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# 6b.

Reacting masses, concentration of solution and volumetric titration calculations NOT using the mole concept BUT see also

Basic acid-alkali titration questions using moles far more appropriate!

Advanced Level acid-alkali volumetric titration calculations Concentration of a solution For quantitative chemistry, it is important to know the concentration of solutions and be able to do calculations based on experimental results for chemical analysis.

The concentration of a solution is often measured in grams per decimetre cubed so the units are expressed as gdm , or g/dm , which was g/litre!). concentration = mass / volume (c = m / V) concentration in gdm , mass in g, volume in dm
3 -3 3 -3 3

Its really important remember that 1 dm = 1000 cm or 1000 ml and cm /1000 = dm
3 3

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and other shorthands:sf means numbers rounded to 2/3/4 significant figures and dp means round to 2/3/4 decimal places Example 6b. still in common use!) 3 (b) What mass of the salt is required to make 200 cm of concentration 15g/dm ? 3 3 . m = c x V and V = m / c and RFM as an abbreviation of relative formula mass or molecular mass.1 (a) What is the concentration of a salt solution if you dissolve 10g of sodium chloride in 250 cm of water? 250 cm is equal to 250/1000 = 0.25dm 3 3 3 therefore the concentration c = m / V = 10/0.25 = 40 g/dm (40g/litre in old units.rearrangements of the formula using the triangle to help gives mass = concentration x volume (m = c x V) and volume = mass / concentration (V = m / c) In the example questions I have used the shorthand formulae c = m / V.

6 dm 3 3 3 3 V = 1. what volume of water.2 = 3. 3 . in dm and cm .V = 200/1000 = 0. to give a salt solution of concentration of 5g/dm ? V = m / c = 8 / 5 = 1. When you mix the two solutions you get a white precipitate of silver chloride. should you dissolve it in.2 dm 3 m = c x V = 15 x 0.2 0.5g of sodium chloride was dissolved in water and you are given a silver nitrate solution of concentration 30g/dm . 3 & 4 Quantitative calculations involving titrations The next three examples are more complicated and involve using reacting mass ratio calculations which have been covered in detail in section 6a.2. Reacting mass ratio chemical calculations (not using moles) Example 6b.0 g (c) If you were given 8.6 x 1000 = 1600 cm 3 Examples 6b.0 g of salt.

(b) From the equation calculate the mass of silver nitrate that reacts with 0.Given the equation and the RFMs calculated from the atomic masses Na = 23.0484 dm 3 .5 g of sodium chloride.8 xg Solving the ratio gives x = 0.(a) calculate the relative formula masses of the reactants. precisely what volume (in cm ) of the silver nitrate solution must be added to the sodium chloride solution in order to precipitate the maximum amount of silver chloride without wasting a drop of quite a costly solution! Three steps to the calculation:.5 x 169.8 3 ===> ===> silver chloride AgCl(s) (143.8.5 + + silver nitrate AgNO3(aq) 169.3) + + sodium nitrate NaNO3(aq) (85) (not needed) Using an accurate burette. O = 16. (b) the mass of silver nitrate reacting and (c) the volume of silver nitrate needed. Cl = 35.451 / 30 = 0.5g : : : AgNO3 169.5 = 1. N = 14 sodium chloride NaCl(aq) (a) RFM 58. Ag = 107.5 0.8 / 58.5.451g of silver nitrate (b) From your answer to (a) calculate the volume of silver nitrate needed. NaCl 58. According to the symbol equation one RFM or 'molecule' of sodium chloride reacts with one RFM or 'molecule' of silver nitrate. V = m / c = 1.

0 cm of sodium hydroxide solution was pipetted into a conical flask.3 The reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is hydrochloric acid HCl(aq) RFM = 36. 25.5. You are given a solution of hydrochloric acid of 7. Cl = 35.V = 1000 x 0.3 g/dm (of HCl). check the RFM for yourself) Therefore from the relative formula masses (RFMs) 36. Na = 23 and O = 16. 3 3 3 3 .6 cm of the acid solution was required to completely neutralise the alkaline sodium hydroxide. it was found that 14.5 + + sodium hydroxide NaOH(aq) RFM = 40 ===> ===> sodium chloride NaCl(aq) + + water H2O(l) According to the symbol equation one RFM or 'molecule' of hydrochloric acid reacts with one RFM or 'molecule' of sodium hydroxide. (The atomic masses involved are H = 1. Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution in g/dm via the stages outlined below (a) The mass of hydrochloric acid reacting.0484 = 48. On titration with the acid solution using a burette and suitable indicator.4 cm 3 Example 6b.5g of HCl reacts with 40g of sodium hydroxide.

acid-alkali titrations 3 .025 = 4.1066 x 40/36.3 x 0.1066 g HCl (b) Calculate the mass of NaOH that reacts with 0. 3sf) Now it is possible to titrate the acid solution with the alkali solution (or vice versa) to obtain an unknown concentration of one of the solutions.1066g : : : NaOH 40 xg Solving the ratio x = 0.5 0. How to do this is described in Section 12.1066 g of HCl HCl 36.e.67 g/dm (2dp.0146 = 0.1168/0.1168 g (c) Calculate the concentration of NaOH V = 25 cm3/1000 = 0.5 = 0.V = 14.0146 dm 3 3 m = c x V = 7.6 cm /1000 = 0.025 dm3 c = 0. One concentration must be known and the two volumes (acid and alkali) which react together exactly i. no excess of either reactant solution.

