recommend that the liquidity position of the company is good. is required 5. 2. proper supervision and timely comparison of actual with budgeted overheads should be taken. 56 . It should be the reason for higher inventory level which unnecessary blocked the money. and also it is able to meet it current obligation. 3. Try to maintain the quality level as per the market demand which satisfies the customer more. Use more credit facility which is given by the creditors.2 CONCLUSION 1. Firm should also use more short term loans to recover the working requirement because the interest rate for short term loans is less and it should be flexible to use. arrangement of different training programs like meeting members.

requires that if an asset is revalued and there is a revaluation deficit. . 57 .Outdated information in financial statement The figures in a set of accounts are likely to be at least several months out of date. asset valuations in the balance sheet could be misleading. Like the IAS 16 mentioned above.Historical costs not suitable for decision making IASB Conceptual framework recommends businesses to use historical cost of accounting. The business may opt not to revalue its asset because by doing so the depreciation charge is going to be high and will result in lower profit.4. it has to be charged as an expense in income statement. and so might not give a proper indication of the company‘s current financial position. 3:-Ratios are not definitive measures Ratios need to be interpreted carefully. So in order to improve on its profitability level the company may select in its revaluation programme to revalue only those assets which will result in revaluation surplus leaving those with revaluation deficits still at depreciated historical cost. Where historical cost convention is used.5:.Creative accounting The businesses apply creative accounting in trying to show the better financial performance or position which can be misleading to the users of financial accounting.IAS 16 allows valuetion of assets to be based on either revalued amount or at depreciated historical cost. they cannot show whether performance is good or bad. but if it results in revaluation surplus the surplus should be credited to revaluation reserve. Example . Ratios require some quantitative information for an informed analysis to be made. They can provide clues to the company‘s performance or financial situation.3 LIMITATIONS Limitation of financial ratio analysis are follows:1:-Different Accounting Policies The choices of accounting policies may distort inter company comparisons. 2:. Ratios based on this information will not be very useful for decision making. But on their own. .4:.

This would be done to avoid the effects of an old accounting policy or gain the effects of a new one. 7:. perhaps when the business‘s profits are low. Similarly Non current assets turnover ratio may denote either a firm that uses its assets efficiently or one that is under capitalised and cannot afford to buy enough assets. 58 . which is good or excessive cash which is bad. For example a high current ratio may indicate a strong liquidity position. there is need to consider the changes in technology.Financial statements contain summarised information Ratios are based on financial statements which are summaries of the accounting records. The ratios are based on the summarised year end information which may not be a true reflection of the overall year‘s results. For ratios to be more meaningful the enterprise should compare its results with another of the same level of technology as this will be a good basis measurement of efficiency.6:. Changes in results over time may show as if the enterprise has improved its performance and position when in fact after adjusting for inflationary changes it will show the different picture. 8:-Price changes Inflation renders comparisons of results over time misleading as financial figures will not be within the same levels of purchasing power.Interpretation of the ratio It is difficult to generalise about whether a particular ratio is ‗good‘ or ‗bad‘. 10 :-Changes in Accounting policy Changes in accounting policy may affect the comparison of results between different accounting years as misleading. The problem with this situation is that the directors may be able to manipulate the results through the changes in accounting policy. The movement in performance should be in line with the changes in technology. 9 :-Technology changes When comparing performance over time. Through the summarisation some important information may be left out which could have been of relevance to the users of accounts. It is likely to be done in a sensitive period.

13:-Different financial and business risk profile:No two companies are the same. Using ratios to compare one company with another could provide misleading information. a tobacco growing company will be able to show good results if accounts are produced in the selling season.11:. 12:. the financial statements are based on year end results which may not be true reflection of results year round. 59 . For example. Any change in standards will affect the reporting of an enterprise and its comparison of results over a number of years. To un informed analyst he may feel like company two is better when in fact its low gearing level is because it can not be able to secure further funding. receivables and bank balances will be at its highest. Businesses which are affected by seasons can choose the best time to produce financial statements so as to show better results. One company may be able to obtain bank loans at reduced rates and may show high gearing levels while as another may not be successful in obtaining cheap rates and it may show that it is operating at low gearing level. low cash balances and even nil receivables. This time the business will have good inventory levels. measuring and presenting financial transactions.Changes in Accounting standard:Accounting standards offers standard ways of recognising. While as in planting seasons the company will have a lot of liabilities through the purchase of farm inputs. Businesses may be within the same industry but having different financial and business risk. Companies may have different capital structures and to make comparison of performance when one is all equity financed and another is a geared company it may not be a good analysis. even when they are competitors in the same industry or market.Impact of seasons on trading:As stated above.

holding the proceeds as cash. For example. then pay off the loan ahead of time on 3rd January 2004. but analysts should be aware of these problems and make adjustments as necessary. One company may be given a tax holiday while the other within the same line of business not.14:-Impact of Government influence:Selective application of government incentives to various companies may also distort intercompany comparison. However the improvement was strictly window dressing as a week later the balance sheet is at its old position. but if used intelligently and with good judgement.Window dressing:These are techniques applied by an entity in order to show a strong financial position. it can provide useful insights into the firm‘s operations. MZ Trucking can borrow on a two year basis. 15. Ratios analysis conducted in a mechanical.:. K10 Million on 28th December 2003. Ratio analysis is useful. comparing the performance of these two enterprises may be misleading. 60 . This can improve the current and quick ratios and make the 2003 balance sheet look good. unthinking manner is dangerous.

Bibliography BOOKS AND READINGS  Khan.K.com  www.chevron.com  www. P. 2008-2009 Annual Report – ONGC Ltd.oilindia. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited (fifth edition) ANNUAL REPORTS Annual Report – ONGC Ltd. 2010-2011 Annual Report – ONGC Ltd. & Jain. 2011-2012 WEBSITES  www. (2009) ―Financial Management‖.com 61 .Y. M. 2009-2010 Annual Report – ONGC Ltd.ongcindia.

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