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# ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.

GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU

SPREADSHEET A spreadsheet is the computer equivalent of a paper ledger sheet. It consists of a grid made from columns and rows. It is an environment that can make number manipulation easy and somewhat painless. The following is the spreadsheet opening screen of MS Excel (version 2007)
Title Menu Tool Bar / Name Active

Navigatio Zoom

• • •

columns rows and their intersections are called cells

In each cell there may be the following types of data

text (labels)

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ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU • •

number data (constants) formulas (mathematical equations that do all the work)

In a spreadsheet there are three basic types of data that can be entered.
• • •

labels - (text with no numerical value) constants - (just a number -- constant value) formulas* - (a mathematical equation used to calculate) data types LABEL CONSTANT examples Name or Wage or Days 5 or 3.75 or -7.4 descriptions anything that is just text any number math equation

FORMULA =5+3 or = 8*5+3 *ALL formulas MUST begin with an equal sign ( =).

Formulas Formulas are entries that have an equation that calculates the value to display. We DO NOT type in the numbers we are looking for; we type in the equation. This equation will be updated upon the change or entry of any data that is referenced in the equation. In our below example, the solution is \$ 11,122.22 (The \$ symbol is a default settings, you can change the default settings by using format cells command). This was NOT typed into the keyboard. The formula that was typed into the spreadsheet was: = PMT(C5,C6,C3) C4 (annual interest rate) was divided by 12 to get C5 because there are 12 months in a year. Dividing by 12 will give us the interest rate for the payment period - in this case a payment period of one
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ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU

month. It is also important to type in the reference to the constants instead of the constants. Had I entered =PMT(0.01,60,-500000) my formula would only work for that particular set of data. I could change the months above and the payment would not change. Remember to enter the cell where the data is stored and NOT the data itself. Formulas are mathematical equations. There is a list of the functions available within Excel under the menu INSERT down to Function. Formulas OR Functions MUST BEGIN with an equal sign (=). Again, we use formulas to CALCULATE a value to be displayed.

FUNCTIONS
DATE Excel stores dates in sequential serial numbers beginning with January 1st, 1900 as 1. January 1st, 2006 is 38718 because it's 38,718 days after January 1st, 1900. Tip: Volatile formulas are formulas that recalculate

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1)-1 ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI -4- . That's because the value that the recalculation created did.12) → Add days to a date (one week from today): =TODAY()+7 → Subtract days from a date (one week ago today): =TODAY()-7 → Last day of the this month: =DATE(YEAR(TODAY()). month and day (Example returns 6/12/2005): =DATE(2005. you make no changes. If the cell format was General before the function was entered.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. The serial number is the date-time code used by Microsoft Excel for date and time calculations."dddd") → Month of the year for a specific date: =MONTH(TODAY()) → Year for a specific date: =YEAR(TODAY()) → Date for a specific year.MONTH(TODAY())+1. If you open a workbook that contains a volatile formula. change in your workbook. the result is formatted as a date. result date the was the is formatted as a Today The Today function returns the serial number of the current date. If the cell format was General before function entered. in fact. The =NOW formula (among others) is a Volatile formula. Now The Now function returns the serial number of the current date and time. Date Formulas and Functions → Today's date and time: = NOW() → Today's date only: = TODAY() → Day of the month for a specific date: =DAY(TODAY()) → Day of the week for a specific date (set the cell format to custom format "dddd"): =WEEKDAY(TODAY()) =TEXT(WEEKDAY(TODAY()).6. don't be surprised if you're asked to save the workbook. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU every time the workbook calculates. and close it.

B1 is number of days in the period): =WORKDAYS(A1. " & DATEDIF(A1."md") & " Days" Using the TEXT() function to calculate dates. and days between two dates: =DATEDIF(A1.1).TODAY(). " & DATEDIF(A1. no month and years → "ym" Difference between the months in a period.0))) or =WORKDAY(DATE(YEAR(TODAY()).0)-2."y") & " Years. MONTH (TODAY()).TODAY().Holidays) → First workday of the following month: =WORKDAY(DATE(YEAR(TODAY()).TODAY().0).MONTH(TODAY())+1. IF (WEEKDAY(EOMONTH(TODAY().1). no years Examples → To calculate the number of years between two dates: =DATEDIF(A1."[h]")) Number of weeks: =VALUE(TEXT((NOW()-\$A\$1)/168."ym") & " Months. The following are the codes for the DATEDIF() function: → "y" Years → "m" Months → "d" Days → "md" Difference between days in a period."code") The start date must be less than the end date.0))=6. or the function returns an error."ym") & " Months" → To calculate the number of years.end_date.TODAY().0))=1.Holidays) → Number of workdays in the current month:= NETWORKDAYS (DATE(YEAR(TODAY()).B1."y") & " Years" → To calculate the number of years and months between two dates: =DATEDIF(A1.MONTH(TODAY())+1.TODAY()."[h]")) ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI -5- . " & DATEDIF(A1. no days and years → "yd" Difference between the days in a period.1)-1.-1.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA."y") & " Years.1. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU or =EOMONTH(TODAY(). EOMONTH (TODAY().EOMONTH(TODAY().Holidays) DATEDIF() Syntax & Examples The DATEDIF() function uses the following syntax: =DATEDIF(start_date.TODAY().EOMONTH(TODAY(). You can use the TEXT() to get the number of days or weeks between two dates: Examples Number of days: =VALUE(TEXT((NOW()-\$A\$1)/24. months.Holidays) → Last workday in range of days (A1 is start date.EOMONTH(TODAY().0) -1.0) → Last workday of the current month: IF (WEEKDAY (EOMONTH (TODAY().

You may only use 7 nested IF statements. When you type an IF statement. use VLOOKUP. The Standard weight for given height is given in cell B2. Note: Some of these formulas and functions use a named range called "Holidays". The IF statement in cell B4 is given in the formula bar. The first part of the IF statement is called a logical test. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Note: Some of these formulas and functions require use of the Analysis Toolpak Addin. IF A simple example of an IF statement is giving grades for percentages. There are a few exceptions. the tool tip automatically appears to tell you the 3 arguments required. we simply get the “answer” returned to us: A2 is not greater than 60. otherwise give me an A. We like to think of the commas that separate the 3 arguments as words. Tip.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. That means 8 IFs can be in your formula. such as True and False. 7 being nested inside the first. give me”. make a list of dates in a column. If you have a requirement for more than 7. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI -6- . The first comma means “give me”. To create it. there is no indication that the problem with the formula is too many IFs. Assign the named range to the cells. your weight is keyed in cell B3. it would read like this: If the value in cell A2 is greater than 60. If we don’t provide the third part of the argument. Even in Excel 2003. Tip. which is also often referred to as a condition. Just go to Tools→Addins. and put a check next to Analysis Toolpak if you get a #NAME? error. So if we wrote the above formula in English instead. so our condition or logical test is FALSE. and the second means “otherwise. An IF statement has at least 3 parts called arguments. Note that all “text” is surrounded by quotes when used in formulas. give me a B. instead.

”B” If the value in A1 is greater than 80. put a C in cell B2.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. put a B in cell B2. • “F” Otherwise—if none of the above conditions are met—put an F in cell B2.”C” If the value in A1 is greater than 70. put a D in cell B2. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Let’s break down the formula. IF by IF: • =IF(A1>60. We must check both conditions. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI -7- .”A” If the value in A1 is greater than 90. Combining IF with other formulas. using an AND statement.”D” If the value in A1 is greater than 60.000 in sales. and having made at least 15. • IF(A1>90. • IF(A1>70. IF with AND Let’s suppose that a sales bonus is based on having made at least 20 sales call. put an A in cell B2. • IF(A1>80.

GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU IF with OR Now. in this case. When this occurs. they receive the bonus.000 and make at least 20 sales calls. the bonus is given. if they're a member OR they sell more than 15. they're given special consideration on bonuses.000 in sales. let’s use IF with an OR statement. a sales bonus is based on having made at least 20 sales calls. In this case. So. OR having made at least 15. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI -8- .ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. If either condition is met. IF with OR and AND Imagine that employees with perfect attendance become a member of an exclusive employee's club.

