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low loss Dry type, the cheapest would be an oil cooled CC’ type transformer.

The capitalised costs with harmonics are EUR 16714, and 17132 (low loss) respectively initially. At the end of one year the figures are EUR 22311 and 22366. Thus the low loss transformer is still not attractive. There is a net saving of 8222 KWH/year after one year which equals about EUR 411. The extra price of EUR 539 can not be recovered in the economic life prescribed. The oil cooled transformer is a winner in the short run, with a capitalised cost for initial period as EUR 12951 including harmonics. Even for this transformer, higher operating temperature due to harmonics suggests a drastic decrease in operating life from 30 years to 6 years. Even then the selected short economic life span makes this choice viable, provided the hot spot temperature is acceptable. By the same consideration a smaller rating 1000 KVA transformer gives a capital saving of 25% even though it has an energy penalty. It is important to note that the payback period is not affected by the choice of economic life span, but the relatively longer payback loses its significance due to short time investment perception. In such a case, enforcing minimum loss norms only can help. Alternatively the investment in the transformer can be made by the utility with a long term perception to make energy saving possible. The utility can shift the transformer later to a suitable load as needed.
6.7 Summary of European Case Studies:

There is an interesting summary of the sensitivity of the payback period to input parameters. Table 6.8 gives a summary of effect of Low, Medium and High values of parameters on the payback period. Loading and electricity price are two most important factors. Loading should be carefully evaluated for a proper choice.
Table 6-8: Parameter sensitivity on the payback period

Parameter Unit Harmonic spectrum Electricity price CO2 emissions CO2 costs Loading profile Economic lifetime Interest Purchase price EUR/MWh kg/kWh EUR/tonne % years % %

Parameter variation L M H None 12 pulse 6 pulse 40 60 80 0,3 0,4 0,6 0 10 33 20 40 60 1 5 10 5 7 9 80 100 120

Payback time (years) L M H 3,3 3,1 2,7 4,5 3,1 2,4 3,2 3,1 3,0 3,3 3,1 2,7 5,2 3,1 1,9 3,1 3,1 3,1 3,1 3,1 3,1 2,5 3,1 3,7


Case Study 6: Tea Industry (India)

Energy Audit for Tea Factories making C.T.C. Tea, managed by H/S C.W.S (India) Ltd., District Coimbatore. Audit was conducted in May 1990 for Mayura and Parlai Tea factories. Power is received at 22 kV and 11 kV by separate lines. This is stepped down by two 500 kVA Transformer o 22 kV/433 V an 11 kV/433 V which fee segregated loads. The typical loss figures for 500 kVA transformers are 1660 W for no load and 6900 W as losses for 100% load. load

Recommendation: Parallel both transformers for a total 500 kVA load on secondary side and in lean season and holidays when the load is 5% to below 25%, cut off one transformer on H.V. and H.V. sides. Brief Analysis:

For total load of 500 kVA, there are three options. a) Only one transformer takes full 500 KVA LOAD. 2 Losses = 1.66 (No Load) + (500/500) x 6.9 kW (load losses)