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Russia-India-China: Prospects for Trilateral Cooperation

Nivedita Das Kundu

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Contents
Abstract 1. Introduction 2. Russia-China-India: Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century 3. India-China Relations in the post Cold War Phase 4. Sino-Russian Relations 5. Indo-Russian Relations 6. Russia-China-India: Tripartite Cooperation and the US factor 7. Globalisation: China-India-Russia Cooperation 8. The possibility for developing Russia-China-India triangle 9. Trend Analysis 10. End Notes/ References 11. Appendix I 11.1 Maps 11.2 Country Profile 12. Appendix II 12.1Treaty of Friendship & Cooperation China & Russia 13. Appendix III 13.1 Delhi Declaration Signed on 4th Dec.2002 between Russia and India

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13.2 Moscow Declaration Signed between India and Russia on 6th November 2001 13.3 Table I. Trade between India and Russia 14. Appendix-IV 14.1. Agreements/MOUs Signed between India and China 14.2 Agreement on maintainenance of peace and tranquility along L.A.C. on the Indo-China border 14.3. Table II: India China Trade in US $ million

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Abstract The present paper on Russia-India-China: Prospects for Trilateral Cooperation seeks to focus in the post cold war era an ideological divide no longer dominates the world order. The bipolar world order has given way to a trend that can be characterised as cooperation among nations. It is a change from the earlier cold war mindset of a zero sum game to cooperation for the insurance of ones own national interests. The analysis made in the paper shows that the security of a nation today is not merely territorial integrity and sovereignty, the meaning of security has widened considerably. Today nations opt for cooperation mainly because the issues confronting present International politics are global in nature and such issues have to be confronted in a collective manner.

The paper explores that at present India, Russia and China faces the biggest challenge to their integrity from forces of religious extremism, separatism and terrorism. After 9/11 the fight against terrorism assumed global dimensions. India and China strongly condemned the outrageous act of 9/11. While, President Putin aptly summed up the world horror by describing it as a plague of the twenty-first-century. All the three countries have condemned this horrifying act by terrorists and have supported the global campaign against terrorism.

The paper seeks to highlight that at the border level India, Russia and China agrees that the world should be a multi-polar one. A multipolar world order is one that is fair, just and democratic in which all nations are equal and enjoys equal security. The argument in the paper shows how Russia-India-China has been vigorously championing the idea of multi-polar world as against the tendency of

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unilateralism, as unilateral approach to international relations would lead to the unchallenged supremacy of the US and further such a tendency of unilateralism would lead to bypass the UN. The analysis in the paper indicates that a unipolar world could lead to instabilities and the utmost need at present is to have a balancing force. There is also an indication that China, Russia and India have attached importance to the centrality of the UN in the Multipolar world.

The paper while dealing with the relations between these three states argued that in the past lot of energy was spent in maintaining adversarial relations between Sino-Soviet, and Sino-Indian relations but at present given the changed paradigm of international relations where the dominate tendency is cooperation, it is possible for India, Russia and China to initiate such trilateral cooperation. Though mentioned that there are undoubtedly constrains in giving concrete shape to such cooperation and much depends on the state of bilateral relations among these countries, however, it is possible for India, Russia and China to initiate such trilateral cooperation in areas of common interest and concern.

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it will stimulate the process of multi-polarism.Russia-India-China: Prospects for Trilateral Cooperation 1. stated that the union of Russia. This proposal fits in with Primakov’s hypothesis that though there is one super power that is trying to assert itself. Sino-Russian and Sino-Indian relations have begun to unfold a new trend. Countries like Russia-India-China1 need a multi-polar world in order to get their national interest across and have autonomy of decisionmaking. the Russia-India-China triangle would be indispensable.2To construct a multipolar world. even after the end of cold war. President Yeltsin in 1993 and Prime Minister Primakov in 1996 advocated this idea.3 Russia-India relations flourished during the cold war period. Indo-Russian. Introduction Russia-India-China’s possible axis formation is an important political development in the postCold War period. Though there are some unresolved issues between these countries. China and India could be a viable opposition to American supremacy. which will be of far reaching significance for the international relations. the relationship was maintained as Russia proved to be a tested and trusted friend.4 Similarly China-India 5 . The Russian Premier Yevgeny Primakov when first suggested a strategic triangle among Russia. If this trend continues a triangular relationship between these three countries will become a reality and if this happens. Movement between these three states towards a better understanding is evident. India and China.

They still back the primacy of the United Nations in solving crises and support the principle of nonintervention in internal affairs of sovereign states. the Russia-India-China Axis formation can help to solve these issues to great extent.5 Russia.relationship became smoother in the eighties during the regime of Rajiv Gandhi. Indo-Russian Relations. Since then. which will help these three powers to play a larger role in global politics. After the 1993 accord. These three countries are bound to find this axis very useful in the future. what kind of Cooperation is possible between India. India-China Relations in the post Cold War Phase. In the long term it is the mutual confidence. China and Russia? What are the likely areas of such cooperation and on what terms can such cooperation come about? & What is the direction of future relations between the three States? In order to answer these queries the paper deals with seven interrelated subheadings these are Russia-China-India: Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century. All three shared concerns of American dominance and were disturbed by the Iraq war. China concerned about Muslim separatists in Xinjiang province and separatist attitude in Taiwan and North Korea. the paper deals with questions like. contentious issues like the border dispute were put aside and economic relations were taken forward. By mentioning these 6 . there are continuous efforts to maintain the relationship on both sides. The Axis can be used for negotiating a better position for them vis-à-vis the US.6 and India’s concern about militants in Kashmir. China and India have a number of converging interests that could add substance to axis talk. While analyzing the prospects for the trilateral cooperation between Russia-India-China. Globalisation: China-India-Russia Cooperation and The possibility and prospects for developing Russia-China-India triangle. With Russia concerned about Chechnya. Russia-China-India: Tripartite Cooperation and the US factor. Russia-China relations have also taken a new shape after the end of cold war. Sino-Russian Relations.

And cooperation in areas of environmental protection. all of them are committed to build a just and fair. striking against drug trafficking. Russia-China-India: Cooperation in the twenty-first century Prospects of relations between the three countries in the twenty-first century certainly imply coordinate actions taken in response to the challenges of the new century.7 There is a need to coordinate the actions. 7 . Russia and India can cooperate and coordinate. These issues include anti-unilateralism. Because with the advent of the new century the international environment in which these three states play the part of sovereign actors has become more intricate and complicated.8 The commonality of the key national interests and the long-term friendly relations in the field of economy.issues the paper argues about Russia-India-China’s concerns to safeguard its own security in the region. culture. new international political and economic order. There are many issues on which China. science and technology create a real possibility for cooperation between three great Eurasian powers. money–laundering and other cross-border crimes are also important aspects of cooperation. 2. Russia’s willingness to retain influence in South Asia and Russia-India-China’s concern on increasing US dominance and their desire to strengthen the United Nations role as the most authoritative and universal international organization. The three nations shares wide ranging interest on many major international issue.9 Human rights and counter-terrorism are two important areas where the three countries would like to cooperate and coordinate. advocating the principles of peaceful co-existence and respecting the right of development to change the unfair international trade and political regime.

12 What has become clear to all three was that any such restructuring would be based on a qualitatively different strategic reality that would be shaped by and impinged upon by the weight of history and would in some respects have to virtually start from scratch. that has seen so many qualitative changes over the last decade or so. It was only in the late seventies that a restructuring of these relationship (particularly Indo-China and Sino-Soviet relations) begun to be considered afresh. for instance. All three countries have had a long history of interaction.11 In the post-world war II period.10 There are advantages of threenation cooperation despite the obvious asymmetries. The agenda for future cooperation between china. China and Russia began with clear understanding of the wider context in which such cooperation would be possible and would progress. but the primary rationale is provided by the circumstances in which the three countries find themselves in a world. cooperation and close relationships. no doubt that there could be no resurrection of any kind of alliance relationship clearly directed against or targeting any third country or any agreement offering unconditional support to the other. There was. exchange. There are self-evident reasons for this. Any discussion or reflection on the prospects and possibilities of cooperation between India.A three-nation cooperation between India. China and Russia has become necessary in the twenty first century. given the fact that they are amongst the world’s largest continental-sized entities and civilization states.13 The post cold war scenario heightened the need for restructuring and readjustment and the process was accelerated even more in the mid-nineties in the relationship of all three. There have also been periods of near-total breakdown and actual hostilities (the Sino-Soviet relations in the late sixties and Sino-India relations in the early sixties). there have been phases of tremendous warmth and dizzying highs among them. 8 . India and Russia is large.