You can list as many as you like. we must use a named range for our options list. you may need to provide more than one drop-down. If you create these on a separate worksheet. Because of this. and hit Enter. and then hit Enter. but don't leave any spaces. We then select our range of options. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU DATA VALIDATION Drop-Down Using Data Validation in Microsoft Excel: The following steps will show how to create a drop-down list using either an absolute reference or a named range. Our example contains the list of choices on a worksheet called "Data". however. they are "out of the way" when your form is active. Generally. where the second dropdown is dependent upon the choice in the first drop-down. Because we use a separate worksheet. and choose from the menus Insert →Name→Define. we recommend you always use a named range when creating this type of drop-down. and so on. thus reducing errors. When creating forms. when creating forms. and assign a name to the range by typing it into the Name box (that drop-down just above column A in any worksheet). and type the name there. as shown below. Step 2: Name the range that contains the options. Start by first creating a list of the drop-down choices you want to provide. Step 1: Create a list of options from which to choose. It is not possible to use typical cell referencing when your option choices reside on another worksheet. you can select the options. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI -9- . Alternatively. you may do so. you can force the user to choose one of the options. We chose department names for our example. Tip. If you need what is called "conditional" or "cascading" drop-downs. Make the first option in your list "Choose" or "Pick from List" to provide directions to the user of the form.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.

followed by our range name. On our "front-end" worksheet—that is. From the Allow: drop-down. select cell C5 and choose from the menu Data→Validation. we provide a label for the drop-down in B5. We put a nice heavy border on cell C5. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Our sample has a named range called "depts". we choose List. into the Source: box. Step 3: Assign validation to the cell. and the Data Validation dialog appears. as shown: ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. the worksheet that contains the form.10 - . Then. as shown below: We then type an equal sign.

GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Tip. if you have only several options from which to choose. as shown below. and they're not likely to change. you can actually skip Step 1 and just type the list into the Source: box. Don't forget the equal sign! If you do.11 - . separating each option with commas. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . the only option that will appear in your dropdown is the word that you typed! Alternatively. and a drop-down arrow appears next to your cell. Hit the OK button to apply the Data Validation to your cell.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. When typing text options directly into the Source: box. Click on the cell to activate it again. no equal sign is required.

Tip. There is no way to alter it to show the arrow using the Data Validation method. Tip. To "copy" the drop-down to other cells. The arrow doesn't show unless the cell is selected. Click the drop-down arrow to view your choices. For example. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . you can create a macro to format those cells so that the text wraps.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. Check out the Input Message tab of the Data Validation dialog. you can automate the task with a macro. A macro is a series of commands and functions that are stored in a Microsoft Visual Basic module and can be run whenever you need to perform the task. if you often enter long text strings in cells. You can even create a big financial model using macros is you feel to create it and use it repeatedly. This lets the user know that a choice is to be made. Macros If you perform a task repeatedly in Microsoft Excel. Select one of the choices.12 - . Making the dropdown provide unique options from a list that contains the same options multiple times requires custom programming. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Step 4: Test to see that it worked. use the Format Painter. Any Input Message you provide is displayed as a tool-tip when the cell is selected. Use Conditional Formatting to format the cell to have a colored background if it is blank.

record the tasks as a macro and you will only have to press a button to perform them again. If you would like it available in the current workbook only. The next time you need to perform this or a similar task. and the user name. If you would like the macro to be available for use with any file. One of the best reasons for creating a macro could be that you must format files from external sources on a daily basis. If you accidentally use the X on the Stop Recording toolbar to stop recording a macro. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. select Personal Macro Workbook (which is a file that will be called Personal. Press the Pause button again to continue recording. hit the Store Macro in dropdown box and select your active workbook's name. Hit the Stop button to Stop recording when you have finished recording your tasks. go to View →Toolbars and click on the Stop Recording toolbar. There are two buttons on the Stop Recording toolbar. the description will state the date the macro was recorded. If you need to interrupt the macro recording to perform some non-related work. to make the macro available for use in any single file or for use in any file you open. It must not have any spaces and should not contain special characters. hit Tools→Macro→Macros. you will know that there are several steps you must take to accomplish it. and to assign a toolbar button to run the macro. choose Tools→Macro→Record New Macro. The square is used to STOP recording and the lines and circle are used to PAUSE recording. go to View→Toolbars and click on the Stop Recording toolbar. Step 2: Record the Macro Perform the tasks you would like your new macro to perform for you. enter the name you would like to use for your macro. Give the macro any description you like in the Description box. By default. Tip: If you accidentally close the Stop Recording toolbar.13 - . Step 3: Test the Macro Always test a macro. particularly if you have created it to run for someone else. open that file. From the menu. The following dialog box will appear: In the Macro name box. User Info tab. Step 1: Prepare to Record If you would like the macro to be available in a specific file. The user name automatically comes from the information under Word's Tools→Options.xls). GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU The following are the steps you need to record a macro. To test the macro. and double-click the macro name. The Stop Recording toolbar appear. press the Pause button on the Stop Recording toolbar. If you are fairly accomplished in Excel. Decide where to store the macro.

you will see an X hanging on your mouse pointer. It is not safe to drop the button. Edit Button Image: Select this option to "draw" your own button image. scroll down and choose Macros. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Step 4: Assign the Macro to a Toolbar Button Hit Tools→Customize and choose the Commands tab. Click on the smiley icon and drag it up to any location you choose on any toolbar you choose. Your mouse pointer must have a plus sign (+) hanging on it before you lift your finger from the mouse or the icon will not be placed. Once your icon is placed on a toolbar.14 - . While dragging. The following dialog box appears: Under the Categories (left). and various options will appear. click the Modify Selection button. The following describes only those options that apply for our purposes here: Name: Type in the name of the macro as it should appear on your toolbar if you are going to use the text style button (described below). Reset Button Image: Select this only if you have begun to edit an existing button image and you would like to reset it to the default.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.

Set Cell: To Value: ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU So Goal Seek has given us the answer we wanted: it is 7 that when times by 8 equals 56.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.17 - . Goal Seek advanced Example: Input these figures and formulas into a spreadsheet.

ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .18 - . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU By changing cell: To give unit answer as 12575 units Cell Locking There's pretty much just two reasons for locking cells: • • To restrict entry (locked cells may not be changed) To allow tabbing to different cells for entry (unlocked cells can be tabbed through) The points you should know are these: • • • • All cells are locked by default Cell locking doesn't take effect until you protect your worksheet (Tools→Protection→Protect Sheet to "lock" or Tools→Protection→Unprotect Sheet to "unlock") If you want most cells locked. and then lock only those you want prohibit users from changing Select All Cells Just click the button above Row 1 and to the left of Column A. then unlock them all first. This selects all the cells on your worksheet. then only unlock those you want users to be able to change If you want most cells unlocked.

. you can select. Lock or unlock the cells as desired. select. while you may have 30 different cells on a worksheet that you want to unlock. You can quickly lock/unlock cells by locking or unlocking one or more cells. Choose the Protection tab. F4. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . which repeats the last command.19 - . F4.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. then continue by using the F4 button. So. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Lock/Unlock Cells Go to Format→Cells..

it will not change it when rows or columns are deleted or inserted. For example. In its simplest usage. this evaluates to the string "A1:A5". you can use it to work with cell references that you don't want Excel to automatically change when you insert or delete rows. if cell A1 has the value "C3". an array formula will use the ROW() function to return an array of numbers. If you have the formula =SUM(\$A\$1:\$A\$10). Then. For example. Excel will change cell references when you insert or delete rows or columns. Frequently.20 - . use the INDIRECT function to change a text string to a reference: =SUM(INDIRECT("A1:A10")) Since Excel sees "A1:A10" as a text string rather than a range reference. Suppose you put your starting row cell B1. and then insert a row at row 5.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. as a formula is evaluated. suppose you want to be able to specify which range of rows to sum "on the fly". rather than "hard coding" them into the formula. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU INDIRECT The INDIRECT worksheet function is a useful tool for creating cell or range references "on the fly". Another useful feature of the INDIRECT function is that since it takes string argument. This feature is important when working with some array formulas. the ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . However. For example. you can use the formula =SUM(INDIRECT("A"&B1):INDIRECT(“A"&B2)) The argument to the INDIRECT function is "A"&B1&":A"&C1 If B1 contains 1 and B2 contains 5. Excel will convert the formula to =SUM(\$A\$1:\$A\$11). then =INDIRECT(A1) will return the value in C3. The real power of the INDIRECT function is that it can turn any string into a reference. without having to change the formula. If you don't want this to happen. the INDIRECT function allows you to put the address of one cell in another. strung together with the & concatenation operator. This includes any string that you build up using string constants and the values of other cells in the formula. even when you use absolute referencing. the simple formula =SUM(A1:A5) will sum the values in the range A1:A5. which is passed to the SUM function. Normally. and get data from the first cell by referencing the second. The INDIRECT function converts this string to an actual range reference. and your ending row in B2. The INDIRECT function allows you to do this.

