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SPE 63141 Applications of a New Multiple Sensor Production Logging System for Horizontal and Highly-Deviated Multiphase

Producers
David Chace, Jianrong Wang, Roman Mirzwinski, Jorge Maxit, and Darryl Trcka, Baker Atlas

Copyright 2000, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2000 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Dallas, Texas, 1–4 October 2000. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract This paper focuses on the first applications of an improved, second-generation multiple sensor production logging system designed for use in horizontal and highly deviated multiphase producers. The system integrates several key measurements to provide a comprehensive analysis of well performance under a variety of conditions and flow rates. An expanded and improved 2-dimensional capacitance array is used to define flow regime and measure 3-phase holdup, velocities and flow rates. A new 3-detector pulsed neutron instrument provides an independent measurement of water velocity, 3-phase holdups, and formation water saturation. Auxiliary sensors include an acoustic transducer and distributed temperature sensors useful for gas entry, liquid entry, and behind-casing channel identification. A quartz-pressure gauge measurement is recorded which is also useful in mechanistic models of multiphase flow. While a brief description of the system components will be provided in order to familiarize readers with the measurement concepts, this paper will concentrate on field examples from the Middle East that demonstrate the first use of the improved logging system in horizontal openhole multiphase producing wells. Determination of multiphase holdups, cross-wellbore velocity profiling, and production inflow profiling is demonstrated. Openhole logs are also shown, including resistivity image data, which clearly differentiate the inflow points as producing bed layers or conductive fractures.

complicated flow profiles. Understanding the reservoir performance and behavior, as well as diagnosing poor well performance, requires the ability to reliably measure and monitor the multiphase inflow profile throughout the life of the well. Measuring horizontal multiphase flow is complicated by the effects of gravity segregation of the phases, changes in wellbore inclination due to undulations, changes in flow regime, and associated asymmetries in the phase and velocity distributions across the wellbore. Conventional, single sensor, center-line measuring production logging tools and interpretation methods have therefore been largely unsuccessful in the horizontal environment. The development of new instrumentation and methods has been necessary in order to better determine key flow parameters and conditions, and to adequately measure horizontal flow. In general, these new methods and instrumentation rely on multiple, distributed sensors to provide across-the-wellbore measurements of holdup and velocity distributions, in conjunction with flow regime identification, which is essential for selecting appropriate interpretation models. Measurement interpretation methods have also been expanded to include mechanistic multiphase flow models to help check the quality of measured data and consistency of the interpreted results.

Logging System Components
The described logging system (POLARISsm) comprises 3 major components. The components are briefly described here, including the primary function and purpose with a corresponding acronym for subsequent reference in the text: • The Multi Capacitance Flowmeter (MCFMsm) uses a 2dimensional capacitance array calibrated for dielectric measurements to determine 3-phase holdups (phase fractions), across-the-wellbore velocity profiles, and 3phase flow rates and inflow profile. Additional measurements include distributed temperature, quartz pressure, passive acoustic flow noise, and wellbore orientation. • The Reservoir Performance Monitor (RPMsm) is a pulsed neutron instrument that provides measurements of formation capture cross-section (Σ) or C/O ratio for formation water saturation, 3-phase holdups, and water flow velocity.

Introduction
Horizontal and highly-deviated multiphase producers often traverse large intervals of a reservoir and typically have