18 These 9 .16 China and Russia are also willing to conduct regular discussions on regional security and economic cooperation within the framework of the Asian-Pacific economic cooperation. Whereas China and India are energy deficient. they can invest in joint projects that could facilitate the flow of oil and gas from Russia into China and India. If these three states can work together. as well as threats to international peace and security must be shared among the nations of the world and should be exercised multilaterally. By doing so Russia. They are also keen on strengthening the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). China is willing to see India play a bigger role in the UN. ƒ ASEAN: All three nations indicated their cooperation with each other for joining ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) at the regional security forum in Phnom Penh. Russia-China-India subscribe to the principle emphasised in the millennium declaration that responsibilities for managing worldwide economic and social development.17 ƒ UN: In the UN both China and Russia are permanent members of the UN Security Council. This cooperation instead of affecting their independent foreign policies in negative way will strengthen their foreign policies.14 Russia is an energy surplus country.Since all three countries support a just and rational new international order with democratization of international politics and multipolarisation. China and Russia understand India’s aspiration very well. ƒ Energy Security: One of the major areas of cooperation for the three countries is energy security. India and China will thus become the first countries outside ASEAN to sign up to the pact in a coordinated demonstration of their desire to forge strategic partnership with ASEAN.15 The axis can improve the overall energy security scenario in Asia and the world. And India has been striving for the membership of the UN Security Council. there are a number of areas possible for their political cooperation in the new century.

Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov said that. 2003 was an important event as it reflected the tendency towards the expansion of contacts among countries in this region. Russia would work for trilateral interaction with India and China as a factor of global stability.countries also share similar views that as the most universal and representative organisation in the world. the UN must play the central role. He told Press Trust of India during an interview that he feels all the parties within this triangle are interested in this development. He said that. 19 The Chinese Communist Party leader Hu Jintao.21 The three major states of Asia and the world have successfully resolved and have cleared away many of the problematic issues and perceptions of the past. making them better positioned to manage the challenges of the post-soviet world. Ivanov also said that Russia welcomes the intensification of dialogue between India and China and added that Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's visit to China on June 22-23. President Putin in an interview with the Indian press directly addressed the “Strategic Triangle" relations. It seems evident that this 10 . and China and India. Beijing Review has put it in the way that Ancient China pursued a strategy of 'uniting those far away against those next door. Russia and China.20 China's official English journal.' but today's China needs to pursue the policy of being ‘partner to its neighbors’. Russia is concerned with the need for positive development of relations between Russia and India. confirmed that joint relations would move forward with the new generation of Chinese leadership.

Some of which are the forms of religious fundamentalism. as well as forming new military blocs. All three countries accept the new security concept that advocates mutual equal security based on mutual trust and disarmament.24 Since the December 1988 summit.22 All three countries are multi-nationality countries due to historical reasons there has been ethnic estrangement to different degrees leading to separatist movements. India-China Relations in the post Cold War Phase India-China relations in 1950s had a different flavour23 and now it is different. However. A shared commonality of concern for the integrity and stability of all states in particular of multinational. 3. With each other’s cooperation they can refrain from supporting these movements in each other’s country and can exchange their experience in solving ethnic problems and can cooperate in opposing terrorism and extremism. which are characterized by new shifts and turns. this change in the bilateral dynamics is of 11 . they are opposed to the expansion of NATO. India-China relations have entered a phase of confidence building. These relations are now developing in a zigzag manner. multi-ethnic societies and above all the common perception that the security that is needed and the threats that face them do not emanate from other states but from newly released forces in society that are transnational. primarily because of the internal and external policies of both these countries.process was driven by separate national perceptions of changing international realities and their responses to them. cross-border terrorism and demands for separation by sub-national ethnic groups. especially those that receive the support of outside powers. In order to enhance mutual understanding and trust each country would like to keep others posted about new developments in their bilateral relations or developments in their relations with other major powers. In spite of the unresolved problems that bedevil their relationship.

27 These visits brought in a large measure of political and military stability to a completely normalised pattern of India-China relationship.26 Sino-Indian relations remained at a low level after 1962 conflict till Indira Gandhi took the first step to upgrade the diplomatic relations between the two countries. non-interference in each other’s internal affairs. mutual benefit and peaceful coexistence.great significance to the two countries as well as to the rest of the world.V. These visits also reflects how the two countries have put the past aside and are now constructing their relations for the mutual interest of both the nations. Narashimha Rao’s visit to China in 1993. security and progress can critically alter the 12 . Rajiv Ghandhi's visit to Beijing in December 1988 marked a turning point in the evolution of the relations between the two countries. This was followed by Chinese Premier Li Peng’s visit to India in 1991 and P. China and India established diplomatic relation in the fifties when Premier Zhou Enlai and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (in 1954) co-sponsored the five principals of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity.R. Stable relations between India and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are of considerable importance to construct a peaceful post-cold war Asia. which have gradually become the internationally acceptable norms of governing states-to-state relations. These principles have become important in establishing a constructive relationship of cooperation between china and India. China and India are the largest Asian states among the continents. non-aggression. President K. Narayanan's visit to China in June 2000 and the visit of Chinese President Jyiang Zemin to India for Instance are events of great significance. This in turn is also shaping the perception of other states towards these two states.25 India-China has increasingly begun to see each other and their relationship as crucial factors in their foreign policies. Together India and China has over a third of the world’s population and therefore their future prosperity.

Consequently. rising trade and investments and cooperation in science and technology and other wider international issues have begun to lay the basis for more stable and comprehensive relationship than in the past. China by very visible steps 13 . a prerequisite of security and stability in the new era would depend on the stability and prosperity of its largest economies.28 As Asia struggles to cope with the effects of the sudden and dramatic end of the cold war. Stable and expanding China-India relations are therefore important both for the two billion people of the two countries and the rest of the region. high level political and military exchanges. The relations between the two countries entered a phase of detente.29 India and China feel that the future of their relations and co-operation has to breakout of the straitjacket of Pakistan fixations and predications. confidence building and widening cooperation in the post-Mao years. prosperity and peaceful policies of the two major Asian Powers. Over the past few years it has become increasingly clear that both India and China have enormous interest in the development of their burgeoning relationship. India-China has a special role to play in constructing a peaceful and prosperous future. trade and communication links spreading through the region and by creating an increasingly intricate structure of interdependence in which India and China are expected to play roles on which the future evolution of global capitalism would depend substantially is on the stability and economic growth of the two countries. With cross border investments. both these developing states have significant interest in expanding friendly and cooperative ties with each other and also in maintaining peace and cooperation. A series of confidence and security building measures. The rest of Asia and the world at large too have strong interests in the growth.fate of Asia.

More than the political significance. China and India are engaged in economic development30 and modernisation. totally bypassing Pakistan. the future prospects are promising due to the following reasons: ¾ Initially it may be only local trade between the contiguous regions of Sikkim and Tibet. ¾ If land route trade can be replicated by China and India on the Western borders. This would also provide options for new alignments of energy pipelines. this will set the base for enlarged trade eventually. ¾ With Chinese projects of linking Lhasa with a railway line and improved road communications. Serious efforts are being made by both the countries to resolve the border disputes. India and China are gearing up for a 14 . trade is bound to increase through the land route. China is keen to participate in various projects for development of infrastructure in India. India gets an alternative route entry to China's Xinjiang and Central Asia. However. This is confirmed by the fact that after reconfirming their perceptions of the “Line of Actual Control” (LAC) along a 345 km "middle sector" stretch. especially for the opening of the Sikkim land route for two-way trade.has to assuage India’s misgivings and sensitivities in the context of 1962 and subsequent events. Indian goods and services have entered the Chinese market and also Chinese goods are doing well in the Indian Market. The various initiatives unleashed during the Indian former Prime Minister's visit to China in June 2003 are significant.