10 cm of squeezed lemon juice was pipetted into a flask.4 Citric acid is the most common acid in citrus fruits and can be estimated by titration with sodium hydroxide.0 g/dm . Using a burette and suitable indicator the lemon juice required a titration volume of 35. 3 3 3 . citric acid + sodium hydroxide ===> sodium citrate + water + (aq) 3NaOH(aq) ===> (aq) + H2O(l) RFM = 40 RFM = 192 but reacting mass is for C6H8O7 3 x 40 = 120 You are a given of sodium hydroxide with a concentration of 12.Example 6b.5 cm of the sodium hydroxide solution to completely neutralise it.

426 g Solving the ratio x = 0.426 x 192/120 = 0.6816/0.5 cm /1000 = 0.426 g of sodium hydroxide? C6H8O7 192 xg : : : 3NaOH 3 x 40 = 120 0.0355 = 0.Assuming all the acidity is due to citric acid.2 g/dm C6H8O7 3 .0355 dm 3 3 m = c x V = 12.0 x 0. (a) What mass of sodium hydroxide reacted with the lemon juice? V = 35. calculate the concentration of citric acid in the lemon juice.426g NaOH (b) What mass of citric acid reacted with the 0.6816 g C6H8O7 (c) Calculate the concentration of citric acid in the lemon juice? V = 10 cm3/1000 = 0.01 = 68.01 dm3 c = m / V = 0.

sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate  Atomic masses: H = 1. calculate the following (b) The mass of sodium hydroxide that reacted with the nitric acid.See also section 11. N = 14. what is the concentration of the salt? Question 6b. O = 16.0g of potassium sulphate? (c) What mass of the salt is required to make 250 cm of a solution B so it contains 3. for molarity calculations and Section 12. contains 3.8 cm of the alkali to neutralise the acid.0 cm of a nitric acid solution was pipetted into a conical flask and titrated with a sodium hydroxide solution of concentration 5.75 g/dm of potassium sulfate? (d) If 12.5g of potassium sulphate was dissolved in 1500 cm3 of water to make up solution C. If it took 16.0g/dm . in cm . Na = 23 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 25.1: A potassium sulfate solution A has a concentration of 6.sodium hydroxide titration o o o o o o o The reaction equation for the neutralisation of nitric acid by sodium hydroxide to form sodium nitrate is HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) ===> NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) (a) Calculate the relative formula masses of nitric acid. (c) Calculate the mass of nitric acid that reacted with the sodium hydroxide. volumetric titration questions using moles QUESTIONS answers at the end so you can selectively printout the questions and return for the answers!  Question 6b.2: Nitric acid .5g/dm o o o o  (a) What mass of potassium sulfate is present in 25cm of solution A? (b) What volume of solution A. (d) What was the concentration of the nitric acid in g/dm ? 3 .

is required to neutralise 250 cm of the potassium hydroxide solution? o Atomic masses: H = 1. what mass of sodium nitrate salt crystals would be left as a residue? Question 6b.o  (e) If the resulting neutral solution was carefully evaporated to dryness.5 3 3 3 (b) What mass of hydrochloric acid (as HCl) reacted with the limewater? (c) What mass of calcium hydroxide reacted with the hydrochloric acid? (d) What is the concentration of calcium hydroxide in g/dm ? 3  Question 6b. (a) calculate the relative formula masses of the reactants. of the sulfuric acid solution.3: Limewater analysis o o o o o o o The symbol equation for the neutralisation reaction between calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) and hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride and water is Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) ===> CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) 50 cm of a limewater solution was completely neutralised by 9. A solution of sulfuric acid contained 120g/dm .65 g HCl/dm calculate the concentration of calcium hydroxide in the water by the following method. Cl = 35. H = 1.potassium hydroxide reaction to make potassium sulfate o o o o o The neutralisation reaction between sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide is H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) ===> K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) A solution of potassium hydroxide contained 100g/dm . S = 32. If the concentration of the hydrochloric acid was 3.7 cm of a hydrochloric acid solution. K = 39 3 3 3 3 . O = 16. O = 16. What volume in cm .4: Sulfuric acid .  Atomic masses: Ca = 40.