we have: Track 1 Holdup image . 8. MIRZWINSKI. the wing is motored open to span the wellbore and expose the capacitor array to the wellbore fluids. Additionally. which in this case are within 10% of the flow loop metered values. AND TRCKA SPE 63141 • A small-diameter. or by acoustic methods2. The velocity profile is constructed using the correlation-based velocities from the wing and the center-line velocity from the spinner.2 CHACE. which pivots around its center where it is hinged to the instrument body. Correlation and spinner velocities – shows correlations from 3 spacings on each row. 33 m3/hr oil (4981 BPD). Phase distribution profile – shows individual sensor responses at eight levels across the flow loop pipe. oil. which includes the identification of fluids by measured dielectric constants and velocity measurement by crosscorrelation of dielectric signals from sensors distributed across the wellbore1.the water. Slug flow is clearly visible with intermittent gas pockets moving through the flowing liquid. the MCFM provides the following: • Determination of the flow regime (e.The sensors are calibrated on the surface for water. the holdups show the variation of the holdups in the slug flow. stratified. the reader is directed to previous publications on the subject4. Figure 3 shows one example from nearly 500 flow conditions studied at Shell’s flow loop in Rijswijk. Reviewing the data in Figure 3 starting with the bottom track.560 ft3/day). Sensor and Measurement Concepts The primary sensor package consists of a 2-dimensional array of parallel-plate capacitors arranged along the inside surfaces of a pair of rigid parallel plates 2. operation.4). 6. • Channel and fluid entry detection using distributed temperature measurements (top and bottom of the wing) or by acoustic sensing 4. The measurement concepts are derived from original work on surface pipeline flow sponsored by SIEP in the early 1990’s.6. followed by the key improvements implemented in subsequent upgrades. laboratory testing. The array measurements provide the two key components required for measuring multi-phase flow rates in horizontal wellbores: • Phase fractions (holdup distribution) .6 feet (0. and gas responses so that the measured dielectric constants of the fluid mixture downhole can be used to identify the wellbore fluid types and fractions (holdups) at 8 separate points across the wellbore. and field trial examples. MAXIT. the flow loop was inclined at one degree and the metered production was 8 m3/hr water (1207 BPD). and a weight of 375 lbs. Velocity profile – shows the velocity profile across the flow loop pipe. For more complete descriptions of MCFM measurement concepts.shows the water. In this 3-phase measurement. oil. Accumulated time averages yield the net flow rates. High resolution measurements and flow images are possible due to the simultaneous measurement of velocity and holdup profiles in the same sensor package. a diameter of 1-11/16 inches. and gas flow rates are calculated from the combined phase distribution and velocity profiles. and 9) and spinner velocity (Track 7). The velocity measurements and the resulting velocity profile show asymmetry in the profile.g. Approximately 35 seconds of data are shown in the figure. The tool string has a total length of 80 feet. and gas holdups in the flow loop test section. the velocity and holdup profiles are combined at the 8 measurement points across the wellbore to determine the multi-phase flow rates and inflow profile. constructed by summing the contributions from individual sensors shown in Track 2. Figure 2 illustrates the wing and sensor configuration. and 16 m3/hr gas (13. In operation. Development History of the MCFM The original prototypes have gone through two revisions in which various improvements in the system have been implemented. constructed from the three transit time (correlation) velocities on the outer two rows of the wing (Tracks 5. • Quartzdyne pressure (can be compared with predicted pressure from mechanistic multiphase flow modeling3.8 meters) long. . oil. Ultimately. • Velocity profile – Flow velocity at different points across the wellbore can be determined by correlating responses from adjacent sensors within the same row (variations in fluid dielectric) as disturbances flow along the wellbore and through the wing assembly. and the resulting flow rate measurements show the oscillations in flow rates in slug flow. Flow rates . bubble or intermittent) by direct holdup imaging.6.5. referred to as “the wing”. The Netherlands during prototype testing 4. center-line spinner flowmeter provides a measurement of velocity along the center axis of the wellbore. and centerline spinner velocity Track 2 Track 3 Track 4 Tracks 5-9 Figure 3 provides a comprehensive picture of the 3-phase flow in the inclined pipe. Figure 1 illustrates the logging string used in the field examples. A brief summary of the original prototype implementation is given below. WANG. The Multi Capacitance Flowmeter The Multi Capacitance Flowmeter (MCFM) is the result of a joint development project between Baker Atlas and Shell International Exploration and Production (SIEP).