In 1994.B. This is how an attempt to impart dynamism in the relations between the two countries is being given. Vajpayee's visit to Beijing in June 2003 was another milestone in improving Sino-Indian relations The two countries further reaffirmed their commitments to formulate additional confidence-building measures with a military focus and expressed their determination to enhance bilateral cooperation to combat terrorism. This is further confirmed by the fact that the 199332 and 1996 Sino-Indian agreements were recalled with approval on this occasion.33 The process of the solution of the border dispute between the two countries began at the end of 1980s when a joint border Commission was set up. Further. the two sides agreed on no first use of nuclear weapons against each other. 4. The two Countries also detargeted the missiles directed against each other and an agreement to this effect was signed when Chinese President Jiang Zemin visited Russia in September 1994. Former Prime Minister A. in April 1997 15 . it will open new vistas of economic and political cooperation.31 If Sino-Indian border disputes are resolved. they differ on the lay of LAC in some segments but efforts are being made to resolve all border disputes. However. brought into focus that in the new condition Sino-Indian relations has begun to reveal certain positive developments. Sino-Russian Relations have been improving steadily and have now taken a dramatic turn.similar exercise along their frontier in the Ladakh area (both sides have defined and mentioned it on Maps). Sino-Russian Relations Russia and China have a military cooperation and converging interests on a range of international issues. This shows that step-bystep strategy of India and China of normalising and improving relations with each other has begun to yield positive result. During the visit by former Indian Defence Minister George Fernandes to Beijing in the April 2003.

This is amply reflected in the 20-year treaty of friendship signed in Moscow by Chinese President’s at the end of his visit to Russia in 2001. during May 1991 on the Eastern Sector and September 1994 on the Western Sector removed a major irritant. Beijing has also emerged as a major arms destination. four Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines and two Sovremenny-class destroyers 16 . China has purchased from Russia 50 Su-27 fighter jets. it was announced that the border dispute has been finally settled (though there are some residual issues.72 billion up 4. In monetary terms. Russian imports from China have increased by 70 per cent. In 2000. In 1999. For Moscow. up 20.1 per cent from the same period of 2000. In the arms trade. China ranked the sixth among Russian trade patterns.4 per cent from that in 1998. Moreover.5 billion. the trade volume between the both countries was $ 5.34 Economic Cooperation between the two countries is also undergoing basic changes. it is equal to $ 2 billion and it is no small amount for a country engaged in reconstructing its economy. the successful conclusion of the border agreement between the two sides. which will be settled in near future).an accord on mutual reduction of forces was singed in Moscow by Russia & China. In December 1999. There is a convergence of views between the two countries for protecting their common turf. President Putin and President Jiang worked together to set up a new security forum towards the Islamist threats to the Central Asian Republics. helping to balance bilateral trade. The purpose of President Putin’s visit to China in July 2001 was to make plans for the longterm development of bilateral relations. Trade between the Russia and China is estimated to have reached $ 10 billion in 2001. Two leaders of Russia and China in Moscow signed the China-Russia good neighbourly treaty of friendship and cooperation in July 2001. The trade volume of the first four months of 2001 was $ 2. More than 60 percent of Russian military exports go to China.

This visit laid the bases to chalk out common strategies on issues of global concerns such as North Korea. This is based on the principle of building a cooperative bilateral relationship while maintaining an independent foreign policy. the two nations have made significant progress towards building a relationship of strategic cooperation. Iraq and terrorism. strategic. Tolstoy and Gorky repeatedly voiced the feelings of warm sympathy for the Chinese people. once wrote: “Alliance between Russia and China appears to me to be if not the best. Belinsky. Post Sept. China have set up multilateral forum that is not dominated by the US such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) which discusses regional security and economic cooperation. Chinese-Russian relations are at present on the upswing. It created confidence in building a strong bilateral relationship in political.35 However.11. Russia. Chernyshevsky. military and economic fields. 17 . The greatest Russians including Pushkin. a great Russian Scientists who was ardent champion of close relations between the Russian and Chinese peoples. In 1999 China signed a $2 billion contract to buy 30 to 60 advanced Su-30 fighter planes. The joint statement signed by Jiang Zemin and Putin provided the framework for increasing cooperation and constructing a mutually beneficial relationship. Warm feeling and interest in each other’s life and culture and struggle for liberation always marked these relations since the 17th Century when relations between the two countries were first established. Over the past decade.armed with deadly sunburn anti-ship cruise missiles. Nuclear proliferation and disarmament were also discussed. China and Russia also have joint working group on terrorism and have agreed to exchange intelligence on these sensitive issues. President Putin’s visit consolidated the gains in bilateral ties achieved over the last years. After the December 2002 Beijing visits of Russian President Vladimir Putin the relations between the two nations have taken a new turn. Dimitri Mendeleyev.

while dealing with other partners including the western world. from borderline settlement and borderline military confidence-building measures to common environmental protection and nature conservation measures. border-control forces and lawenforcement agencies would continue to strengthen friendly and practical contacts. Russia and China have moved to establish the required international-legal base of bilateral relations. His teaching on the national-colonial revolution. This has both regional and global significance. his theoretical and practical advice to the participants in democratic youth movements in the oppressed countries of the East was of greater significance. It also shows the way towards mutual advantageous agreements on conventional arms reductions. Both the countries seem to believe that their armies.then the surest and simple guarantee of the peaceful progress of not only these two countries but of the whole world. he said: 18 . He identified four key points in Russian-Chinese cooperation. Intensive work is currently proceeding apace to fill such documents with practical content. The Chinese President during his visit to Russia in 2001. which encompasses a wide range of problems of interest to both sides. Lenin made tremendous theoretical contribution to the Chinese revolution. In the Lomonosov University address. elaborated somewhat more on the foundations of the friendship treaty. The new model of Russian-Chinese relations has led to a gradual lowering of the level of military presents along the Russian-Chinese border.” This is relevant today.36 The Chinese Communists had great importance to the revolutionary movement in the East as a whole and China in particular. enabling them to conduct a more flexible and maneuverable policy. The current level of these two countries relations provides each side with certain advantages.

37 The two sides. • He stated that by common economic development of Russia and China. to make both Russian and Chinese civilizations learn from each other and achieve common progress. Both the states should widen the channels of Sino-Russian cultural exchanges. transport.• China will support Russia in its efforts to invigorate its national economy and safeguard its rights and interests. as are China's great minds like Confucius in Russia. the construction of a Tianwan nuclear power station in China and the projects to build Russia-China oil and gas pipelines have become the pivotal elements of joint economic and technological cooperation. through their permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council and their role in international organizations. people wants cooperation. telecom. • On cultural exchange he said. energy. transportation and nuclear energy. their geographic proximity. aerospace. on the basis of mutual benefits are developing cooperation in the spheres of trade and the economy. energy. and complement each other’s economic systems. He also said he was convinced that Russia would support China in its economic modernization drive and in its effort to enhance the cohesion of the nation. • He said. but also in science and technology. countries want development and societies want progress and this is the trend of Present time. not least in the newly created Shanghai Cooperation Organization. military-technological cooperation in the areas of science. Russia's great minds like Pushkin are well read in China. Distinctive feature of the new-type of Russian-Chinese 19 . both nations could make fuller use of their potentials. and information technology. He emphasized that the world needs peace. Russia and China bear responsibility for the entire world. Russia-China will increase their cooperation not only in trade. China will never do anything detrimental to the interests of Russia. • He also said.