5 = 0. contains 3.33 g/dm  Question 6b. calculate the following 3 3 .75 g/dm of potassium sulfate?   volume = 250/1000 = 0.25 dm 3 m = c x V = 3.5/1.462 dm (to 3 sf) V = 1000 x 0.025 dm m=cxV mass = 6.1: A potassium sulfate solution has a concentration of 6.9375 g 3 3 3 3 o (d) If 12. what is the concentration of the salt?   V = 1500 cm /1000 = 1.2: Nitric acid . If it took 16.75 x 0.1625 g 3 3 3 3 o (b) What volume of solution.5 = 8.025 = 0.5g of potassium sulphate was dissolved in 1500 cm of water to make up solution C. in cm .8 cm of the alkali to neutralise the acid.0 cm of a nitric acid solution was pipetted into a conical flask and titrated with a sodium hydroxide solution of concentration 5.0g of potassium sulphate?   V = m / c = 3.0g/dm .sodium hydroxide titration o (a) nitric acid HNO3(aq) RFM 63 3 + + sodium hydroxide NaOH(aq) 40 ===> ===> sodium nitrate NaNO3(aq) 85 + + water 2H2O(l) - o 25.5g/dm o 3 3 (a) What mass of potassium sulfate is present in 25cm of the solution?    25cm = 25/1000 = 0.5 dm c = m / V = 12.25 = 0.462 = 462 cm 3 3 3 o (c) What mass of the salt is required to make 250 cm of a solution B so it contains 3.0 / 6.5 x 0.ANSWERS  Question 6b.

084 g   : : : NaNO3 85 xg Solving the ratio: x = 0.8 cm /1000 = 0.084g NaOH o (c) Calculate the mass of nitric acid that reacted with the sodium hydroxide.084 x 63/40 = 0. 63 : 85.e.  HNO3 63 xg  o   o : : : NaOH 40 0.025 = 5.0 cm /1000 = 0.1323 g HNO3 3 (d) What was the concentration of the nitric acid in g/dm ? V = 25.084 x 85/40 = 0.   V = 16.1323 / 0. what mass of sodium nitrate salt crystals would be left as a residue?  NaOH 40 0. .025 dm 3 3 3 c = m / V = 0.0168 dm 3 3 m = c x V = 5.o (b) The mass of sodium hydroxide that reacted with the nitric acid.084 g Solving the ratio: x = 0.0 x 0.1785 g NaNO3 You can also use HNO3 instead of NaOH i.0168 = 0. it doesn't matter which you use.29 g/dm (3sf. 2dp) (e) If the resulting neutral solution was carefully evaporated to dryness.

0097 dm 3 3 m = c x V = 3.0354 x 74/73 = 0.7 cm of a hydrochloric acid solution. 3 3 calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2(aq) RFM 74 + + hydrochloric acid 2HCl(aq) 36.0354 g HCl o (c) What mass of calcium hydroxide reacted with the hydrochloric acid?  Ca(OH)2 74 xg  : : : 2HCl 2 x 36.7 cm /1000 = 0.65 g HCl/dm calculate the concentration of calcium hydroxide in the water by the following method.0354 g Solving the ratio: x = 0.03588 g Ca(OH)2 .5 = 73 0.0097 = 0.65 x 0. Question 6b. (a) Calculate the relative formula masses of the reactants. If the concentration of the hydrochloric acid was 3.3: Limewater analysis o The symbol equation for the neutralisation reaction between calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) and 3 hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride and water is o o o 50 cm of a limewater solution was completely neutralised by 9.5 ===> ===> calcium chloride CaCl2(aq) - + + water 2H2O(l) o (b) What mass of hydrochloric acid (as HCl) reacted with the limewater?   V = 9.

o (d) What is the concentration of calcium hydroxide in g/dm ?   V = 50 cm /1000 = 0.4: Sulfuric acid .1823 x 1000 = 182 cm (3sf.05 dm 3 3 3 3 c = m / V = 0. What volume in cm . is required to neutralise 250 cm of the potassium hydroxide solution? To calculate mass of KOH   o V = 250 cm3/1000 = 0. nearest cm ) .1823 dm 3 3 3  0.25 = 25g of KOH To calculate mass of H2SO4 needed  H2SO4 98 xg  : : : 2KOH 2 x 56 = 112 25 g Solving the ratio: x = 25 x 98/112 = 21.  V = m / c = 21.875/120 = 0.718 g/dm Ca(OH)2  Question 6b.875 g H2SO4 o To calculate the volume of sulphuric acid needed.05 = 0. of the sulfuric acid solution.potassium hydroxide reaction to make potassium sulfate o o o o H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) ===> K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) Potassium hydroxide contained 100g/dm and sulfuric acid contained 120g/dm .03588/0.25 dm 3 3 3 3 3 m = c x V = 100 x 0.