→ Sum every nth value in a range of values. or multiple rows and columns (a two-dimensional array). You can also place a formula in a single cell and calculate a single amount. Array formulas can return either multiple results or a single result. The ADDRESS function uses row and column numbers to create a string address. since \$F\$5 is the 5th row of column 6. and troubleshoot them. so the formula will remain correct. it illustrates a technique that you can use to build more complicated formulas. ARRAY If you really want to master formulas in Excel. regardless of whether and where rows are inserted or deleted. a column (a one-dimensional vertical array). such as the lowest values in a range or numbers that fall between an upper and lower boundary. For example. Excel won't change the reference. You can use array formulas to do the seemingly impossible. =INDIRECT(ADDRESS(5. For example. Note: You may see array formulas referred to as "CSE formulas. The only difference is the name. For example.ROW(1:10))) However.6) returns the string \$F\$5. the formula =ADDRESS(5. those items can reside in a single row (called a onedimensional horizontal array). An array formula is a formula that can perform multiple calculations on one or more of the items in an array. edit. While this example may seem trivial. =AVERAGE(LARGE(A1:A60. you can place an array formula in a range of cells and calculate a column or row of subtotals. you need to know how to use array formulas.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU following formula will return the average of the 10 largest numbers in the range A1:A60 : =AVERAGE(LARGE(A1:A60." because you press CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER to enter them into your workbooks. If we use the function with a string.ROW(INDIRECT("1:10")))) You can use the INDIRECT function in conjunction with the ADDRESS function.21 - . You can use then pass this to INDIRECT to get the value in cell F5. Let’s introduce array formulas and explain how to enter.ROW(1:11))) which will return the average of the 11 largest numbers. if you insert a row between rows 1 and 10. An array is just a collection of items. In Excel. An array formula that resides in multiple cells is called ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . such as: → Count the number of characters in a range of cells.6)) . → Sum numbers that meet certain conditions. Excel will change the formula to =AVERAGE(LARGE(A1:A60.

Do you see how ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . so what you see in column E is the total sales amount for each car type for each sales person. The first set of steps uses a multi-cell formula to calculate a set of subtotals. and an array formula that resides in a single cell is called a singlecell formula. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER: =SUM(C2:C11*D2:D11) In this case. In cell B13. 2. Excel surrounds the formula with braces ({ }) and places an instance of the formula in each cell of the selected range. select cells E2 through E11.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. This happens very quickly. The result is a grand total of Rs: 111. and then enter the following formula in the formula bar: =C2:C11*D2:D11 2. Press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU (logically enough) a multi-cell formula. This exercise shows you how to use multi-cell and single-cell array formulas to calculate a set of sales figures. To multiply the values in the array (the cell range C2 through D11). Excel multiplies the values in the array (the cell range C2 through D11) and then uses the SUM function to add the totals together.800 in sales. To create a multi-cell array formula 1. enter the following formula. The second set uses a single-cell formula to calculate a grand total. In cell A13 of the workbook. To create a single-cell array formula 1.22 - . type Total Sales.

You can take any number of actions. SUMPRODUCT is one of the most versatile functions provided in Excel. You have to either select the entire range of cells and change the formula for the entire array.B1:B3) ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . the SUMPRODUCT function. There are a number of ways that this can be achieved within Excel.flexibility.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. → Safety You cannot overwrite part of a multi-cell array formula. say you have 15. the workbook you created for this exercise uses two array formulas. without affecting the single-cell formula. Standard Use of SUMPRODUCT In it's classic form. → Smaller file sizes You can often use a single array formula instead of several intermediate formulas. and some of the techniques being deployed.23 - . You can sum part or all of that data with a single formula in a single cell. This points to another advantage of using array formulas . Let’s discuss the classic use of SUMPRODUCT. One condition is useful. if cells A1:A3 contain the values 1. SUMPRODUCT One of the most basic functions in any spreadsheet is to return an answer based upon some condition.3 and B1:B3 contain 10. For example. notice that the single-cell formula is completely independent of the multi-cell formula. Also.20. Array formulas also offer these advantages: → Consistency If you click any of the cells from E2 downward. or leave it as is. For example. and returns the summed result. If you had used standard formulas (such as =C2*D2). such as changing the formulas in column E or deleting that column altogether.2. then =SUMPRODUCT(A1:A3. you would have used 11 different formulas. That consistency can help ensure greater accuracy.000 rows of data. on one particular function. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU powerful this type of formula can be? For example. how creativity and inbuilt flexibility has enabled it to evolve into a far more useful function. but multiple conditions extend the functionality and flexibility.30. This becomes especially useful when counting or summing based upon that condition. and returns the sum of those products. which by creative use has evolved a flexibility undreamt of by its originators in Microsoft. In its most basic form. SUMPRODUCT multiplies corresponding members in given arrays. you see the same formula. As an example. so that you can count say the number of items sold by part number and by month. click cell E3 and press DELETE. SUMPRODUCT multiplies each value in one array by the corresponding value in another array.

A lot of people try to use Excel as a database. Use VLOOKUP instead of HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data that you want to find.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. or (1*10)+(2*20)+(3*30)=10+40+90=140. but nothing more than that. A further. The V in VLOOKUP stands for vertical. Create a master table of depreciation rates and name it as ‘RATE’ as below. This is a useful function. The following example makes the application of VLOOKUP simple. You will find the function VLOOKUP to be extremely useful so check out an example of when and how to use this function below. more 'creative' use of SUMPRODUCT has evolved. While it can work as a database. this can be easily accomplished using Excel VLOOKUP. some of the tasks that would be very easy in a database program are fairly complex in Excel. One of these tasks is matching two lists based on a common field. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU returns 140.24 - . To find the rate enter the VLOOKUP formula as given below to get the deprecation rate as answer: ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . and is still evolving VLOOKUP VLOOKUP searches for a value in the first column of a table array and returns a value in the same row from another column in the table array.

This results in a value of 123460.789 to . which means how many digits to the left of the decimal point. You can round any value to the nearest decimal place using the ROUND function. We tell it to be -1 digits from the decimal point. If you want to round to the nearest whole number. The following demonstrates how to round to the nearest multiple of 10.25 - . the result is 123456. as shown: ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . ROUND By Decimal Using ROUND ROUNDUP and ROUNDDOWN work exactly the same way as ROUND. In this example. Take the time to learn the basic use and you will be able to do far more powerful tasks in Excel. except of course. The following graphic demonstrates the use of the ROUND function to 1 digit.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. then you simply put a 0 as the number of digits. they force the up or down part. The 1 indicates how many digits to the right of the decimal point should be used in the result. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU VLOOKUP allows you to save time when matching lists of data.8 because it rounds the .8.

this is how you'd do it.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. Guarantee an Ending Value Now what if you wanted all your prices to be X Rupees and 95-paise? (Like Bata Store!). but if you send your workbook out to others. or they'll get a #NAME? error in the cell. So your prices would be 2. This function requires that you turn on use of the Analysis Toolpak. 4. 3.95.95. If you like all your prices in your pricelist to be in 25-paise increments.26 - .95. we demonstrate how to round the value to the nearest quarter or . This is accomplished by rounding to the nearest dollar and subtracting 5 cents. and choose Addins.25. You only need to check this option once. Then check the box next to Analysis Toolpak. Below. As shown: ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . you may need to tell them to turn on the Analysis Toolpak. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU To the Nearest Nth Using MROUND How do you round to the nearest quarter? What about in increments of 25? Use MROUND. Go to the Tools menu. etc.