Thus a new bases and new parameters have been created in building Russian-Chinese relations.relations in the current phase is the assumption that the Russia’s cooperation with its friends and allies will not to be such which might affect its interest. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union this basis has been further consolidated. India did take early steps. suddenly found it reduced to the position of a second ranking or regional power. were not immediately in a position to clearly define the foreign policy goals of their state and ascertain its position in the emerging post cold war international order. though without making any significant headway. This implies that the present model of RussianChinese relations has its owned specific features. It was clearly pulled between a declining nostalgia for past relations with countries like India and growing proclivity towards cultivating relations with the West. 5. While China will not use its relations or ties with other countries to restrain Russia. Russia.39 The first couple of years of India’s relations with post-Soviet Russia were marked by a good deal of uncertainty.38 The most prominent among the successor states of the Soviet Union. Indo-Russian Relations The disintegration of the Soviet Union and the end of the cold war has brought about a fundamental transformation in the geopolitical map of the world. The new leaders of Russia besieged by domestic constraints. inconsistency and lack of clarity. The two-track approach that India adopted was on the one hand aimed at resurrecting the vital elements of its economic and military relations with Russia and on the other searching out alternatives in 20 . It predicament was further compounded by economic chaos and political uncertainty at the domestic level. which are different from all the previous periods relations between the two countries. in spite of inheriting the formidable military might of its predecessor.

The contours of new Russian foreign policy have become clearer. Agreements have been signed for the Mig 29 K fighter. On both these counts. The Navy is also acquiring three Krivak-class frigates or project 1135. Russia seems to have shredded its initial hesitation. Indian Navy has acquired two submarines and three frigates from Russia.the West. Indo-Russian defence supplies are in the range of 70 per cent of total defence imports of India. The national goals of two countries are being looked upon in the light of new international realities. Indo-Russian cooperation in the area of defence supplies is gaining momentum. India’s difficulties were compounded both by the magnitude of its dependence on Russia and the political-economic uncertainty faced by the latter. Kamov 31 helicopters. which commensurate with the realities of the post cold war era. There are some indicators. and Russia’s Gazprom has signed a contract in the field of oil exploration.6 from Russia. Gas Authority of India Ltd. It is now giving all the indications of its ability and intentions of redefining its foreign policy goals. however. related particularly to nuclear energy have already taken concrete shape. With India the objectives and character of its relations are being defined with a measure of clarity. Nearly $ 3 billion defence contracts have been finalized. In the oil and gas sector. It meant that it often had to ‘wait and see’ what Russian would do and how this would effect the relationship of the two countries. India’s efforts were rewarded to a limited extent. which costs around $ 300 million each. priorities and international role. The two countries have once again begun to rediscover the mutual importance but with a qualitative difference. 21 . which shows that Indo-Russian cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology.41 Indo-Russian politico-strategic defence cooperation is an important element of strategic partnership between the two countries.40 However. Agreements on scientific collaboration between India-Russia in the area of biotechnology have begun a new phase. inconsistency and unclarity. T 90S tanks and other defence equipment.

in a situation where the rules of international politics are in a state of flux and where the term of the economic interaction between nations are being reset. ensuring the security of nuclear weapons stockpiles in a world facing a new assortment of threats and challenges.42 What has substance to it is the reinforcement of the faith. the framework for India-Russia relations was firmly set. Above all. The understanding between Russia and India flowed from the 22 . There is a real convergence of perspectives on issues as wide-ranging as the phenomenon of terrorism.In December 2002. both India and Russia are sovereign countries and would be looking after their own in the first instance. the conservation and promotion of multi-polarity in global politics. It reflected the changed and changing international situation and their mutual needs and requirements. India and Russia reaffirmed a long-standing friendship through the adoption of the Delhi Declaration. Since both the countries are struggling to define their relations with other major players on the global stage. What was different and special to this special relationship was that it was not born out of any cold war considerations nor was it either seemingly or even indirectly directed against any other country. this specific encounter between the Indian and Russian leaderships was of significance for the affirmation of continuity and mutual reassurance that it symbolized. expanding cooperation and multiplying contacts in various fields. Between Vladimir Putin's first visit to India as president of Russian Federation in October 2000 and his second visit in December 2002.43 This was a framework of another special relationship of "Strategic Partnership". some of them of critical importance to India-Russia both. It did not exclude the establishment of other special relationships provide they were not inimical to either of them. Undoubtedly. it reflected the fact that not only there were no national irritants but that there was an obvious long-term complementarily of interests between the two countries.

1985-1996 & 1996 onwards. geopolitical and futuristic terms. Indo-Russian relations remained smooth and continuous though they have gone through distinct phases in their history and development. 1956-1971. For instance. overall parallelism of interests has been evident. The rough period in Russian-Indian relations after 1985 clearly arose from the felt need of both to connect more seriously with the West. This does not exclude differences of approach on certain specific issues. whether it was a question of India's role in this region and the world and on most international issues of importance to the two countries. Each of these phases has some distinct characteristics in terms of trade and political relations.45 Interestingly. Whether it was the question of terrorism or of the defence of Indian territorial integrity or that of Russia. these phases relate to the national interests of these two countries as well as each of these phases has some relation to the global situation. One can classify these phases as 1947-1956. During phase 1996 onwards trade has dominated by 23 . the Russian and Indian interests generally tended to coincide and there is a certain empathy for each other. but the general. in phase 1956-1971 and 1971-1985 trade between the two was state dominated but this ended after phase 1985-1996. an intrinsic value in the Indo-Russia ties.44 There is therefore. 1971-1985. In each of these phases Indo-Russian relations have grown or declined depending on the perceptions and experiences that both the countries have had mainly with the Western powers. especially the United States did not live up to their expectations to deliver its promises to both these countries. The two sides so far have soft understanding of each other's concerns while retaining their autonomy of action and expanding their relations with diverse other countries.complimentarily of their interests both in historical. The restabilization of relations between the two after 1996 materialized again when both Russia and India experienced that the West.

These are clear manifestation of new trends in Russia-India-China tripartite Cooperation and US factor. to struggle against the international terrorism. There is a fundamental base line in the relation between these two countries that has built up over the years. Russia-China-India: Tripartite Cooperation and the US factor United States is one of the major factors in the formation of Russia-India-China Axis. 6. Russia and India to ensure a multi-polar world and a new international political and economic order.. Relation between Russian-ChineseIndian community and the United States is one of the most important aspects of the global policy. As each of the three countries is a major political actor of the world. there was an intense need to consider the economic aspects of the international security. There is thus a common vision between the two countries that seems to be re-emerging as the test of bilateral ties lies in the commonality of approach to problems and conflicts.military hardware and joints military production between the two sides. Currently both countries find themselves on similar platform on issues ranging from terrorism. All of them have indicated that developing relations with the US is not directed against other countries. to formulate the new role of US and these states national interests. Iraq. cultural and political links as also no real antagonism on any major issues. 24 .11. No doubt all three countries attach importance to their respective relations with US. This base involves India’s dependence on military hardware imports from Russia. etc. These three States are opposed to the US hegemony and stressed the need for enhanced cooperation between China. which has triggered the complications and dramatic changes in the whole plethora of international relations. impact of globalisation. political support on its position on Kashmir and other economic. Russia-India-China has signaled to the US that its unilateralism is breeding serious concern among big international players.46 The turning point was the attack of 11th Sept. After Sept.

Bush also said that in the present moment of opportunity. 25 . First. the low-priced goods of transnational companies hit traditional agriculture and Industry. Developed countries are violating regulations and non-tariff barriers. There are many similarities in the socio-economic conditions of the three countries. which theoretically would be able to balance American power in the coming years. For example. a potential alliance of three nuclear powers. in ways that they have never done before. Russia and India has become the engine of global economy. sustained economic development of China. It is true that at present development of the world economy is guided by western capitalism in contrast to the past. the problems they are encountering also have commonalities. a common danger is erasing gold rivalries. have focused the need for a Beijing-Moscow-New Delhi triangle. Face to face with economic globalisation. draining science and technology personnel and homogenising traditional culture. Formation of a Russia-India-China shows that behind the cooperation there is a great motivation of interest. to reduce the damages caused by unreasonable regulations.47 As the War in Iraq is further enhancing the image and global influence of America (the sole superpower). 7. India and China have already entered WTO and Russia is pondering over this issue. After 11 September.The growing US military and diplomatic influence in Central and South Asia is also not in Beijing's. US President George Bush clubbed the three powers together when he said that America was working with Russia and China and India. Globalisation: China-India-Russia Cooperation Comprehensive China-Russia-India cooperation is the suitable option in the present Global Scenario. New Delhi’s and Moscow’s interests. to achieve peace and prosperity.

