27 views

Uploaded by pleyvaze

- Bui Science Project-2012
- Pythagorean Theorem
- Assignment #1 (2)
- 10.1.1.15
- Math Reviewer
- LAB GEOLOGY.docx
- lp 040913 math
- 2000 Iitjee Maths
- USA-AIME-2011-45
- illuminatingengi00univrich.pdf
- CBSE Sample paper SA-2
- Geological Maps
- Elements of Civil Engineering Jan 2014
- lp 040913 math
- 2014-lecture-009
- Experiment 24 Electric Equipotentials and Fields
- INMO-2012 Test Paper Solution
- 13 Ratios in Triangle Trapezoids
- 03_08_2015_SCST_PAPs
- MR4 Problems

You are on page 1of 10

1 of 20

The minimum requirement to define a potential wedge is four non-parallel planes; the excavation periphery forms one of these planes. On a hemispherical projection, these blocks may be identified as spherical triangles where the plane of projection represents the excavation surface. If a tetrahedral block/wedge exists, there are three kinematic possibilities to be examined: the block falls from the roof; the block slides (either along the line of maximum dip of a discontinuity, or along the line of intersection of two discontinuities); or the block is stable.

2 of 20 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering

Falling occurs when a block detaches from the roof of an excavation without sliding on any of the bounding discontinuity planes. In the case of gravitational loading, the direction of movement is vertically downwards. This is represented on the projection as a line with a dip of 90, i.e. the centre of the projection. Thus, if this point falls within the spherical triangle formed by the bounding discontinuities, falling is kinematically admissible.

3 of 20

Kinematic methods used to analyze blocks sliding from the roof, either on one discontinuity plane (planar failure) or on a line of intersection (wedge failure), generally consider the spherical triangle and whether any part of it has a dip greater than the angle of friction. friction Assuming that each discontinuity plane has the same friction angle, the sliding direction will occur along a line of maximum dip (either that of a plane or a line of intersection of two planes). No other part of the spherical triangle represents a line of steeper dip than these candidates.

4 of 20 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering EOSC 433 (2012)

However, not all lines of maximum dip on a stereonet projection will be candidates for the sliding direction. Although some planes/lines of intersection may be dipping at angles greater than the friction angle, sliding is not kinematically admissible if the line

of maximum dip is outside the spherical triangle formed by the intersecting planes (i.e. the wedge).

The spherical triangle, therefore, represents the region of kinematically admissible d i ibl directions di i of f movement and any other direction represents directions directed into the rock surrounding the block.

5 of 20

hence, the shaded blocks above represent (a) planar sliding along 2; and (b) wedge sliding along 31. of course, if the spherical triangles fall completely outside the friction circle, then the blocks are identified as being stable.

6 of 20 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering EOSC 433 (2012)

Once a series of joint sets have been identified as having wedge forming potential, several questions arise :

in the case of a falling wedge, how much support will be required to hold it in place (what kind of loads on the added support can be expected, how dense will the bolting pattern have to be, etc.); in the case of a sliding wedge, do the shear stresses exceed the shear strength along the sliding surface, i.e. that provided by friction and sometimes cohesion (in the form of intact rock bridges or mineralized infilling), and if so, how much support will be required to stabilize the block, how dense will the bolting pattern have to be, etc..

In both cases, the volume/weight of the maximum wedge that may form is required. This can be determined through further geometrical constructions.

7 of 20 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering EOSC 433 (2012)

To calculate the maximum wedge volume:

1) Identify the joint planes/great circles

on the stereonet plot that form the wedge. In this example, the three persistent, planar discontinuity sets have dip directions/dips of: (1) 138/51, (2) 355/40, (3) 219/67. Together, these joints are known to form wedges within the horizontal, planar roof of an excavation in sedimentary rock. The stereonet construction is finished by drawing lines passing through the corners of the spherical triangle and centre of the stereonet.

Priest (1985)

8 of 20

2) On a separate sheet of paper,

construct a scaled plan view, where the width of the window represents the width of the excavation. As such, the analysis will consider the largest block that could be released from the excavation roof. In this particular example, the roof is rectangular in shape, is 6 m wide, and has its long axis orientated at an azimuth of 025. Given that the great circle representing r pr nt ng th the h horizontal r z nta p plane an through the tunnel coincides with that of the stereonet projection, it is convenient to construct the window aligned parallel to the tunnel axis.