Why use Range Names Readability: The worksheets become readable. Enter the name and click on Add button. These also lend themselves to be exploited by most of the functions within Excel. but this could become cumbersome when a worksheet gets sizeable and contains a number of formulas. Production * Rate rather than B6*D5. However by allowing the reference to be relative we can define ranges which are dynamic and the area selected will be dependent on the position of the cursor. It is perfectly possible to work without any range names. How to define Range Names Select a single cell or a range of cells for which a name is to be assigned. This means that the name is not dependent on the cursor position and will always refer to the particular location. You can also use the Go To command by using F5 key and enter the name to go the name area. (E. It is always easier to understand a formula. select Names and Define. C in worksheet) The value is to be derived by multiplying these values by a single rate what we will define as ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Range names are intelligent Range names have the ability to apply the names as a variable according to the context. workbook and also across workbooks. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Range Names What are Range Names Range names are a very important idea within Excel. A single cell or a group of cells can be defined as a name and referred to by that name within that worksheet. Let us assume that you have given a range name ‘Production’ to quantity of production from Year 1 through Year 5.g. The list of names defined could be found by clicking on the name box at the left of the formula bar. Note that this refers to the box pointing to the cell or range of cells from where you called the Insert Name command and also that the reference is absolute.27 - . Then from the Insert menu. a range name containing a group of cells can be compared to a ‘mini database’. The insert name dialog box displays the existing names defined.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. In the dialog box enter the name for the range. Broadly a range name can be classified into two categories: • • Name defined for a single cell Name defined for a group of cells While name given to a single cell can be compared to a variable defined within a program.

The functions can become a little complicated and use of names is necessary to easily understand the model we are building. Here we will review some of the features: ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU SaleRate. Tip: Right click menus: Using the ‘Right click’ to select the menu is the fastest way to work with a spreadsheet. This requirement depends on the values being shared across multiple files. When it comes to the second year. as the correct context is not available to the function. Value error will be returned. the right element within the name is applied. Click File  Save Workspace and in the dialogue specify the name and location. You will observe that navigating to different sections of the worksheet and using the right click always brings up different menus that are relevant to your current selection. By saving the related files as a workspace. Here East. This approach is not confined to just Excel but to all office products. (E. If you want to open all the related files together click File  Open and in the type of files list choose workspaces. To achieve this first open all the related files and ensure that only the required files are opened and other un-related files have been closed. the range names will become the standard way. File handling Excel offers number of file handling possibilities. Select the workspace to open. North and South are range names. We can also capitalise on the ability of the names to convert them in to absolute or relative reference depending on the context. The right click always brings up context sensitive menus. the formula remains the same but the value is correctly arrived at. West. When we apply the formula Production * SaleRate for the first year and copy it across the years 2 through 5.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. you can open all the files together by just opening the workspace. Each of these names contains a column of value and when addition is performed. Workspace There may a situation in which multiple files have to be opened together.28 - . Thus choice is narrowed to the possible actions that can be applied to the object. Useful within functions When functions are used within Excel. B in worksheet).g. The same principle is also at work when we perform additions of elements within a range name. the second element within the range production has correctly been used. If we try to add say East + West in a location like J31. Excel will list all available workspace definitions.

ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. Excel will immediately open the file. Opening text files In the case of text file where this is not so. The file loaded will be similar to the template file. Step 2 of 3 The screen displayed will be depending upon the selection in earlier screen. You can also mark the columns as to be skipped. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU File open Open not only Excel files but files of other popular spreadsheet applications also. Excel will guide you through a ‘Text Import Wizard’. The list of type of files that Excel will open will appear when you click the ‘File of type’ list in the file open dialogue. Typical example will be an invoice layout file. We refer to the cell by using Column and row co-ordinates. to IV are ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Click the appropriate field marker and Excel will automatically cut fields at the location of field markers. Once you click Finish. Letters A. B.29 - . Choose the applicable template. It is common practice to specify a character like ‘Tab’ ‘:’ ”. You can start by select specifying the type of file in the ‘File Name’ drop down. the data will be converted to Excel format. a dialogue will appear.’ as field separators. If the file type is delimited. Cell referencing There are two types of cell referencing: • Relative • Absolute Relative reference The relative referencing is fundamental to Excel and without which the worksheet will be unworkable. Simply click in the data preview window and the field will be cut at that point. The following are the steps involved: Step 1 of 3 Specify if the file type is Delimited or Fixed width. then the list of field markers will be displayed. If the file format clearly defines the field positions. Browse through the data and mark fields where required. click again on that. Select the text file you want to open. C. then Excel will allow you to specify the field width. Step 3 of 3 This lets you select the format applicable for the columns. You can also click the line where a field is being cut and move it to a required location. Delimited type is where the fields are separated through a field marker. To attach a file to a template while creating a new file click File  New. These characters will be added at the end of each field to mark the end of the field content. Select fixed width if no specific delimiters have been used. These will not be imported. To remove the field cut. The click acts as a toggle. which have certain definitions and formatting. The general tab will display the templates you have defined. Whenever you wish to print an invoice you may want the new file to be created to be based on a template. Files based on templates Templates are files. If the file type is fixed width.

For E. ‘=A1&B1&C1’ would put together the values in cells A1. start num.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. …) =LEFT(text.D4.E4) =B4&" "&C4&" "&D4&" "&E4 =RIGHT(G4.5) =MID(G4. number of characters from left of string chars]) =RIGHT(text.g.5) =LEFT(G4. the ‘&” can also be used to add strings together. [num of In a given string. anchors at the character specified as the start num of chars) number and displays the next number of characters in the string.31 - .6. [text2].C4. Instead of using the concatenate function. In a given string. The character functions are described below: =CONCATENATE(text This function ‘adds’ the values found in the argument list together 1." ". B1 and C1. number of characters from right of string chars]) =Mid(text." ". [num of In a given string. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Character Functions There are a number of useful character functions by which we can put together character strings in different cells and also split the strings. . Example of Character Functions D E sample text A 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B This is C a F G H This is a sample text This is a sample text There are 5 boxes There are 5 boxes Length of the first string Left 5 characters Right 5 characters 5 Character starting from 6th position This text is a 21 =LEN(G4) =CONCATENATE(B4.5) ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI ." ".

Returns the count of cells which are not blank in the argument list Returns the number of cells which contain blank in the range Example Count function in use A B C D E F G H I J K L 4 List A List B List A List B List A List B 5 6 45 3 45 3 45 3 7 92 92 92 8 ABC 28 ABC 28 ABC 28 9 10-Jan-96 0 10-Jan-96 0 10-Jan-96 0 10 200 #DIV/0! 200 #DIV/0! 200 #DIV/0! 11 12 Count CountA CountBlank 13 4 3 5 4 0 1 14 15 16 17 =COUNT(B6:B10) =COUNTA(F6:F10) =COUNTBLANK(J6:J10) ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Count The count functions count the number of records in a given range. The function has variants and counts cells containing numeric. …) =COUNTA(value1. The functions are as below: =COUNT(value1.32 - . blanks and non-blanks. [value2]. …) =COUNTBLANK(range) Returns the number of cells containing numeric value in the argument list and date is considered as a numeric value.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. [value2].

The syntax for the subtotal is given below: =subtotal (function number.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. ref1. The following table gives the details of the function the subtotal function uses: Function number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Function AVERAGE COUNT COUNTA MAX MIN PRODUCT STDEV STDEVP SUM VAR VARP ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . [ref2].33 - . Subtotals can be used to prepare grand totals without having to call the individual group totals into summary. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Subtotal The subtotal function performs a number of functions including sum of range of values. Subtotal function will ignore previous subtotals and will include only data values in its calculation. …) The first argument decides the type of function to use and the second argument is the values which will be used by the function.