5 per cent of the total area in the world.48 All these can become great impetus for trilateral cooperation.50 Undoubtedly. huge potential of market and rich endowment of natural resources. 40 percent of the world’s total population. energy. Due to Globalisation all the three countries experience an attack of low-grade western culture over their traditional cultures. The most profound changes in the world after the end of the cold war the end of rivalry between two super powers the United States and the earst while Soviet Union and confrontation between the East and the 26 . which has to be taken along the positive direction in future. its success is also subject to the social orientation and care about the well being of the people. They cover a total area of 29. are extremely broad.4 billion. is to provide an alternative for economic development and third.49 The tripartite cooperation could put a barrier against the decay of their original culture by surrogates of western pseudo-culture. The population of these three countries together amounts to around 2.96 million square kilometers. the goal of trilateral cooperation is for the mutual benefit and most likely will conform to the interest of each country. raw material etc. the three countries have great human resources.Second. is to look for a buffer zone in order to avoid economic crisis. The possibility for developing Russia-China-India triangle Russia-India-China has a great importance in terms of geopolitics. The population of each country should recognize the benefits of Russian-Chinese-Indian cooperation so that it could gain a massive support and could be deepened and widened further. Indeed. there is a need of permanent mechanism for exchange of views and coordination of actions. which is 22. India and Russia. 8. in order to realize the opportunities and to respond to challenges. The prospects of cooperation in product composition. Important aspect of the tripartite cooperation is that. Globalisation offers new opportunities and brings new challenges to China. technology.

27 . Leaders of the two countries have maintained that the boundary issues should be solved through peaceful negotiations and consultations and not with force or threat of using force. All round cooperation between Russia and India has been further expanded and China–Russia strategic partnership of cooperation has been deepening further. The two countries have also reached agreements on strengthening military confidence and mutual reduction of military forces in border areas to ensure peace and stability of the border between the two countries. The relationship among the three countries affects the basic principles of Asian security. China has common borders with both Russia and India.West blocks. It will definitely have a positive impact on Asian security if their ties could be further improved and more countries are persuaded to observe these principles. Russia. Relationship of China-Russia-India has made headway in the past years since the first trilateral meeting in Moscow in September 2001 took place. All the three countries. The possibility for the formation of Russia. Great potentialities for cooperation exist among China.51 This shows that the three countries not only set great store by the relationship among themselves but also their relations with other countries. China has demarcated its borders with Russia. Bilateral relationship between China and India has steadily improved. Of the three countries of China. India and China triangle are indeed very bright. Russia and India. All three countries advocate non-alliance and non-confrontation. Though the question of the Sino-Indian boundary has still remained unresolved. the intensity of confrontation between states is also decreasing. NATO and the Warsaw pact. In the world where there is no confrontation between blocks. Russia and India. India and China are faced with the tasks of developing their economy. Except for three small islands.

it will become a decisive factor in this part of the planet. rather strengthen their position to deal with US. • Russia. Charter.N. In this way. Trilateral cooperation has gained a strong momentum and as long as patience and perseverance is maintained. However. • Development of the trilateral relationship is not going to affect their respective relationship with US. If this triangular relationship continues to grow and deepen. their bilateral relations would continue to develop. since the two sides take a forward-looking approach. commitment on resolving international problems through political dialogue and establishment of a multilateral and just world order. Convergence of political and economic interests of these three countries is bringing them closer to each other. international law.Development of the bilateral relationship has provided a sound basis for the trilateral cooperation between the three nations. This trilateral 28 . which mainly exists between China and India such as the boundary questions and the Pakistan factor in China’s relation with India. India and China have very close views on most key issues. 9. In the long term it is confidence between these three powers that will allow them to play a larger role in world politics and in the process build more balanced world order. such as on the U. • Russia-China and India during the last decade not only faced the threat of terrorism but also suffered from it. the three countries are natural geopolitical allies in the struggle against international terrorism and by forming a triangle they can deal better with terrorism. One has also to be aware of some problems in the trilateral cooperation. cooperation of the three countries will develop further. Trend Analysis • The three countries Russia-India-China have commonality of interests in fighting global terrorism and strengthening politico-economic cooperation in the new historic conditions.

machinery. energy. There is an experience and practice of bilateral cooperation but there is no truly significant trilateral cooperation mechanism yet. Russia-India-China could participate jointly in constructing transport corridors (one envisaged rail connection from Bangladesh to Kazakhstan) or building of oil pipelines. All three nations face great economic and security challenges. At the economic level there is potential for India. and Beijing will indeed construct a new geometry of relations. improving banking facilities etc. which they can solve by cooperating with each other. telecommunications. which could be overcome as far as the cooperation is defined by objective circumstances and by positive initiation of the leaders of these three countries.interaction is important for global stability by formulating this triangle Moscow. • In terms of their role in total world economic output. chemicals etc. • It would be an exaggeration to believe that the establishment of tripartite Russia-ChinaIndia Cooperation and their successful breakthrough into the future will be flawless and smooth in the present scenario. China and India if taken together have a weight comparable to that of the European Union. Cooperation at various multilateral fora could strengthen their bargaining positions. Russia and China to cooperate with each other in areas such as high technology. Delhi. Russia and China could drive benefit in the long run. • At the exploratory stage of trilateral cooperation. Joint ventures could be set up in any of the abovementioned areas. it would be worthwhile to identify areas of common interests. pharmaceuticals. A lot of difficulties and obstacles are in store for them. --------------------------------------------------- 29 . Russia. By coordinating their policies on global economic issues India.

July 10. No. Russian General Comments on Topical Geo-Political Issues. advanced the argument on Indo-Russian Relations in her well-documented article on India-Russia Future Strategic Trends in New Trends in Indo-Russian Relations. in India-Russia Future Strategic Trends.D. 7 Prof. See text of the joint statement by India-Russia issued in Moscow on 6 February 2003. Eds.Bhatia has argued on the Triangle formation in his article on Indo-Russia. at http://www. Eds. NO.D. End Notes/References: 1 2 See Appendix I. 28 November 2002. Chenoy. Sino-Russia.com/news-rci.1 &11.CDSP Vol. 7February 2003. 2002. South 14 Asian Tribune.com/columns/stiry/0719202003 colyiccoll. 4.D. Kanna. pp 187-195.7-8. 22 September 2002. 23 November 2000. Nirmala Joshi. May12-18. No.2000. 27 November 2002. Preliminary Analysis of Main Features of China’s New Security Concepts.pp385-386. Moscow. January 2000. 2002. Chopra.com/archieves/dec162202/opinionaxis. Eminent Specialist on Russia. Also available at http://www. V. in India-Russia Future Strategic Trends. 2001.Also See the text in Beijing Review. 6 Sino-Indian borders have remained more or less peaceful and no major border conflict took place.10. Dec 16-22.665. pp.D. pp 101-103.298-299. Chopra.2003 30 . Eds. Chopra. See Russian Foreign Minister Promotes Strategic Triangle. 10 11 12 Also mentioned in the Report on Bilateral Relations Between India and Russian Federation. pp.satribune. 11.4. 1997. argued well on the aspects of Axis issues in her article on Possibility for India-Russia- China’s Trilateral Cooperation.203.htm 15 See Peoples Daily Novsoti. Eds. Ministry of External affairs. in http://www. pp 29-35. Strengthening the Role of UN and China-India-Russia Cooperation in UN Related Issues. V. 9 New York Times. 2002.html Dec 2. 3.asp Saturday July 19.html.7.org/russia/162.pegmusic. Well Known Scholar R. New Delhi.p.19-20 The Military Balance 2000-2001. Xiaoxiong Yi.The Hindu. See text in Asian Age.35 5 Vinod C.L. V. Sa Benwang.2 Moskovsky Komsomolets. See Dr. Prof Anuradha M.52. Sino-India Triangle in India-Russia Future Strategic Trends. pp 187-195.mariettatimes. V. Chopra. Central and East European Division. Daily Review. Also See V. India-Russia-China: Changing Equation. FBIS-CHI-2003-0730.cdi.21. Indian Express. January 10. September. China Report 39:3. Beijing. Chopra. in Dawn. Major Threats and Dangers facing China. The paper published the views of Yevgeny Primakov of Russia. 7 November 2001 See Xu Jian and Guo Zhenyuan.p. 13 Russian National Security Doctrine. 8 Leonid Ivashov.D. article in http://www. Foreign Affairs Journal. Issue No.