025

9 of 20

3) On the scaled window, mark an

arbitrary horizontal reference line and starting point. For example, about halfway along the western margin of the roof. roof Inspection of the spherical triangle in the stereonet plot suggests that the corner of the face triangle formed by planes 2 and 3 will touch the western margin of the roof, and the corner formed by planes 1 and 2 will touch the eastern margin when the largest possible tetrahedral bl k i block is considered. id d

As such, the arbitrary reference point can represent the corner of the face triangle formed by planes 2 and 3.

10 of 20

4)

The lines associated with planes 2 and 3 can now be added to the window construction by counting off the angles between the h i horizontal l reference f line li on the stereonet plot (at 025) and the diametral lines for planes 2 and 3 (striking at 085 and 129, respectively). These angles can then be transferred to the window construction and measured off relative to the starting point and reference line along the western margin of the roof. 60

2

60

11 of 20

4)

The lines associated with planes 2 and 3 can now be added to the window construction by counting off the angles between the h i horizontal l reference f line li on the stereonet plot (at 025) and the diametral lines for planes 2 and 3 (striking at 085 and 129, respectively). These angles can then be transferred to the window construction and measured off relative to the starting point and reference line along the western margin of the roof.

104

104

12 of 20

5)

The point where the line for plane 2 intersects the eastern margin of the roof in the window construction represents t th the corner of f the face triangle formed by planes 1 and 2. Thus, the line for plane 1 can be added by measuring the angle between the two planes on the stereonet and transferring it to the window construction. The h outline/trace l / of f the h wedge on the tunnel roof is now complete.

37

37

2

13 of 20

6)

The next step is to add the corner edges of the wedge to complete the 3-D trace of f the h tetrahedron h d in i the h window construction box. This can be done following a similar procedure by transferring the lines of intersection between the planes (i.e. I12, I23, I13) and their measured angles from the stereonet to the window construction. apex

14 of 20

7)

Since this construction can be completed graphically by overlaying the stereonet with the window construction, or geometrically by measuring the angles off the stereonet and transferring them onto the window construction, several checks can be made to find any errors that may have arisen. The final step involving the finding of the location of the wedges apex also gives a valuable check since the area of the triangle of error formed by these converging lines is a measure of any imprecision in the construction.

apex

Priest (1985) EOSC 433 (2012) EOSC 433 (2012) Priest (1985)

15 of 20

8)

The dimensions of the face triangle appearing on the excavation surface can now be scaled off directly from the construction. Its area, Af, can be found by taking any pair of adjacent sides and their included angles:

16 of 20

9)

The areas of the three internal block surfaces can be found in a similar way from the edge lengths and appropriate internal angles:

17 of 20 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering

10) To find the volume of the wedge,

the wedge height and the face area are required. The face area, Af, has already been found. The wedge height h, height, h is given by:

which for this example problem comes to 1.47 m. The volume, V, of the tetrahedral block is then given as:

Priest (1985) EOSC 433 (2012)

18 of 20

Priest (1985)

11) Now assuming a unit weight of 25

kN/m3 for sedimentary rock, the block would have a weight of approximately 124 kN.

By dividing this value through by the face area, it can be seen that a support pressure of only 12.3 kN/m2, distributed over the face triangle, would be required to keep it in place. This support pressure could, for example, be provided by rock bolts anchored beyond the block at a distance of 2 to 3 m above the excavation roof.

19 of 20

References

Hudson, JA & Harrison, JP (1997). Engineering Rock Mechanics An Introduction to the Principles . Elsevier Science: Oxford. Priest, SD (1985). Hemispherical Projection Methods in Rock Mechanics. George Allen & Unwin: London.

20 of 20

10

- Bui Science Project-2012Uploaded bynirbhay111
- Pythagorean TheoremUploaded byNunice Jtk Pachimsawat
- Assignment #1 (2)Uploaded byAnonymous QvIxEazXGd
- 10.1.1.15Uploaded byAndrew Ho
- Math ReviewerUploaded byClaire Dumduma
- LAB GEOLOGY.docxUploaded byMatthew Mamek Sanggat
- lp 040913 mathUploaded byapi-208643879
- 2000 Iitjee MathsUploaded bymukesh1976
- USA-AIME-2011-45Uploaded bynaufaldifirmansyah
- illuminatingengi00univrich.pdfUploaded byShakeeb Arefin
- CBSE Sample paper SA-2Uploaded bySahila Fathima
- Geological MapsUploaded bySandeep Reddy
- Elements of Civil Engineering Jan 2014Uploaded byPrasad C M
- lp 040913 mathUploaded byapi-208643879
- 2014-lecture-009Uploaded byeouahiau
- Experiment 24 Electric Equipotentials and FieldsUploaded byTomás Rojas
- INMO-2012 Test Paper SolutionUploaded byVikram Saurabh
- 13 Ratios in Triangle TrapezoidsUploaded byRahul Sharma
- 03_08_2015_SCST_PAPsUploaded byArun Belwar
- MR4 ProblemsUploaded byALIANZA_2013
- CEG4392 IntroRobotics ArmsUploaded byWahyu Anggardi