C4:C38) ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Example of Subtotal C D Units WeekNo generated 500 1 856 1 127 1 558 1 797 1 797 1 263 1 3898 =SUBTOTAL(9.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.C4:C10) 157 526 703 526 716 732 604 3964 626 838 754 446 958 892 963 5477 166 590 432 266 454 965 703 3576 16915 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 =SUBTOTAL(9.34 - .C13:C19) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 A 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B Date 01-Jan-03 02-Jan-03 03-Jan-03 04-Jan-03 05-Jan-03 06-Jan-03 07-Jan-03 08-Jan-03 09-Jan-03 10-Jan-03 11-Jan-03 12-Jan-03 13-Jan-03 14-Jan-03 15-Jan-03 16-Jan-03 17-Jan-03 18-Jan-03 19-Jan-03 20-Jan-03 21-Jan-03 22-Jan-03 23-Jan-03 24-Jan-03 25-Jan-03 26-Jan-03 27-Jan-03 28-Jan-03 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Grand Total =SUBTOTAL(9.

You can choose the appropriate row. Such situations these formulas should be defined using absolute reference.35 - . when you are in the sort dialogue. Let us say that your list has data from cell A1 to E50. then after sorting you will note that the formula defined have changed and it is now displaying junk value. The data list in sort has to obey some rules. Example of sort Data sorted on Year (ascending) and invoice value (descending) ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . you can go beyond that by concatenating columns and perform a sort based on the combined column. Usually the column sort will meet the normal requirements. Separate each field with a comma. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Sort Sort enables a quick sort of a single column or does a multiple column sort. Now after sort if the record has been moved to 2nd want the cell to always refer to B100. Sort can also act on columns by sorting them left to right or right to left. Besides ascending and descending Sort is also possible based on a custom list. This is so because the sort function after sorting the data is trying copy the formula to a its new location and in that process applies its rule of maintaining relative reference. Some of the sort criteria are listed below: • Blanks are always pushed to the last • Generally sort is not case sensitive unless specifically set • Numbers sorted from smallest negative to largest positive Even though sort gives you option to sort up to 3 columns. While sorting the list. Row 1 will be the header. If a cell in row 45 (B20) if referring to a value in cell B100 which is outside the list or E20 which is within the list.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. The values in rows if defined through formulas then sort will corrupt the data. To define a custom list Click Tools  Options and in the dialogue box select Custom Lists. click Options and select the sort order from the drop down list. When you are within the sort dialogue click Options and choose Sort left to right. In the example shown above cell B20 is referring to the cell B100 and in other words the cell is referring to 80 rows below it in the same column. Click Add and enter the series. A second dialogue box will appear which will ask you value in which row is to be used for sorting.

This is applicable to numeric columns. The filtered column will also be indicated separately. If you employ different criteria for listing the column. A dialogue box will be displayed through which you can choose to view Top or Bottom values and the number of items to be viewed. the sub total function will display the appropriate total for the selected rows. It will be interesting to note that if you move to the end of a column containing values continuously without applying filter and click ‘ ∑ ’ the function inserted will be sum and not subtotal Options available Filter gives the following options: Display top 10 You can choose to display the top n number of items.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. After filtering a column move to the end of the column and click ‘ ∑ ’ on the standard toolbar. However the total will be only for the displayed values. Multiple columns can be filtered by using the same approach. the data list will be displayed showing only the selected item. One of the features of the filters is that the subtotal function can be used effectively with that. Even though the menu says ‘Display top 10’. Click on the button to view the list of unique items in the column. Once the cursor is within the data area. A subtotal function will be inserted selecting all the values in the column including the hidden rows. The filter button will be shown in blue colour. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . click Data  Filter  AutoFilter.36 - . Excel will immediately sense the boundary of the data list and in the first row which is the header row applies the filter button. which results in different set of records. Click the filter and select ‘top 10 values’. There are two types of filters. you can display top 5 or bottom 20 values. These are: • Auto filter • Advanced filters Filters are very easy to set up and use. If you select any item from the list. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU inv_ no year_ no 48 12 45 96 42 38 78 11 74 79 10 99 26 14 95 100 15 72 33 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 inv_ date customer_ no line_ no 13-Apr-02 03-Apr-02 12-Apr-02 28-Apr-02 10-Apr-02 09-Apr-02 22-Apr-02 02-Apr-02 20-Apr-02 22-Apr-02 02-Apr-02 29-Apr-02 06-Apr-02 03-Apr-02 28-Apr-02 29-Apr-02 04-Apr-02 20-Apr-02 08-Apr-02 8 30 16 15 28 4 23 4 14 25 3 27 20 11 16 11 30 22 8 4 5 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 3 1 2 3 4 product_ no 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 1 6 12 2 11 11 quantity rate inv_ value net_ price 192 190 190 186 185 178 175 174 174 174 169 163 183 198 177 183 155 200 191 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 89 80 89 85 100 77 77 19200 19000 19000 18600 18500 17800 17500 17400 17400 17400 16900 16300 16287 15840 15753 15555 15500 15400 14707 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 89 80 89 85 100 77 77 Filters Filters can be applied to a list so as to extract specific data.

define the data list Criteria range Enter the column captions in a separate area of the worksheet.37 - . If the data list shown is not correct. Filter conditions applied Year = 2003. The values mentioned in the same row will be used as logical ‘AND’ and the values mentioned in different rows will be used as logical ‘OR’ ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Invoice date <= 07-Apr-2002. You can set a range of values to be included.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. Specify the values based on which you wish to filter below the columns. Click Data  Filter  Advanced Filter and Excel display a dialogue asking you to fill in the following: List range Excel would have pre-selected the data list. Customer no >=25 Advanced filters Advanced filters are required where the filtering criterion becomes complex and it is not possible for the Auto Filter to handle the requirements. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Custom This option allows you to view the values based on certain criteria.

The features of the pivot table report are described below: Setting up a Pivot Table Keep the cursor within the data list and click Data  Pivot table report.00 230 31 7130 30 02-Apr-03 27 4 12.00 158 84 13272 71 02-Apr-03 2 1 1. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Advanced Filter also gives an option to filter the values either in place or in a separate area in the worksheet.00 174 84 14616 71 01-Apr-03 6 2 6.00 79 105 8295 96 02-Apr-03 27 2 3.00 173 57 9861 48 02-Apr-03 2 3 12.00 55 26 1430 23 02-Apr-03 29 1 11.00 219 31 6789 30 02-Apr-03 5 1 7.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.00 128 37 4736 36 02-Apr-03 5 3 10.00 51 105 5355 96 02-Apr-03 27 1 2.00 117 100 11700 92 01-Apr-03 6 3 15.00 170 105 17850 96 02-Apr-03 24 2 6.00 3 83 249 79 02-Apr-03 29 3 14.00 178 105 18690 92 02-Apr-03 24 1 2.00 206 14 2884 13 02-Apr-03 27 3 4.00 206 37 7622 36 Pivot Table Pivot table is a very powerful data analysis facility and has got great dynamic capabilities. Example of advanced filter inv_ no year_ no 1 2004 Filter condition inv_ date customer_ no line_ no product_ no quantity rate inv_ value net_ price 02-Apr-03 inv_ no year_ no 1 2004 1 2004 1 2004 7 2004 7 2004 7 2004 8 2004 8 2004 8 2004 8 2004 9 2004 9 2004 9 2004 9 2004 9 2004 10 2004 10 2004 10 2004 11 2004 11 2004 11 2004 11 2004 Filter result inv_ date customer_ no line_ no product_ no quantity rate inv_ value net_ price 01-Apr-03 6 1 4.00 71 57 4047 48 02-Apr-03 5 4 12.00 90 16 1440 14 02-Apr-03 5 2 8.00 4 101 404 93 02-Apr-03 27 5 13. The data list can be any of the following: Excel list • External data base • Multiple Excel lists • Another pivot tale report Excel would have selected the Excel list as default but this can be changed ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .00 219 101 22119 93 02-Apr-03 24 4 9.38 - .00 2 87 174 86 02-Apr-03 2 2 10. Excel display the Pivot table wizard which will guide you through the steps in defining a Pivot table report Step 1 of 3 The data source is decided at this stage.00 114 34 3876 29 02-Apr-03 24 3 8.00 106 40 4240 36 02-Apr-03 29 2 13.

which contain the record parameters. Click ‘Layout’ to proceed with the design. ‘average’ etc. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Step 2 of 3 Select the data area here. The data is analyzed through fields. Column or Page areas. Column and Page fields. Also gives the option to design the layout of the pivot table. The Pivot Table will also show a layout showing placeholders for Data. is at the centre of the Pivot Table. The Row/Column summary is viewed for each item in a third field when this item is defined as a Page. Multiple fields can be used in which case the summary is made available for each of these fields. the list of available fields will be listed in the right. Example of a Pivot table ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Bonus. Besides ‘sum’ other aggregate functions like ‘count’. In the worksheet attached these columns will be Salary. Commission and Gross. The fourth aspect is the ‘Page’. which required to be summarized and drop them in the data area. Drab the fields for which you want construct a summary in to the data area. Drag the fields based on which you wish to analyze and drop them on to Row. Row.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. the mouse tip will change to indicate that the orientation has changed. Excel will display the current data list as the default area. It is also possible to keep more than one field as a Row or as a Column. When you are in the wizard screen of the Pivot table. As you click the field and drag it. Managing a Pivot table A Pivot table has basically four aspects. Alternatively click ‘Finish’ to complete the report which displays a dummy report with outlines which could be customised.39 - . ‘Data’. If you wish to change the Row. This can be done from within the Pivot table report itself. Drag the columns. As you drag it in to new location say from Column to field. Column or Page fields simply click and drag the fields to the required area. the layout location currently associated with it will be shown in the mouse tip. which is summarized. The way this information is viewed can be through placing a field in a Row and another in a Column. Step 3 of 3 This displays the options to choose the location where the Pivot table will be drawn.

40 - .ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU year_no 2004 Sum of inv_value product_no customer_no 1 1 31146 2 21228 3 15051 4 10560 5 7134 6 7 8 13659 9 10 20184 11 12 14 15 17487 16 17 9831 18 19 20 Grand Total 146280 2 24846 11716 19800 3 2674 238 2478 2170 1036 2604 1022 1904 9494 12221 22321 30502 11918 909 4 16380 4452 19488 12936 12348 34776 1344 30828 8568 7392 4368 9996 6048 1176 504 3486 10403 154130 18116 170100 5 Grand Total 6825 54351 4165 54691 4585 53514 3010 46544 21960 12390 47166 700 13708 8085 22780 3360 18185 74355 8568 4725 44523 4368 1435 40836 6230 6230 1925 19217 3486 1176 10403 57435 546061 Chart showing sum of invoice value for customer/product combination for year 2004 Sum of inv_value year_no customer_no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Grand Total 2003 42170 10710 48362 40694 12998 16845 20730 61749 2475 1530 65299 10560 300 23553 19990 38180 34196 13520 7510 10535 481906 2004 Grand Total 54351 96521 54691 65401 53514 101876 46544 87238 21960 34958 47166 64011 13708 34438 22780 84529 18185 20660 74355 75885 8568 73867 44523 55083 300 4368 27921 40836 60826 6230 44410 19217 53413 3486 17006 1176 8686 10403 20938 546061 1027967 Chart showing invoice value for customer 1 to 20 for years 2003 & 2004 ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .

This will ensure that the format is retained even when the pivot table is redrawn when rows/column fields are changed. Typically the table lists information for each item in a field. which are related to the gross salary. Move the cursor within the area and use right click to display the menu. Excel will display the Pivot table Field dialogue. all previous formatting will be lost. If we wanted to look at possible loan amounts. To hide an item from view when you are within the Pivot table choose the row or column header. If you wish the formula to refer to data fields. The grouped fields then in turn can be used as if these are regular fields Hide fields In a column or row. Alternatively invoke the Pivot table toolbar. Select a cell amongst the group of cells to be formatted and on right click select Field setting to display the ‘Pivot Table Field’ dialog. To display the hidden field. The Pivot table will list the date grouped under each date found in the list. in the formula field enter the formula. The context sensitive menus are available on the right click once the cursor is within the pivot table area. In order to format the cells first check the Preserve formatting Check box in Table options. Data fields are those on which the aggregate functions are performed. This technique is relevant where data fields are involved. In the name field enter the name for new field. It is possible to temporarily remove some items from view. If the calculated fields primarily work on the data items. Choose Format>AutoFormat and apply a format. which are used to analyze. It is possible to create groups out of these items. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Formatting Excel also offers option to choose from multiple pre-set format styles. In such case it is easy to view the month summary by creating a group for the date field. then if the table is redrawn. the calculated items work on the fields. then this can be defined as a formula. Pivot Table will introduce a new calculated field. we can introduce additional calculations based on existing data fields. each unique data item of the fields will be listed and the data area will contain the summarized information for these items. For example the data list contains information on Gross salary for an employee but not the eligible amount of loan. Once you are within the Pivot table click the Pivot table drop down in the Pivot table tool bar and from the menu select Formula  Calculated field. After you click OK. Calculated item Through Calculated items you can define additional data groups. If the format is done by choosing the Format from the menu. and in another words fields containing parameters for ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . use the same approach to list the dialogue and click the field market as hidden to display it. drag the fields in to formula bar and set the appropriate equation. Click ‘Number’ and specify the format option. From the menu choose Field. which are used in aggregation. Click the fields to be hidden and click OK. Excel will respond by selecting the row or column labels.41 - . Calculated field and items Calculated field Through calculated fields. Some of these items can be consolidated in to a group. A dialogue will be displayed. But we may want to summaries the data based on months. Let us say that a date field is used as a row. Grouping The information in a Pivot Table is presented as a summary.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.

3 ‘Sum of Avg Rate’ is a calculated field by pivot table report. These can also be grouped. Drag the fields and items in to the formula field and set the appropriate equation.g. if a company is trying to set up a new product line and expects the revenues be studied in relation to an existing product.0 2004 293914 2912 100.0 5 Total 131850 4503 29. Data product_no year_no Sum of inv_value Sum of quantity Sum of Avg Rate 1 2003 178720 2234 80.2 5 2003 59225 2369 25.4 3 2003 24390 1626 15. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .0 2004 260316 3111 83.0 2004 208050 2402 86. Once you are within the Pivot table click the Pivot table drop down in the Pivot table tool bar and from the menu select Formula  Calculated item and Excel will display a dialogue.4 2 2003 391400 3914 100.0 2004 32998 2357 14.9 2 Total 685314 6826 100. in the formula fields enter the formula for the item. Only the items belonging to a single field can be used in the calculation at a time. In the Name field enter the name for the new item.4 4 2003 133330 1990 67. Calculated fields and calculated items can be used in conjunction with each other. then this can be done through a calculated item.6 1 Total 386770 4636 83.7 4 Total 393646 5101 77. For e. You will note that the field from which you called the menu is selected and the items belonging to that field are displayed in the item box. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU data.0 2004 72625 2134 34.42 - .0 3 Total 57388 3983 14.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.

If you select the specific driver defined by you it will list all the tables in the data source. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . External data Click Data→Import External Data and select New Database Query. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Sum of inv_value year_no customer_no 2003 16 113039 14 89164 8 135554 11 123511 19 70797 13 45481 17 80588 18 66715 4 92522 15 74548 20 77524 7 86473 6 36383 1 70453 9 12310 12 15124 10 16715 5 25059 2 53194 3 72025 Grand Total 1357179 2004 Variation 18461 -94578 6443 -82721 65099 -70455 54506 -69005 11870 -58927 -45481 44163 -36425 35380 -31335 66522 -26000 60512 -14036 69782 -7742 83767 -2706 87801 51418 122567 52114 71019 58709 82509 67385 124154 107439 136381 111322 167005 113811 190338 118313 1498279 141100 ‘Variation’ is a ‘Calculated item’ of pivot table which represents difference between two analysis fields 2004 and 2003. This contains the drivers defined for data sources. After you select the driver. This will define a new data source name. If you choose a generic driver you have to identify the data source every time you want to connect to the same data source. The following are the steps in creating a specific driver: Select New Data Source and click ‘OK’ Step 2 In the next dialog give a name for the driver. There are two ways by which you can proceed. choose the generic database driver for your type of data source and click ‘Connect’ to specify the specific data source you want to link.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. Choose a generic driver type based on the type of database you want to link to or create a specific driver.43 - . Excel displays a wizard and guides you through the process of importing data. If you had selected a generic driver. Excel will prompt you to choose the data source also. the dialog displayed will depend upon the type of driver. Import data Step1 Excel displays ‘Choose Data Source’ dialog. Defining a specific driver will always point to the particular data source you define.

GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Step 3 Choose the tables and fields from the list. Step 4 Choose to apply filters and also specify a sort order. Click Data  Subtotal and Excel displays a dialogue box. Remember not to check the ‘Replace the current subtotal’ option. If you wish to enter some formulas on the data pulled in and wish to apply the same formula every time the link I refreshed check the ‘Fill down formulas in columns adjacent to data’. Right click gives a list of context sensitive menu. Using these multi level subtotals can be quickly done. Apply subtotal to Select the columns for which subtotal are required. if the relationship is defined between these tables Excel will automatically allow you to choose all the fields from both the tables. If you choose two or more table which does not have a common field amongst them Excel will ask you to specify the join condition in the database before proceeding with the selection. Check the applicable columns. If you choose more than one table. Function to be used Select the type of aggregate function to be used from the drop down list. Option is also available to specify whether the subtotal should be below the data or above the data. It will also maintain a dynamic link to the data.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.44 - . The information required by subtotal utility is as follows: Index column Select the column. To get a subtotal for multiple columns repeat the above step and choose the index column. Excel will pull down the data from the data source. Specify appropriate settings applicable. Subtotal on Customer ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Choose ‘refresh’ to refresh data Options On right click choose ‘Data Range properties’ to brig up the dialog. which will be used as index. Refresh Select any cell within the data list. Subtotal The subtotal function drives automatic totalling based on the change in fields. Subtotal will be made for each change in the column value.

ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.45 - . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU inv_ no year_ no inv_ date customer_ no line_ no 1 Total 2 Total 3 Total 4 Total 5 Total 6 Total 7 Total 8 Total 9 Total 10 Total product_ no quantity rate inv_ value net_ price 3449 3844 4139 2229 2817 2376 4080 3992 1607 2371 193020 220199 262363 159044 161440 124184 170240 200653 83329 140869 ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .

GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Subtotal on Product within Customer inv_ no year_ no inv_ date customer_ no line_ no product_ no quantity rate inv_ value net_ price 1 Total 2 Total 3 Total 4 Total 5 Total 6 Total 7 Total 8 Total 9 Total 10 Total 12 Total 13 Total 14 Total 1 Total 516 247 72 195 345 234 167 757 21 160 135 256 344 3449 43786 24700 1080 16380 10575 24570 2672 27611 714 9120 11475 7892 12445 193020 inv_ no year_ no 70 39 95 85 46 47 46 47 39 78 79 46 39 2003 2004 2004 2004 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2003 2004 inv_ date customer_ no line_ no 20-Apr-02 10-Apr-03 28-Apr-03 25-Apr-03 12-Apr-02 12-Apr-02 12-Apr-02 12-Apr-02 10-Apr-03 22-Apr-03 22-Apr-03 12-Apr-02 10-Apr-03 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 product_ no 1 1 1 1 1 Total 2 2 2 2 Total 3 3 Total 4 4 4 4 Total 5 5 5 Total quantity rate inv_ value net_ price 158 80 227 87 97 87 34 87 516 103 100 73 100 71 100 247 72 15 72 78 84 70 84 47 84 195 150 25 195 35 345 12640 19749 8439 2958 43786 10300 7300 7100 24700 1080 1080 6552 5880 3948 16380 3750 6825 10575 80 86 86 86 100 100 100 15 71 71 71 25 32 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 Solver Solver solves where multiple constrains have to be optimized. Typical example of where solver is used is in an optimization problem. Refer to the attached worksheet for the solver problem.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. The important issue while working with the solver is setting up the problem.46 - . ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .

Raw material availability is restricted to 1600 Kg 3. Labour availability is restricted only to 4500 hours 2. profit from producing and selling six products viz.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. Step 1: Set Target cell as D13 since we want to maximize the profit. Demand maximum for individual products 4. Demand minimum for individual products Go to Tools→Solver.47 - . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Here the objective is to Maximize D13 i. If solver is not available in the menu use Tools →Addins to enable the feature. A to F Subject to the following constraints 1. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .e.

ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Step 2: By Changing cells: D2:I2 since the requirement is to find the number of optimum products to be produced for sales.

Step 3: Subject to constraints
Clicks add to add the constraints one by one. Our first constraint labour is added here below:

The second constraint material is added below:

Our third constraint maximum products and minimum products are also added similarly. For example:

After entering constraints the Solver parameter dialog box will show like this: ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI

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ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU

Click options to select the non-negative constraints for the product quantities. Check the box ‘Assume Linear Model’ and ‘Assume non-negative’.

The completely solved solution will show like this.

ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI

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ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU

Scenario Analysis:
The following example will demonstrate three scenarios for

Click Tools→Scenarios

ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI

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51 - . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Click Add to add three scenarios namely Optimistic.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. for most likely let it be 17500 units and pessimistic be 10000 units ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Most Likely and Pessimistic For optimistic the units will be 25000 units.

ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Click summary to see the scenarios in summary format. FINANCIAL FUNCTIONS ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .52 - .

54.00 at 8% interest.-100) = Rs:7. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .53 - .54 months to repay Rs:2. For a monthly payment period remember to divide an annual interest rate by 12 (months) to get a monthly interest rate.743. At Rs:100.743.84 months to save Rs:2. FV This function returns the future value of an investment based on constant periodic payments and a constant interest rate. Enter cash paid out as negative values. At Rs:100.00 per month in an 8% interest account. =NPER(. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU NPER This function returns the number of periods for an investment with a constant cash flow and interest rate given a present and future value. Make sure that the rate corresponds to the number of payment periods. and any cash received as positive values.84.00. You save Rs:7.000.5*12. Enter cash paid out as negative values.00 per month it takes 21.000. Make sure that the rate corresponds to the number of payment periods. it takes 18. For a monthly payment period remember to divide an annual interest rate by 12 (months) to get a monthly interest rate.08/12. Example =NPER(.2000) = 18.-100.71.08/12.-100 0.2000) = 21.10/12.71 after 5 years depositing Rs:100 a month with no initial deposit and a 10% interest rate. Example =FV(. and any cash received as positive values.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA.

Let us review these. Protect sheet. But the locking of the cell has no effect unless the sheet is protected. Check the required options and click OK to protect the worksheet.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. The options available are structure and widows. Once the sheet is protected the locked cells cannot be edited. They are: Protect cells. To share your workbook: ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Similar to locking the cell formulas can also be hidden. In ‘Format cells’ click Protection and check the Locked and Hidden check boxes.54 - . The protect sheet dialog displays a number of options. where files are shared over a network. you may want to consider moving to an Access database. Protect sheet Click Tools→Protection and Protect sheet. Only values of these cells can be modified. Each of these protection functionalities works in conjunction with the other. The windows option will cause the worksheet position in the screen to be locked at the same position. Protect workbook Choose the kind of protection required. Workbook Sharing in Microsoft Excel First. Allow users to edit a range This is a new facility in XP. The structure protection will prevent the user from inserting or deleting the sheets. Before calling up the protection first select the cell of data entry and using format cell remove locking. if you are sharing a workbook. which is more suited to sharing. and Protect work book. Cell protection By default all the cells are locked. Did you know that multiple users can edit the same workbook at the same time? This is especially useful in a typical office environment. Define a range of cells which will be editable when the worksheet is protected. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Protection Excel offers different type of protection.

ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. When you place your cursor over it. It'll stop when there's no data alongside any more. or clicking and dragging down to copy formulas all the way down a column. it changes from a fat plus sign to a skinny plus sign. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Best Tips for using MS Excel Tip 1: The Fill Handle There are still many people either copying one cell at a time and pasting. below. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Smith? How do you get Smith to be separated from his first name? Use the Data→Text to Columns feature. but you want to do a mail merge. as shown in the left-hand figure below. Select column A and choose Data→Text to Columns from the menu. and address people as Mr. Tip 2: Data→ Text to Columns Suppose you have names in column A as shown in the figure below. as shown in the figure on the right.56 - . The Fill Handle is that little blob that appears in the bottom-right of any selected cell. Let’s Stop that!! Double-click the fill handle to automatically fill down when your formula resides aside of other data.

ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . and our data is now separated. as shown. We hit Finish. we'll choose Delimited as the option in the Text to Columns wizard. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU For our demonstration purposes. as shown below.57 - . then we'll choose Commas and Spaces as our delimiters.

and hit Ctrl+Enter Tip 4: F4 Key This is a shortcut key that I use all the time in Excel and Word. formatting cells the same way as the last one your formatted. Replace Format. Hyperlink File. typing the value or text. Italic Insert. Down Edit. or you can select smaller groups—which are much easier to manage—and hit the F4 key. Print Edit. MS Excel: Short Cut Keys (Hot Keys) Hot Keys Ctrl+A Ctrl+B Ctrl+C Ctrl+D Ctrl+F Ctrl+G Ctrl+H Ctrl+I Ctrl+K Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+R Ctrl+S Function Select All Bold Copy Fill Down Find Goto Replace Italic Insert Hyperlink New Workbook Open Print Fill Right Save Alternative Function None Format. Bold Edit. Open File. Save ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . You could use it for filling cells with color. Font Style. Fill. Font. Font Style. Copy Edit. Suppose you just unlocked a cell. Cells.58 - . GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Tip 3: Quick Data Entry You can quickly enter the same value into a bunch of cells all at once by selecting them.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. New File. and they're scattered all over your worksheet. Fill Right File. and you have to unlock 20 others. Font. Well. Find Edit. Goto Edit. Cells. you can select all those cells while holding the Ctrl key down. F4 repeats the last command. etc.

Find. Save As None None Edit. Paste Special. Goto None Tools. Name. Close Restore Window. Single Edit. Edit Comments Insert. Cut Edit.. ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI .59 - . Value Edit.. Calc. Find Next None None Calc Sheet None Insert. Repeat.Now N/A Insert. Ctrl+" Ctrl+’ Shift Shift+F1 Shift+F2 Shift+F3 Shift+F4 Shift+F5 Shift+F6 Shift+F8 Shift+F9 Shift+F10 Shift+F11 Shift+F12 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F5 Ctrl+F6 Shift+Ctrl+ F6 Underline Paste Close Cut Repeat Undo Help Edit Paste Name Repeat last action While typing a formula. What’s This? Insert. Worksheet File. . switch between absolute/relative refs Goto Next Pane Spell check Extend mode Recalculate all workbooks Activate Menubar New Chart Save As Insert Current Time Insert Current Date Copy Value from Cell Above Copy Fromula from Cell Above Hold down shift for additional functions in Excel’s menu What’s This? Edit cell comment Paste function into formula Find Next Find Previous Pane Add to selection Calculate active worksheet Display shortcut menu New worksheet Save Define name Close XL. Find. Font. Find Next Edit. Works while not in Edit mode. Chart File.. Paste File. Contents and Index None Insert. Copy none Help. Underline. Undo Help. Cells.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. Restore window size Next workbook window Previous workbook window Format.. Names. Paste Edit. Window. Repeat Edit. Options. Define File. Save Insert. Spelling None Tools. Calculation. Close Edit. . None Edit. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Ctrl+U Ctrl+V Ctrl W Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z F1 F2 F3 F4 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Ctrl+: Ctrl+. Function Edit.

File. Chart. Options. Cells. Macro. Category. Number. General Format. Formulas No direct equivalent None Format. Cells. Percentage Format. Number. Cells. Category. Border cells Remove outline border Format. Number. Number. Cells.0 Macro File. Move XL. Macros .ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Ctrl+F7 Ctrl+F8 Ctrl+F9 Ctrl+F10 Ctrl+F11 Move window Resize window Minimize workbook Maximize or restore window Inset 4. Visual Basic Editor Insert. Category. Cells. Macros in Excel 97 Tools. Save No direct equivalent Tools. Cells. 4. Currency Format. Ctrl+F12 Alt+F1 Alt+F2 Alt+F4 Alt+F8 Alt+F11 Ctrl+Shift+ F3 Ctrl+Shift+ F6 Ctrl+Shift+ F12 File Open Insert Chart Save As Exit Macro dialog box Visual Basic Editor Create name by using names of row and column labels Previous Window Print Alt+Shift+F New worksheet 1 Alt+Shift+F Save 2 Alt+= Ctrl+` Ctrl+Shift+ A Alt+Down arrow Alt+’ Ctrl+Shift+ ~ AutoSum Toggle Value/Formula display Insert argument names into formula Display AutoComplete list Format Style dialog box General format Ctrl+Shift+! Comma format Ctrl+Shift+ @ Ctrl+Shift+ # Ctrl+Shift+ \$ Ctrl+Shift+ % Ctrl+Shift+ ^ Ctrl+Shift+ & Ctrl+Shift+ _ Time format Date format Currency format Percent format Exponential format Place outline border around selected Format. Date Format. Cells. Name. Save As File. Maximize None in Excel 97. Print Insert. Minimize XL. Category. Number. Macro.. Style Format. Category. Number.in earlier versions Tools. Exit Tools. File.Insert. Border ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Category. Create Window. Macro. View. Worksheet File. Number. Time Format. Number Format.. In versions prior to 97 . ..60 - .0 Macro sheet XL. Size XL. Category. Cells.. Open Insert. Cells.

Column. Effects. Cells. Font. Objects.61 - . Cells. Hide Format. Unhide Format. Cells. Italic Format. (Rows. Options. or you intend to depend upon. Unhide None None None None None None None None Format.ADVANCED EXCEL for Chartered Accountants CA. Special. Show All/Hide View. Row. (Rows. Font Style. If you are creating a spreadsheet you intend to use for years. Font Format. or Cells) Depends on selection Delete. Toolbars. Goto. Underline Format. Hide Format. Columns. or you'll soon be pulling your hair out. Font Ctrl+Shift+( Unhide rows Ctrl+Shift+) Unhide columns Alt or F10 Ctrl+Tab Shift+Ctrl+ Tab Ctrl+Tab Shift+Ctrl+ Tab Tab Shift+Tab Enter Shift+Ctrl+ F Shift+Ctrl+ F+F Shift+Ctrl+ P Activate the menu In toolbar: next toolbar In toolbar: previous toolbar In a workbook: activate next workbook In a workbook: activate previous workbook Next tool Previous tool Do the command Font Drop Down List Font tab of Format Cell Dialog box Point size Drop Down List Most Common Mistakes in MS Excel Data Layout Always lay out your data with headings in row 1 and your first data record in row 2. Cells. Font Style. Columns. Font Format. Bold Format. Font. you must lay it out this way. Cells Format. There are very few exceptions to this rule. Stardard None Format. GOPAL KRISHNA RAJU Ctrl+Shift+ * Ctrl++ Ctrl+Ctrl+1 Ctrl+2 Ctrl+3 Ctrl+4 Ctrl+5 Ctrl+6 Ctrl+7 Ctrl+8 Ctrl+9 Ctrl+0 Select current region Insert Delete Format cells dialog box Bold Italic Underline Strikethrough Show/Hide objects Show/Hide Standard toolbar Toggle Outline symbols Hide rows Hide columns Edit. Strikethrough Tools. Row. Cells. Column. Cells. Font. or Cells) Depends on selection Format. Font. Current Region Insert. If you must have ERODE Branch of SIRC of ICAI . Font Style. View. Cells.