8(10). Yang Hui. See for instance Inside China Today. in China Report 18 19 20 38:1 2002. 25 Beijing Review. ChinaRussia-India Relationship and its Prospects. P. in China Report 39: 3. pp. # 234 Contents. Current International Terrorism and Struggle Against it.html.ndu. p. 32 31 .org/publications/RB Leading China Analyst Sujit Dutta provided very useful analysis and argument on Indo-China Relations in his 29 article on India-China Relations in India-Russia Future Strategic Trends. 14. 17 US are also member of Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Contemporary International Relations.3. Sage Publications. No. Chopra. India. See Appendix IV. Thousand Oaks. Distinguished Diplomat Sudarshan Bhutrani’s book A Clash of Political Cultures.14. p. pp353-357. pp 358-360. pp 151-155. 22 Ji Zhiye.5. Ministry of External Affairs.satribune.Also See for instance 26 27 Xinhua. New Delhi. London. Februray22. July 2001 at http://www. 41. A New US strategy for a changing Asia.D. See CDI Russian Weekly. Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks.1. Yakovlev.cdi. Autumn 1999. 24 23 See Taipei Times. Thousand Oaks. December 6. 2002. China Debates the Future Security Environment at www. Sage Publications. Myasnikov. V. Also cited in Ziegler. Sino-Indian Relations Published by Lotus Collection. Also see Xia Yishan. 2001. pp95-100. New Delhi. 2001. Roli Books. pp101-103. 2000. 2004. 7 (1). rand. Also See Christain Science Moniter. September 23-29.82 Michael Pillsbury. Haryana. V. 1991. Alexander G. Beijing. October 1998. New Delhi. October 12. The Triangle of Russia-China-India: Pros and Contras in China Report 38:1 2002. Also See. 21 See http://wwww.1-9.edu/inss/books/books.16 See Rainer Apel and Paul Gallagher in Executive Intelligence Review. July 27. 31 See Appendix IV 14. at http://www. p. 2003. The Sino-Russian Strategic Partnership. 2001. 28 Reports from China Desk. 2002. 30 See Appendix IV. 28 (10). The Possiblity and Prospects for Developing Russia-India-China Relations. http://www. Russia: Now and the Way Ahead. PTI Reported on 4th December 2002 Yang Chengxu. Eds.13. International Strategic Studies. 1sr issue. China Institute of Contemporary International Relations.com/News/archives/2001. Journal of Contemporary China. Boundary and Security Bulletin. New Delhi.html.S. London. Taipaitimes. Rand Research Brief.com/archives/dec 162202/opinion axis. given enriching analysis and information on IndiaChina Relations from 1957-62.org/russia/234-5. P. London.11.cfm.2 Lowell Dittmer. 399. Russia-China-India: Cooperation in the Twenty First Century in China Report 39:3 2003.

Also see Hagerty Devin.fi/aleksanteri/english/publications/ap_das_kundu. Issue No.pp13-14. 35 Well known Russian Scholar and Specialist T. 1998. 4(14). Vladimir Putin. 32 . pp 360-363.2. Weekly News Bulletin Edited and Published by the Information Department of the Russian Embassy in India. London. 37 See News from Russia. Ed. p. Keohane.92. China 44 45 Report 381. August 38 39 8.L. November 2000. New Delhi. 1-2. 2002. September 5. New York. 2002. 43 See Appendix III. Jyotsna Bakshi.33 Iwasita. 13. Sage Publications.2000. 46 See Russia: Summit Seen as Further Move towards Multipolar World.2001. Also See Jasjit Singh. China and Pakistan: Strains in the Relationship. Brookings Institute..1 & 13. 1999. 2002. See The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. April 6. Strategic Analysis. 286. Eds. Rossiskiye Vesti. Worlds in Collision Terror and the Future. SIPRI. Shaumian advanced her argument on Geopolitical Changes in Central Asia and Position of Russia. 36 Cited in Survey of World Broadcasts. pp.20. The Public Delegitimation of Terrorism and Coalition Politics. Rossiskaya Gazeta. Stockholm. Mitsuo Mii. Mirovaya Ekionomika I Mezdunarodnie Otnosheniya. (11) p. 39. OUP. Asian Strategic Review 1998-99. 1997. 42 News From Russia. November 11. Moskva-Pekin: Strategicheskoe Partnerstvo I Progranichnie Peregovory. 125. Roy Medvedev. Russia and India Political Cooperation in the sphere of Global regional and Bilateral Relations. Current History. in Ken Booth and Tim Dunne. London. In Gennady Chufrin. See Ria Novosti.p 40-47. Aug. available at http://www. Russian-Chinese Relations and Arms Exports. August 1998. p. 47 See News from Russia. advanced her argument on Russia’s Post-Pokhran Dilemma. The New Russian Foreign Policy. 1998. 10 (656).helsinki. September 2002. Moscow. Russia and Asia-Pacific Security. February 4. Part I. 1997.htm. 41 See Working Paper of Nivedita Das Kundu. China and India in her paper on the same topic in China Report 39: 3. May 31. Robert O. 2003. 50 (1). dated 27th Sept. Lounev. Ed. on “Indo-Russian Relations: An Overview”.pp109-111. A Council of Foreign Relations Book. 34 See Appendix II. 40 Michael Mandelbaum.145. Thousand Oaks. 2002. 2001. p. Trends in Defence Expenditure. New Accents in Russia’s Foreign Policy.

December 3. The Hindu. August 15. 31(1) pp. 2002. 2001. p2. 53 (29). Russia-China-India: Prospects for Trilateral Cooperation.48 Yakshina Galina. No. Far Eastern Affairs.16-27 49 Mikhail Titarenko. Also See The Current Digest of Post Soviet Press. 51 Ibid. Strategic Triangle in Focus during Putin’s Visit. Far Eastern Affairs.1997. 3. 50 Raja Mohan. A Mutually Beneficial Partnership Oriented into the 21st Century. p 66. and 2003. Mikhail Titarenko. 33 .

Source:http://user. Source:http://news.chollian.bbc.gif 34 .stm.cfm. Appendix I 11.org/profiles/Russia.1 Maps Map of Russia Map of India Map of China Source: worldpress.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.net/~omana23/Map/Asia/Map-Asia-China-01.co.11.

73 years (women) (UN) Monetary unit 1 Renminbi (yuan) (Y) = 10 jiao = 100 fen Main exports Manufacture d goods. English and 17 other official languages Hinduism.3 billion (UN. Taoism Life expectancy 69 years (men).11. Islam.130 (World Bank. Islam. electronics. arms Agricultural products. Vladimir Putin Source: BBC Country Profile. 2002) Population 1. CIA Country Profile. 2002) $143. weapons and military equipment GNI per capita US $960 (World Bank. Christianity. chemicals. Christianity. 2003) Head of state President Hu Jintao India Hindi. garments. Buddhism. textile goods. leather products Oil and oil products. including textiles. Sikhism. 2002) 1 billion (UN. Country Profile Country China Major language Mandarin Chinese Major religions Buddhism. chemicals. Russia Fact files. natural gas. 2003) President. wood and wood products.2 million (UN. metals. 2003) Prime Minister Manmohan Singh Russia Russian Christianity. 65 years (women) (UN) 1 Indian Rupee = 100 paise US $470 (World Bank. engineering goods. Jainism 63 years (men). gems and jewellery. software services and technology. 35 . Islam 61 years (men).2. 73 years (women) (UN) 1 rouble = 100 kopecks US $2.

mutual benefit and peaceful co-existence. to ensure the long-term steady development of bilateral relations. friendship. economic. It is likely to have a deep and far-reaching impact on the long-term steady development of bilateral ties between the two countries.1 Treaty of Friendship & Cooperation China & Russia (Signed on July 16. Appendix II 12. cooperation and peace. non-interference in each other’s internal affairs. 2001) The good-neighborly treaty of friendship and cooperation which the Chinese president Jiang Zemin and Russian president Vladimir Putin signed on July 16. The two sides support each other’s policy to maintain national unity and territorial integrity. is intended to function as a legal document guiding the steady development of Sino-Russian relations in the new century. nor will it aim its strategic nuclear weapons at the other. The two parties reaffirm that neither side will be the first to use nuclear weapons against the other. in accordance with the principles of mutual respect of each other’s territorial integrity. The details of this comprehensive treaty are given below: China and Russia will develop the strategic cooperative partnership based on goodneighborliness.12. non-aggression. 36 . The two parties respect the path of political. social and cultural development of the other. Disputes between the two countries will be settled in line with stipulations in the UN charter and other international principles by peaceful means.