- Leica Original Accessories BRO (1)Uploaded bypleyvaze
- Shurniak_Robert_Edward_2003_sec.pdfUploaded bypleyvaze
- Seismic Analysis of an Existing Earth and Rockfill Dam Subjected to MCE by FLAC_REVISARUploaded bypleyvaze
- Consolidation CSM8 Example 4-6bUploaded bypleyvaze
- Carrier 1991 Stability of Tailing DamsUploaded bysanpaz75
- Leach Pad Cost Benchmarking for Heap Leach SolutionsUploaded bypleyvaze
- Week14Uploaded bypleyvaze
- Leica Reflectors DSUploaded bypleyvaze
- York Split ParedUploaded bypleyvaze
- Digital_Photo_Professional_Win_Instruction_Manual_ES.pdfUploaded bypleyvaze
- ClaseFiltros.pdfUploaded bypleyvaze
- PROYECTO RED SISMOGRÁFICA NACIONAL - AGOSTO (PPT).pptUploaded bypleyvaze
- Settle3D_Stress_Verification.pdfUploaded byrgscribd61
- Me Cdos Solos IIUploaded bydirepa
- stressUploaded bySathyamoorthy Venkatesh
- Unesco 1979Uploaded bypleyvaze
- GTS-220Uploaded bysheldlaw251
- Carta de CasagrandeUploaded bypleyvaze
- Lumb.the Residual Soils of Hong KongUploaded bypleyvaze
- femap_675Uploaded byGert Duniceri
- Atlas Geoquimico Del Peru_segunda VersiónUploaded bypleyvaze
- Abbas, Syed 2015-03A_01Uploaded bypleyvaze
- carta-de-casagrande.xlsUploaded bypleyvaze

- DMWUploaded byBala Murugan
- [Daniel Jones, Peter Roach, James Hartman, Jane Se(BookZZ.org)Uploaded byEmanuel Dias
- math lesson plan 3rd grade educ 353Uploaded byapi-238701578
- The Steel BookUploaded byFranklin Garcia
- TrigonometryUploaded byLeong Mun Fai
- diffusiUploaded bymerishintya
- 169_FloatingOffshoreLNG.pdfUploaded bymyst3rio
- Alvares et al 2013 Koppen Brazil.pdfUploaded bymarcibarea
- Telecom ss7 basic.pdfUploaded byFikru0
- BSAM4_ComplexAnalysisExam1 (1)Uploaded bypogiako05123
- Transcutaneous Transfer SystemUploaded byMahaManthra
- Aptitude Questions 1.if 2x-y=4 Then 6x-3y=? (a)15 (b)12 (c)18 (d)10Uploaded byvpandiyarajan2413
- Probability Topic Test 2018Uploaded byMathKeys
- Nuclear PhysicsUploaded byMelvin Cabonegro
- Tile WorldUploaded byjoseangelini
- Workshop layout sampleUploaded byautocarewin
- ASTM C1036 (Float Glass)Uploaded byALBERT
- Week 5b - Probability.pptxUploaded by_vanityk
- GRIN Objective LensesUploaded byfakhteh13
- How to Achieve Full-Blown Cloud RAN (C-RAN)Uploaded bymcmiljare
- Basra LightUploaded byShahzaibUsman
- Chemistry Solution 2015 Set 2Uploaded byprabs20069178
- Arrivals Hospitals PDFUploaded byjay
- Sapphire and Garnet From Kalalani, Tanga Province, Tanzania 2Uploaded byjoniman9
- NCERT Class 10 Science Acids, Bases and Salts Questions.pdfUploaded bygomathi_nellai
- 1-s2.0-S1079210407002405-main.pdfUploaded byNavatha Mortha
- 4_3_07Uploaded byZakaria Jado Abeido
- Quantum CrptographyUploaded byNevinvv
- SeminarUploaded byVivek Nair K
- Dodge Housings S SNUploaded bygrupa2904