due to deviation and/or particular flow conditions. Field Examples The following three field examples are from wells in the Middle East. Figure 4 illustrates the RPM configuration in water flow mode with water flow along the wellbore. Velocities . laboratory testing. An additional row is being added on both the upper and lower halves of the wing near the tool body. A downhole data compression scheme was implemented to allow reconstruction of 12-bit signals at surface for correlation (a significant improvement over 1-bit signal correlation). 2 on bottom of wing) for cross-correlation velocity of pairs of differential capacitance sensor responses (12-bit signals decimated to 1-bit for transmission then correlated at surface). The RPM provides the following measurements in multiphase producers: • Formation water saturation from PNC (Σ) or C/O to help determine the source of produced fluids. the wells are openhole producers that were logged with the POLARIS system conveyed on 11/2 inch coiled tubing. pulsed neutron capture (PNC). Also useful for detecting the presence of water channeling behind pipe or for monitoring water flow and velocity in annular regions. Another benefit of the multiple detector configuration is that it allows for simultaneous acquisition of PNC (Σ) and oxygen activation water flow data. oil. including C/O. Mechanical – Modifications were made to the wing sensor assembly contact points to improve performance in openhole wellbores where debris is more probable. 2nd Generation (Field Prototype Instruments) The upgraded instruments were deployed in mid-1999 with a number of improvements.10. The Netherlands.13. the fluid interface stays close to the center of the wellbore. Holdups – The single transmitter scheme has been upgraded to a dual transmitter scheme (two transmitters in quadrature).11). and water flow measurement concepts. The well is producing at about 40 percent water cut and the bulk of water was found to be coming from a fractured zone. operation. new pads were developed to improve movement over rough borehole surfaces. Specifically. For a more complete description of RPM.9.9 to provide an independent measurement of water velocity in multiphase flow rate calculations.SPE 63141 APPLICATIONS OF A NEW MULTIPLE SENSOR PRODUCTION LOGGING SYSTEM FOR HORIZONTAL AND HIGHLY-DEVIATED MULTIPHASE PRODUCERS 3 1st Generation (Research Prototypes) The MCFM prototypes entered field trials for PDO in Oman in late 1997 after comprehensive multi-phase testing in Shell’s flowloop in Rijswijk. this measurement can be useful in detecting the presence of gas. the reader is directed to previous publications 8. Measurement Concepts The 3-detector array is designed to provide optimum spacing for several pulsed neutron measurements. Flow Profile Results The flow profile results are shown in Fig. and field trial examples. allowing better separation of the conductive and non-conductive responses for improved water. oxygen activation for water velocity. When combined with the MCFM holdup measurement (which is only sensitive to flow inside the casing). Velocities – 4 correlation rows as before. In all cases. and gas holdup measurements7. The hole was drilled slanted through the reservoir with the deviation more or less constant at 83 degrees and never reaches 90 degrees. .) Next-Generation Enhancements The latest revision currently in progress is the implementation of additional capacitance sensor rows for correlation velocities. The differential sensor correlation has been supplemented with single sensor correlations for long-spaced sensors (leading and trailing sensors in each row) for an improved measurement of slug front and tail velocities. and 3-phase holdups. The additional rows are expected to improve performance in larger wellbores (>> 7 inch diameter) and in wells where. Field Example 1 Oil producer with 40 % water cut and water producing fractures The first well is an oil/water producer that has approximately 2300 ft of horizontal 6 1/8” hole through a carbonate reservoir as a openhole completion. (Note: The examples in this paper were recorded with the 2nd generation MCFM instruments.11. • 3-phase holdups from C/O and other inelastic gamma measurements (a measurement jointly developed with Shell 10. The pads also provided better protection to the sensors on the wing (capacitance and temperature).12. oil. or water behind pipe or in the annulus. 3-phase holdup.5 and the following table summarizes the measured and surface flow rates: The Reservoir Performance Monitor The Reservoir Performance Monitor (RPM) is a new pulsed neutron instrument that utilizes a 3-detector array and a multifrequency neutron generator to allow multiple modes of operation.4 rows (2 on top. This will increase the velocity measurement points from 4 to 6 across the wellbore (from 5 to 7 including the center-line spinner measurement). Holdups – 12-bit resolution signals from 8 rows for dielectric measurement and holdups using a single transmitter scheme (response to both conductive and non-conductive fluids). • Water velocity from oxygen activation8.

Water is essentially dragged along by the oil.4 Total (bpd) Oil (bopd) Water (bwpd) Water Cut (%) % Diff. Note that the spinner in this interval showed slight indications of downflow (in the center of the borehole) under the upward flowing oil.6. Here are some of the key observations: . Field Example 2 Oil producer with 8 % water cut The second example is a two-phase oil/water producer that has approximately 2200 ft of horizontal 6 1/8” hole through a carbonate reservoir as an openhole completion.4 6164 3925 2221 36. taken from the interval in the water sump. the resistivity image and lithology tracks have been added. and total flow rates are within 10 percent.10 indicates slight upward water velocity at the stationary measurement points taken in the interval. At the major fluid entry point. All of the evidence points to a water sump that is circulating due to the oil production and flow along the high side of the hole.5. the holdup and across-the-wellbore velocity profiles show that the water in the sump is static with oil moving along the top side of the wellbore.1 Well Test Surface 7455 6826 629 8. with focus on the interval where water production was detected.8 + 9. however. where the holdups show significantly more oil. The temperature data shows a marked increase in the interval of flow rate increases due to the entry of warmer water with the oil entries. the water in the sump below the fractured interval is circulating due to the movement of oil along the top side of the hole. Surface measured rates during the logging passes were not as stable as in other logging operations. Bedding planes can be seen in the resistivity image. The profile looks in many ways similar to the previous example. The hole was drilled slanted through the reservoir with the deviation more or less constant at 81 degrees with no sumps or traps along its length.8. there are a few notable differences. the holdup image shows oil entry in 2 major intervals and an accumulation of the oil along the top of the wellbore. water. • Additional oil entries are indicated at several points throughout the well below the fractured interval. however. In addition. The entry “point” is spread out along the wellbore due to the angle at which the wellbore intersects the bedding plane. In Fig. In Fig. and water cut is within 1. MIRZWINSKI.11 and the following table summarizes the measured and surface flow rates: POLARIS Downhole Surface 10246 8034 9672 574 5.6 7460 574 7. The fractured dolomitized section in this interval is marked with a red bar in the figure. Oil. The combined flow and openhole images allow a clear determination that the fractures are the major water entry points in this well. Note that the oil entry is seen by the MCFM along the entire perimeter of the horizontal bedding plane interface intersected by the slanted wellbore (compare the MCFM holdup and resistivity images). WANG. + 7. No water is produced in the sump. and in part show that flow rates can be affected due the presence of coiled tubing in the wellbore.7. Flow Profile Results The flow profile results are shown in Fig. However.1 Well Test While 2 mos.1. indicating that water is being produced to the surface.9.8. details of the phase distribution profile (oil and water distribution for at each of the 8 sensor rows across the wellbore) and the individual velocity profile measurements from correlations and spinner are shown.3 . AND TRCKA SPE 63141 POLARIS Downhole Surface Total (bpd) Oil (bopd) Water (bwpd) Water Cut (%) 7310 5089 2221 30. In Fig.4 CHACE. MAXIT. the count rates associated with the water velocity are low and indicate that only a small volume of water is moving upward in this interval.7 .5 percent.3 Surface flowrates computed from the logged flow profile are in good agreement with the test trap averages. The temperature curve superimposed on velocity profile responds to oil entries with a slight decrease and an increase at the water entry points. but the water column is circulating due to the movement of oil along the top of the hole. the velocity profile shows positive velocities across the entire wellbore. • Water is not produced from below the fractured interval. In Fig. Logging before 5-7000 7830 3-4000 2-3000 40 4749 3081 39. the RPM oxygen activation log data shown in Fig. In Fig.3 Surface flowrates computed from the logged flow profile are in reasonably good agreement with the test trap averages. The following is a summary of the major conclusions drawn from the POLARIS (MCFM / RPM). open hole resistivity image and lithology data: • Most oil and water flow is from a fractured dolomitized interval. the scale has been expanded so that the vertical fractures (relatively straight lines on the resistivity map) can be identified amidst the more horizontal bedding planes (sinusoidal bands on the images).

Typical shut-in times of 24 hours are required to obtain a stable shut-in condition. respectively. Concurrently. so it is not possible to say with any certainty whether these inflows are fracture related. the model takes input such as the inflow profile. no image logs were run in this well. A comparison of the measured and theoretical water holdups is shown in Fig.12 shows oil slugs passing by the wing every 10 to 15 seconds with good row 7/8 velocity correlations and the flowmeter again responding to the water downflow with every slug. This lends confidence that the interpreted results are reasonable and consistent. . however. pressure gradient. Whereas few correlations were detected on the bottom of the wing in Example 1. Water entry in the upper intervals would be more difficult to isolate since it appears to be co-mingled with the major oil entries. This again supports the scenario that circulation of the water column is occurring. The Shell software uses modeling originally designed for use in surface pipelines. and other information to predict water holdup. Fifteen stationary readings were made to verify the low oil and water flow rates. The stationary measurements support give confidence to the profile at low flow rates over this region of elongated oil bubble (oil slug) flow. relative to the flow. Modeled results The interpreted results were compared with flow conditions predicted by Shell’s pressure-based mechanistic two-phase flow modeling software. Field Example 3 . whereas the lower rows 1 and 2 are immersed in water and show none due to a continuous water phase. and in this case a significantly lower water cut and high flow turbulence in the heel provided good conditions for velocity measurement at all points across the wellbore. Shut-in pass The well was shut-in for approximately 4.SPE 63141 APPLICATIONS OF A NEW MULTIPLE SENSOR PRODUCTION LOGGING SYSTEM FOR HORIZONTAL AND HIGHLY-DEVIATED MULTIPHASE PRODUCERS 5 • • • The large inflows correlate with zones of high porosity. An oil/water contact can be seen in the wellbore. The undulations create traps and sumps where lighter and heavier phases. the spinner shows some indications of downflow in the presence of upflow on the oxygen activation measurements. The stationary reading shown in Fig. Holdups and phase distribution are affected by inclination angle and flow rates. This lack of production may either be grounds for stimulation. The data is shown in Fig.12 also shows a stationary measurement from a deeper depth where the oil slugs have not fully developed and are smaller in size and higher in frequency.5 hours prior to logging. fluid parameters. The spinner (not shown) indicated no water cross-flow. inclination. Fig. and other flow data along the wellbore 3. This sump interval includes a normally productive zone. can accumulate. The flowmeter registers a slight downflow in the water at the center of the wellbore as each oil slug displaces some water in the downhole direction. In addition. PVT data. the water velocity in the interval above the first fluid entry point corresponds with oil slug flow and suggests that while some water is being produced.11 and shows good agreement. This well is quite different than the first two examples in that rather than being drilled as a slant hole through all of the major producing zones in the reservoir. The oil slugs moving upward were detected on rows 7 and 8 and indicated a flow rate of less than 150 b/d. water in the wellbore is also being dragged along with the oil slugs. slight oil flow was observed traveling on top of the static water column from the lowest entry points indicating that the well had not reached a stable shut-in condition. can cause dramatic changes in phase holdups and velocities.Continuous water flow log in an undulating horizontal producer (70 % water cut) The example well is an openhole producer with approximately 2250 feet of horizontal 6 1/8” hole. As observed in the first example well. the change in inclination from positive (uphill) to negative (downhill). Water shut-off could involve sealing off the bottom zones near the water sump where oil entry is minimal. The well undulates above and below 90 degree deviation which makes it an interesting example with regard to the flow characteristics associated with these types of wells. The water flow profile was constructed from the continuous RPM oxygen activation passes at 20 and 30 ft/min with stationary measurements (not shown) providing data over the lower part of the profile where the water velocity was less than the practical logging speed. the correlation velocities were stronger in the turbulent flow near the heel in total flow where the water / oil mixture layers dropped sufficiently to give strong events on row 2.13. The model was applied to the measured flow rates in this well and a predicted water holdup was computed. however. and which can create additional pressure drops along the horizontal section. and is readily applicable to downhole conditions in horizontal wells. Stationary measurements The lower intervals are producing mainly oil in elongated bubbles (slugs) on the high side of the hole over a standing water column. In addition. An oil flowrate was computed from a time average over the 300 seconds of each station.4. or it may lead to revised new well trajectories in this part of the field. The stationary readings illustrate that rows 7 and 8 are in the oil flow and exhibit good velocity correlations. it was drilled as a true horizontal well to target a single producing zone within the reservoir. the production rate is relatively low in comparison to the first two examples. This well has a very long water sump with no fluid flow (bottom 600 feet). Essentially. Water flow stationary measurements indicate no water flow in the sump below the first fluid entry point.

3 + 8. 3-phase holdups.8 would have been helpful as the relative flow is still too fast (with reduced holdup and volume) and the velocity is somewhat underestimated in the downhill sections. Summary . the data in Fig.1 Well Test Surface 1732 436 1296 74. and gas holdups.7 This paper has summarized the key components and functionality of a new multiple sensor production logging system designed for use in horizontal and highly-deviated multiphase producers. Indeed. and caliper OA2 and OA3. • A differential measurement system for cross-correlation velocities that now incorporates data compression to maximize sensitivity and resolution. The spinner and oxygen activation measurements respond similarly in the uphill sections where water nearly fills the wellbore. In these intervals. liquid entry. MIRZWINSKI. The system improvements include: • A new dual transmitter scheme for the capacitance sensor measurements which allows better separation of the capacitive and conductive responses. but show quite different responses in the downhill sections. thereby improving measurement of water. • Auxiliary sensors include an acoustic transducer and distributed temperature sensors useful for gas entry. The spinner (not shown) was also affected by wellbore inclination changes.) MCFM water holdup and wellbore trajectory showing oil and water holdup in the wellbore Water rate from the MCFM holdup and RPM water velocity (continuous and stationary measurements) Track 4 Track 5 The water flow profile was determined from the MCFM water holdup measurement and the RPM oxygen activation passes at 12 and 50 ft/min and supplemented with stationary measurements over the lowest part of the interval where the water velocity was less than the minimum practical coiled tubing logging speed. so the flow rate is relatively constant along the entire interval: POLARIS Downhole Surface 2060 1904 650 1410 68. For reference. The flow profile (not shown) indicates that nearly all of the oil and water production is from the toe.14 will be helpful for our discussion: Track 1 Track 2 Track 3 Sigma. MAXIT.14 illustrates the effects on holdup and velocities caused by the undulating wellbore. an ultra-long spaced utilizing the gamma ray detector at the top of the tool is used for faster water velocities. The field examples highlight the first applications of the 2nd generation instrumentation that incorporates a number of significant improvements over the original prototype design. the focus will be on the water flow profile determined from the MCFM water holdup measurement and the RPM real-time continuous oxygen activation water velocity measurement. and a second water entry is indicated by the increase in water velocity about 100 feet above in the interval where the continuous and stationary measurements overlap.8 Total (bpd) Oil (bopd) Water (bwpd) Water Cut (%) % Diff. and the response can become a complicated combination of the two phase velocities. Water holdup and velocity were affected by the wellbore inclination with increases in velocity and decreases in holdup observed in the downhill sections near the three sumps in the well. WANG. • Implementation of a real-time water velocity calculation based on oxygen activation measurements with a A brief summary of the data shown in Fig. Specifically.) Faster (50ft/min) logging passes were used over these intervals to reduce the relative water velocity (to the instrument) and improve the measurement statistics.0. Water flow from the toe of the well is detected by the stationary measurements nearest the toe. In the current instrument version. GR. velocities and flow rates. thereby improving the correlation velocity measurements. oil. the measured flow rates from the POLARIS logging data are shown in the following table. The system integrates several key measurements to provide a comprehensive analysis of well performance under a variety of conditions and flow rates: • An improved 2-dimensional capacitance array is used to define flow regime and measure 3-phase holdup. (Note that the oil holdup and velocity respond in the opposite way in these sections. • A quartz-pressure gauge measurement allows comparison with pressure-based mechanistic multiphase flow models. • A new 3-detector pulsed neutron instrument provides an independent measurement of water velocity. the oxygen activation responds to faster water velocity and the spinner decreases significantly (or stops) in the slowly moving oil which occupies most of the wellbore space. AND TRCKA SPE 63141 For the purpose of this discussion. and formation water saturation. In some cases. an even faster logging speed . and behind-casing channel identification. the water holdup can be high enough to touch the spinner in the center of the wellbore. • Implementation of long-spaced cross-correlations of single sensor capacitance responses for improved slug front and tail velocity measurements.4 494 1410 74. + 10 +13. the oxygen activation counts at detectors 2 and 3 Real-time water velocity measurement compared with the coiled tubing logging speed (continuous and stationary meas.6 CHACE.

“Improved method for measuring annular water flow in injection wells using continuous oxygen activation logging. “New instrumentation and methods for production logging in multiphase horizontal wells. yet circulating. 1999. and Veran. 1992. LA. Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B. “Pulsed neutron tool applied to three-phase production logging in horizontal wells.A. Trcka.. 2000.E. Colorado.. porosity.E..A. M.A.. F.V. D. as shown in the continuous oxygen activation log example... 2000. • The presence of static. D.. Wang. Prati. 1998 SPE European Petroleum Conference. D.. Van der Spek. accuracy. Bahrain.. Trcka.. D. Paper 26450. Oct. W. Inventor..... Chace. Gilchrist.. 2000 References 1. Van der Spek. A. van der Spek.. Pemeper. Texas. Trcka. • The use of multiphase flow modeling for comparison of theoretical and measured water holdups. 2000. Jr..W... D.. fluid entry points. M. Maxit. Paper PR-032.” SPE 69th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. 1993.. “Method and apparatus to measure multiphase flow properties. P. New Orleans. O. and Wang.. “Application and interpretation of continuous oxygen activation logs for measuring complex water flow profiles in injection wells. D.. W. Field examples from three wells were presented that demonstrate: • Use of the new logging system in highly-deviated (slant) and undulating horizontal openhole multiphase producing wells. and Dawe. D. D.” SPWLA 39th Annual Symposium. Georgi.” .. J. A. Oliver....” ETCE/OMAE 2000 Joint Conference. Annual SPE Technical Conference and Exhibition. “Measuring three-phase holdups in horizontal wellbores using pulsed neutron instruments.. 2. Oct. Paper 36561 12. “Downhole instrumentation for the measurement of three-phase volume fractions and phase velocities in horizontal wells. Maxit. D. across-thewellbore velocity profiling. D. April.. and Trcka. Keystone. B. Houston. 20-22. Reservoir performance monitoring in the new millennium. D. Georgi.” 1999 SPE MEOS. H..14-17. Peeters. “New method for detection of channeling behind casing in producing wells. 1996. E. • Better isolation of the wing-tip temperature probes for improved thermal response.M. Proceedings of the Tunisian Oil Conference. van den Berg. M. 1998. Mickael. and Thomas." SPE 50640. van der Spek.. Chace.. 9. LA. • Corresponding openhole logs (lilthology.. 8. 6.M. Feb.. and Chace. Wright. 4. Chace. J. D. A. Bousche. “Horizontal well production log evaluation in multiphase flow. Paper H.. 5. New Orleans. acoustic and resistivity images) which clearly differentiate the inflow points as producing bed layers or conductive fractures. D.. experience from logging campaigns thus far indicates that the new integrated multiple-sensor production logging system provides measurements with the degree of completeness.” ETCE/OMAE 2000 Joint Conference. 3.. • Detailed determination of multiphase holdups. Netherlands. LA. New Orleans. D. M. and Mickael. J. 13. Paper L. 10. Wang. Additionally. al Nasser.SPE 63141 APPLICATIONS OF A NEW MULTIPLE SENSOR PRODUCTION LOGGING SYSTEM FOR HORIZONTAL AND HIGHLY-DEVIATED MULTIPHASE PRODUCERS 7 simultaneous PNC (Σ) measurement for formation water saturation.E. Wang. Trcka. Paper 28412. Oliver. J.. J. Peeters. 7. “Introduction of a New Through-Tubing Multifunction Pulsed Neutron Instrument. D.. water sumps caused by the flow of oil along the top side of the wellbore.” SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium. D.W. ETCE/OMAE 2000 Joint Conference. Y. CO. Denver. R. O. Texas.... • Good agreement between measured and well test flow rate data.A. 1998. Trcka. 0 510 774 A2. Reittinger. al Nasser.. Georgi. Mickael M.” European Patent Application No. “A new production logging service for horizontal wells.. Chace. Louisiana. J. Trcka. and production inflow profiling. 1994.Den Boer. Paper 53220. 11. Kostelnicek. J. Feb.” SPE 68th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Paper PROD-10020. "Neural Net Identification of Flow Regime Using Band Spectra of Flow Generated Sound. Manan.. • The effects of changing inclination in undulating wellbores on the holdups and velocities of the phases present in the multiphase flow.14-17..” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition.. 1998. Paper PROD-10030. A. Wang. Feb. Johannis Josephus. H. New Orleans. Chace.” SPE paper 56803. and repeatability required for effective long-term monitoring of horizontal wellbore and reservoir performance. D. D... Houston. 1994. Hague. Bousche.14-17. A.. D. Upgrades in progress include: • Addition of capacitance sensor rows for correlation-based velocity measurements across the wellbore. G..M.

Coil Tubing Pressure Deployment Bar 3913 Swivel 8250 Power Supply 8248 Telemetry / CCL 8281 Reservoir Performance Monitor Tool XLS Detector LS Detector SS Detector Pulsed Neutron Source 8262 Gamma Ray 8221 Temp 8260 Centralizer 8291 POS Powered Swivel 8260 Centralizer 8290 MCFM Multi-Capacitance Flowmeter 8260 Centralizer 8258 Spinner Flowmeter Figure 1. The POLARIS logging string. AND TRCKA SPE 63141 CTU head . .8 CHACE. MAXIT. WANG. MIRZWINSKI.

oil (green). the spacing between the detectors.SPE 63141 APPLICATIONS OF A NEW MULTIPLE SENSOR PRODUCTION LOGGING SYSTEM FOR HORIZONTAL AND HIGHLY-DEVIATED MULTIPHASE PRODUCERS 9 Figure 2. Water (blue). The N16 decays back to O16 with a half-life of 7. Water bubbles in oil/water flow are shown on the left. W a ter O il G as . Figure 3 This example of 3-phase flow data from the SIEP flow loop at an inclination of + 1 degree shows the oscillation of holdups and flow rates characteristic of slug flow. the oxygen becomes activated (blue O16 changes to orange N16 in area shown as orange ellipse). Bi-directional velocities are determined from transit times of disturbances flowing through the sensor rows at levels above and below the tool body. M CFM Flow Des criptio n T im e ( se c) P ha se H oldu ps P ha se D istr ibution V elo city P r ofile F lo w R ates C orrela tion and Sp inn er V elo cities R ow 1 R ow 2 S pin ner R ow 7 R ow 8 Figure 4. Holdup and liquid level are determined from the capacitance measurements at 8 levels.13 seconds and emits gamma radiation that is detected at the various detectors in the tool. and 3-phase slug flow with water fall-back is shown on the right. gas (red). The MCFM wing spans the borehole exposing the capacitance sensors (red rectangles) to the flow. Rotating this image –90 degrees facilitates visualization of the flow in the horizontal test section (flow from right to left). Oxygen activation measurement from RPM – As water molecules move past the neutron source. and the decay half-life. The water velocity is a function the ratio of count rates at the detectors.

and temperature for an 83 degree horizontal oil/water producer Figure 6 Example 1 – Details of holdup and velocity profiles . WANG.10 CHACE. flow profile. AND TRCKA VELOCITY SPE 63141 CORREL Figure 5 Example 1 – Well path. holdup and velocity profiles. MIRZWINSKI. MAXIT.

SPE 63141 APPLICATIONS OF A NEW MULTIPLE SENSOR PRODUCTION LOGGING SYSTEM FOR HORIZONTAL AND HIGHLY-DEVIATED MULTIPHASE PRODUCERS 11 0 0 Figure 7 – Example 1 .Example 1 – Zoom in on fractured interval showing near-vertical fractures as source of water production .Fractured dolomitized limestone interval producing majority of water Figure 8 .

showing oil entry from bedding planes and segregation to top of borehole Figure 10 Example 1 – RPM oxygen activation log data confirming circulating water sump .12 CHACE. MAXIT. WANG. MIRZWINSKI. AND TRCKA SPE 63141 0 Figure 9 Example 1 – Oil entry in lower section with static water sump in well.

SPE 63141 APPLICATIONS OF A NEW MULTIPLE SENSOR PRODUCTION LOGGING SYSTEM FOR HORIZONTAL AND HIGHLY-DEVIATED MULTIPHASE PRODUCERS 13 2 2 VEL A B Figure 11 Example 2 – Well path. Also shown in the far right track is a comparison of the measured and modeled water holdups. flow profile. The good agreement confirms that the interpreted results are consistent with Shell’s pressure-based model. holdup and velocity profile. and temperature for an 81 degree horizontal oil/water producer. showing that deepest 600 feet is non-productive. Figure 12 Example 2 – Stationary MCFM measurements at points A and B in Fig. 11 showing details in flow characteristics as oil slug development increases along the wellbore .

. MAXIT. Figure 14 Example 3 – MCFM water holdup and RPM oxygen activation log data showing effects on water holdup and velocity due to changing deviation in an undulating horizontal wellbore. Shut-in time was approximately 4.5 hours.14 CHACE. Most water in this well was determined to be coming from the toe and a second point within 100 feet of the toe. AND TRCKA SPE 63141 Figure 13 Example 2 – Shut-in pass indicates slight oil flow along top of wellbore. MIRZWINSKI. WANG.