The two parties to the treaty will utilize and perfect the mechanisms of regular meetings of officials at different levels. Military cooperation between the two countries is not targeted at any third party. the government of the People’s Republic of China is the sole legal government to represent the whole China and that Taiwan is an inalienable part of China. security and territorial integrity. should any of the two parties perceive circumstances that may threaten and undermine peace or its security interests. Russia is opposed to any form of independence of Taiwan. In accordance with existing agreements.Russia declares that there is only one China in the world. The two parties will adhere to international principles concerned and strictly observe the boundary between the two countries. issues of mutual concern and on important and pressing international issues. The two sides will strictly adhere to the established principles and norms of international law and will oppose the interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign country by force or under 37 . They will take more confidencebuilding measures in the military area to enhance their respective security and consolidate regional and international stability. security and territorial integrity. The two parties will have immediate contact and consultations. Neither of them will conclude such treaties with any third party or allow a third country to use its territory to harm the other’s sovereignty. The two sides are determined to build the boundary between the two countries into one of permanent peace and lasting friendship. Neither party will join any alliance or group that harms the other’s sovereignty. to exchange opinions and coordinate positions on bilateral issues. so as to strengthen the strategic cooperative partnership based on equality and trust. the two countries will build up confidence in the military field and mutually reduce troops in the border areas.

stability. The two parties will strengthen coordination in the United Nations. development and cooperation. and will endeavor to promote the adherence of fundamental agreements concerning the safeguarding and maintenance of strategic stability. particularly in the fields of peace and development. The two sides will push forward the process of nuclear disarmament and the reduction of chemical weapons and will take measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. and push forward efforts that aim to set up a multilateral security and cooperation mechanism in the said areas in line with their actual situations. The two parties will deal with their debts and rights of credit in accordance with relevant agreements and other documents signed between the governments of the two countries.various excuses. 38 . The two parties are jointly committed to maintaining global strategic balance and stability. The two parties will vigorously promote and strengthen the stability in the neighboring areas of the two countries. in handling international affairs. Both sides will strive to enhance the key role of the United Nations as the most authoritative and most universal international body of sovereign states. create an atmosphere of mutual understanding. The two parties are opposed to any acts that may threaten international stability. trust and cooperation. and will coordinate and cooperate in preventing international conflicts and finding political solutions to such conflicts. security and peace. They are willing to make great efforts to reinforce international peace. means of delivery and related technologies. the UN Security Council and its special organizations.

nuclear energy. preventing cross-border pollution. transport. finance. in accordance with their respective international obligations and domestic laws. in the fields of economy and trade. on the basis of mutual benefit.The two sides will conduct cooperation. The relevant departments of the two parties will investigate and settle problems and disputes arising from cooperation and business operations of legal persons and natural persons of one country in the territory of the other. military technology. economic organizations and forums. information. and facilitate economic and trade cooperation in the border areas and between the localities of the two countries. aeronautics and space. health. The two parties will cooperate in promoting the realization of human rights and basic freedoms. The two sides will make joint efforts to protect the rare species of plants and animals and the ecosystems in the border areas. and in accordance with stipulations of such bodies. in accordance with their respective domestic laws and international treaties they have joined. They will take effective measures to protect the legitimate rights and interests of the legal persons and natural persons of one country in the territory of the other. to facilitate the accession of one party to such bodies in which the other has already been a member. education. science and technology. energy. information technology and other fields of mutual interests. and will protect intellectual property rights. and in utilising water in the border areas and the biological resources in the northern Pacific Ocean and cross-border rivers. The two sides will cooperate in international financial institutions. The two parties will cooperate in protecting environment. tourism and sports and law. 39 . The two sides will greatly boost exchanges and cooperation in culture. in accordance with relevant laws.

separatism and extremism. They will energetically promote the exchange and cooperation between the two countries’ judicial organisations. and will be automatically extended if neither party notifies the other its intention to terminate the treaty one year before its expiry. The present treaty will not affect the rights and obligations of either party as a member of other international treaties. Both parties attach importance to the exchange and cooperation between the central (federal) legislatures and the law-enforcing agencies of the two countries. conduct active cooperation in fighting terrorism. The treaty has a validity period of 20 years. nor is it targeted at any third country. in accordance with their domestic laws and respective international obligations.The two parties will. 40 . They will also cooperate in fighting illegal immigration. in combating organised crime and illegal trafficking of drugs and weapons.

™ Enhance bilateral cooperation to combat terrorism ™ Improve relation with common neighborhood Central Asia and Afghanistan Moscow. train. promote terrorism th 41 . ™ Decisive measures taken against all states.2 Moscow Declaration between India and Russia (Signed on 6 November 2001) ™ Reaffirmed the commitment to co-operate bilaterally ™ Expressed support in preventing existing arms control and disarmament agreements. 13.2002) ™ Rely on long standing tradition of friendship and good neighborliness ™ Recall the treaty of friendship and cooperation ™ Strategic partnership is founded on the national interest and geopolitical priorities ™ Elevate the strategic partnership to a higher and qualitatively new level ™ Respect for national sovereignty. individuals entities which render support harbour. diversity and tolerance ™ Recognize the unique role and responsibility as multi-ethnic and pluralistic states. territorial integrity. including the ABM treaty ™ Support efforts to reduce nuclear weapons globally ™ Regular consultation on Strategic Issues. ministerial and working level. Appendix III 13. finance. plurality. ™ Supported the adaptation of International law.13.1 Delhi Declaration Between Russia and India (Signed on 4th Dec. ™ Determine to counter new challenges and threats to security ™ Implement UN Security Council resolutions on the fight against terrorism ™ Establish holding of annual meetings at summit level.

87 (0. organic chemicals.76 (0.33) (-) 9. Principal Indian imports from Russia are fertilisers. Figures 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 29.22 (0. space.54) 52. cotton yarn fabric.57) 63. processed minerals. newsprint and paper products.98 (1. billions.62) 23.51) 25.80 (1.45% (+) 28. nuclear. 42 . etc.85 (0.39) 63. tea.79) 22.26) 67. ™ Reaffirmed Central role of UN.58 (0. coffee.™ Cooperate in the struggle against new challenges in International terrorism including.95 (0.71) 41.44 (0.3 Table I : Trade Between India and Russia(Rs. non-ferrous metals. biological. rice. food products. chemical. 13.75% (-) (-) 5. cybernetics and other spheres ™ Effective interaction on Afghanistan to prevent further extension of terrorism.45 (1.95) 40. leather and leather products.88% 4.88) 37. etc. in brackets in US$ billion) Year Indian Exports Indian Imports Turnover % Change in Rs.98 (1. iron and steel.31% Source: DGCI&S trade figures Principal Indian exports to Russia is drugs and pharmaceuticals.54 (0.55) 26.

It lapsed in 1962) 1984: Trade Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China. (Note: The Agreement was valid for eight years and lapsed in 1962) 1954: Trade Agreement between the Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China.14. 1988: Protocol between the Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China on Resumption of Border Trade between the Tibet region of China and India. (Note: The Agreement was valid for two years. Agreements/MOUs Signed between India and China 1954: Agreement between the Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China on Trade and Intercourse between the Tibet region of China and India. Appendix-IV 14. 43 . 1991: Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Aero-Space Industry of the People’s Republic of China and the Department of Space of the Republic of India on Cooperation in the Peaceful Application of Outer Space Sciences and Technology. 1991: Memorandum between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on Resumption of Border Trade.1. with the provision that it could be extended.

Banking Arrangements and Related matters for Border Trade. Government of India and The State Education Commission of the People’s Republic of China on Co-Operation in the Field of Education for 1992-1993. 1992: Memorandum of Consultation in the field of Social Welfare. 1992: Memorandum of Understanding on co-operation in the field of Civil Services. Personnel Management and Public Administration between the Ministry of Personnel. 1991: Consular Convention between the Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China. 44 . 1992: Protocol between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on Entry and Exit Procedures for Border Trade. 1992: Protocol between The Ministry of Human Resource Development Department of Education. 1992: Protocol between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on Custom Regulation.1991: Trade Protocol between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China for the Calendar Year 1992. Public Grievances and Pensions of the Government of the Republic of India and the Ministry of Personnel of the People’s Republic of China.

1993: Agreement on Environment Co-operation. 1993: Agreement between the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Republic of India and the Ministry of Radio. People’s Republic of China. 1993: Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border areas signed in Beijing on September 7. Television of the People’s Republic of China on Radio and Television co-operation. Republic Of India and The Audit Administration. 1994: Memorandum of Understanding on simplifying the Visa Procedures between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China. Film. 45 . 1993: Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Republic of India and The Government of the People’s Republic of China on co-operation in the Field of Geology and Mineral Resources. 1992: Memorandum of Understanding on co-operation in Agriculture between the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of India and the Ministry of Agriculture of The People’s Republic of China.1992: Memorandum of Understanding between The Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General. 1993: Protocol between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China for Extension of Border Trade across Shipki La Pass. 1993.

1996: Agreement on co-operation for combating illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and other crimes between The Government of the Republic of India and The Government of the People’s Republic of China.1995: Memorandum of Understanding between Ministry of Metallurgical Industry of the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Ministry of Steel of the Government of the Republic of India. 1996:Agreement between the Government of The Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas. 1996: Agreement between The Government of the Republic Of India and The Government of the People’s Republic of China concerning the Maintenance of the Consulate General of the Republic of India in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. 1997: Protocol on co-operation between the Ministry of External Affairs of the Republic of India and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. 1996: Agreement on Maritime Transport between the Government of the Republic of India and The Government of the People’s Republic of China. 46 .

2000: Memorandum of Understanding on co-operation in the field of Information Technology. 2000 on co-operation in the field of steel between India and China. vocational training and social security). (July) 2000: Memorandum of Understanding on co-operation in the field of Labour (Employment services. (January) 2002: MOU between Department of Science and Technology of the Republic of India and the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs of People’s Republic of China on Exchange of Personnel between India and China. (January) 2002: MOU between ISRO and the China National Space Administration on Cooperation in the Peaceful Use of Outer Space. (January) 2002: MOU between Department of Science and Technology of the Republic of India and the Chinese Academy of Sciences of the People’s Republic of China on Cooperation in Science and Technology.2000: Memorandum of Understanding signed during the 6th Joint Economic Group Meeting in Beijing on February 21-22. (September) 2002: MOU on the Application of Phytosanitary Measures between the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of India and the State General Administration of the People’s Republic of China for Quality Supervision and Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ). (January) 47 .

2 Agreement on maintainenance of peace and tranquility along L.A. The two sides are of the view that the India-China boundary question shall be resolved through peaceful and friendly consultations. No activities of either side shall overstep the line of actual control. equality and mutual benefit and peaceful coexistence and with a view to maintaining peace and tranquility in areas along the line of actual control in the India-China border areas. 48 . (January) 2002: MOU between the Ministry of Water Resources of India and Ministry of Water Resources of China upon provision of hydrological information of the Yaluzangbu / Brahmaputra river in flood season by China to India 14. 1993. they shall immediately pull back to their own side of the line of actual control. have entered into the present Agreement in accordance with the Five Principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity. Neither side shall use or threaten to use force against the other by any means. on the Indo-China border (on September 7. In case personnel of one side cross the line of actual control. 1.2002: Agreement between India and China on Cooperation in the field of Tourism.C. Pending an ultimate solution to the boundary question between the two countries. Beijing) The Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the two sides). the two sides shall strictly respect and observe the line of actual control between the two sides. upon being cautioned by the other side. mutual non-aggression. non-interference in each other's internal affairs.

49 . 3. 4.When necessary. 5. The two sides agree to reduce their military forces along the line of actual control in conformity with the requirements of the principle of mutual and equal security to ceilings to be mutually agreed. The extent. depth. and nature of reduction of military forces along the line of actual control shall be determined through mutual consultations between the two countries. the two sides shall jointly check and determine the segments of the line of actual control where they have different views as to its alignment. The form of such meetings and channels of communications between the border personnel shall be mutually agreed upon by the two sides. Both sides shall work out through consultations effective confidence building measures in the areas along the line of actual control. Each side shall give the other prior notification of military exercises of specified levels near the line of actual control permitted under this Agreement. timing. The two sides agree to take adequate measures to ensure that air intrusions across the line of actual control do not take place and shall undertake mutual consultations should intrusions occur. Both sides shall also consult on possible restrictions on air exercises in areas to be mutually agreed near the line of actual control. 2. the two sides shall deal with them through meetings and friendly consultations between border personnel of the two countries. The reduction of military forces shall be carried out by stages in mutually agreed geographical locations sector-wise within the areas along the line of actual control. Each side will keep its military forces in the areas along the line of actual control to a minimum level compatible with the friendly and good neighborly relations between the two countries. In case of contingencies or other problems arising in the areas along the line of actual control. Neither side will undertake specified levels of military exercises in mutually identified zones.

6. based on the principle of good faith and mutual confidence. and all three texts having equal validity. method. implementation measures for the present Agreement.TangJiaxuanVice-ForeignMinisterPeople's Republic of China 50 . through mutual consultations. The two sides shall agree through consultations on the form. Signed in duplicate at Beijing on the Seventh day of September 1993 in the Hindi. The experts shall advise the Joint Working Group on the resolution of differences between the two sides on the alignment of the line of actual control and address issues relating to redeployment with a view to reduction of military forces in the areas along the line of actual control. Each side of the India-China Joint Working Group on the boundary question shall appoint diplomatic and military experts to formulate. 7. The experts shall also assist the Joint Working Group in supervision of the implementation of the Agreement.BhatiaMinisterofStateforExternalAffairsRepublicofIndia. scale and content of effective verification measures and supervision required for the reduction of military forces and the maintenance of peace and tranquility in the areas along the line of actual control under this Agreement. The present Agreement shall come into effect as of the date of signature and is subject to amendment and addition by agreement of the two sides.L. Chinese and English languages. SignedbyR. 9. The two sides agree that references to the line of actual control in this Agreement do not prejudice their respective positions on the boundary question. 8. and settlement of differences that may arise in that process.

2% 1.9% 897.5 398.922.9% 1.9% 1699.993. Ministry of External Affairs.3.4% 2.9 14.6 (-) 196.0 24% 719. Table II: India China Trade in US $ million Period Indian Imports 1995 Growth 1996 Growth 1997 Growth 1998 Growth 1999 Growth 2000 Growth 2001 Growth 765.914.2 23.0 34% 689.22 46.9 25.3 30. India.4 (-) 219.5 (-)10.41 63.6 8.2 80.3 1569.3 24.7% 905.1% 933.9% 1161.0 1.9% 1.14.3 21.6% 3596.016.8 +29. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 51 .6 Indian Exports Trade balance -367.8 (-) 8.7 0.0 29.9 (-)35.8 1350. New Delhi.7 3.4 Trade volume Source: China Desk.46 34.9% 825.162.3 5% 1.05 (-) 336.1 (-) 110.830.0 20.1 36% 1.3% 1896.406.

from Jawaharlal Nehru University. Kalkaji. 52 . Permanent Address: Pocket K-7.R. School of International Studies. New Delhi.About Author Dr. She is PhD in Area Studies. C. New Delhi. She has written extensively on her area of study in national and international Journals.Park. She has presented number of Conference papers in various National and International Conferences and delivered lectures in various eminent Universities and Institutes.com. India. India. Email: nivdk@hotmail. She was a recipient of CIMO fellowship in the year 2002-2003. Phone Number-00-91-11-51603549. New Delhi-110019. Her area of research is Russia and former Soviet Union Countries. Nivedita das Kundu is an Associate Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis.