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PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS - CONCEPTS
Satyashish Sahu

PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONCEPTS
What is piping stress analysis
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Analytical procedure to evaluate the stress state at various points in a piping system.

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Also known as flexibility analysis since it also helps ascertain the required flexibility in the piping system

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Helps determine displacements and forces / moments on the hangers, supports, restraints, guides, stops and anchors in the piping system

- STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 2

PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONCEPTS
Contents
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Stress in pipes Stress categories Failure of pipes Thermal behavior of pipes Stress limits Stress in piping components External load categories Piping supports Spring hangers Constant effort hangers Friction Piping codes ASME B 31.1 - Power piping code Linear and non linear supports Effect of supports on stress

- STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 3

Stress in pipes
Fig-1 Biaxial stress state in a pipe

σl = PDO/4t + BM/Z
Where BM = (Mx2+My2)1/2

σh = PDO/2t τ = TM/J Where TM= Mz

- STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 4

Stress in pipes Fig-2 Mohr’s circle of the biaxial stress state .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 5 .

The various stresses included in stress evaluation are: – – – – Pressure Hoop stress Pressure longitudinal stress Bending & torsional stress due to weight of pipe.Stress in pipes Stress in pipes ! Figure-1 shows the stresses in pipes. hammer loads – Bending & torsional stress due to restriction of thermal expansion ! It is always assumed (in fact due care is taken to ensure) that plant piping will consist of at least two perpendicular segments between anchors. wind loads. contents and insulation Bending & torsional stress due to any point loads.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 6 . . So also is buckling neglected. earthquake loads. The Axial stresses due to thermal effects and also due to any other external loading in such a case will be negligible and are hence neglected in stress calculations.

It is due to this fundamental difference in behavior between primary and secondary stress that these two stress categories are treated very differently. point load. wind. It relieves itself upon yielding.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 7 . earthquake – If this exceeds the allowable stress it will cause failure of the pipe through continuous yielding ! Secondary stress – This stress is not caused by any external loading but by such physical tendencies as thermal expansion – This stress is self-limiting in nature.Stress categories ! Classification of stress Primary stress (membrane and bending) – This is the stress due to external loading of the pipe like weight. These stresses are never added up and have different allowable values .

STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 8 .Stress categories ! Classification of stress Peak stress – Peak stresses are cyclical stresses which cause fatigue failure in pipes .

Low cycle fatigue occurs in piping systems due to cyclic loads (like thermal load cycles. Creep failure would eventually occur if the primary stress in the pipe is above the creep strength of the material.This occurs when the secondary stress range exceeds twice the yield stress as explained under title “stress range”.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 9 . vibrations.0. Fatigue .Failure of pipes Failure mechanism ! ! ! ! Plastic deformation leading to bursting . Plastic instability or incremental collapse . etc). Creep .This happens whenever the magnitude of the primary membrane stress exceeds the yield strength. .Creep or elastic instability or elastic follow-up is a time dependent failure phenomenon that occurs in high temperature piping .typically above 750 deg F (400 deg C).This occurs when the cumulative usage factor exceeds 1.

Upon reaching the yield point. stresses are caused if the free thermal movement of the pipe is restricted. When the pipe is cooled.Thermal behavior of pipes Thermal shakedown / Stress range ! When a pipe is heated up. . it comes back to its original position and now the stresses and restraint loads reappear but with opposite signs.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 10 . This is called thermal shakedown. the pipe starts yielding and the stresses as well as the thermal loads on the restraints get relieved. The range between the hot stress and the cold stress is called the stress range.

STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 11 . there will be plastic instability in subsequent cycles leading eventually to incremental collapse. .Thermal behavior of pipes Fig-3 Stress range Total stress range ST = Shy + Scy where: Shy = Hot yield strength Scy = cold yield strength If deformation exceeds case-II as in case III.

0Sy for combined bending and membrane stress is used.one the limit stress or the failure curve and the other the design limit curve. (ASME. . A conservative design limit of 0.’’ ) ! ! Fig shows two curves .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 12 .Stress Limits FIG-4 Limit stress-combined tension and bending. ‘‘Criteria.66Sy for primary membrane (tensile) and 1.

000 hours.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 13 .Stress Limits Stress limits for Time dependent deterioration . Limiting the primary stress in the pipe below the allowable stress value as listed in the piping code would ensure that the creep rate is no more than 1% per 100.Fatigue and Creep ! Low cycle Fatigue (load cycles lower than 105) – Stress reduction factor “ f ” for the allowable stress range for different cumulative cycles are available in the piping codes. ! Creep – The allowable stress values for various material listed in the piping codes take into account the creep strength in the high temperature range (above 400 deg C). Ensuring that the piping is not stressed beyond these levels guarantees that the pipe would not fail in fatigue for the postulated number of operating cycles. .

STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 14 .Stress Limits FIG-5 Stress categories and limits of stress intensity (Source:ASME Section VIII Div-2. Appendix-4) .

Appendix-4) .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 15 .Stress Limits FIG-5 Stress categories and limits of stress intensity (Contd…) (Source:ASME Section VIII Div-2.

branch connections and reducers will have a higher level of stress when compared to a straight pipe for the same amount of bending moment. SIF will have to be determined through a analytical procedure like FEM. SIF of a component depends upon its geometry and is calculated using empirical formulae available in piping codes. ! The factor by which the stress in the pipe component exceeds that of the straight pipe is called SIF (stress intensification factor).Stress in piping components Stress intensification factors . ! ! .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 16 .SIF ! Elbows. For special components like Y-piece where no empirical relations are available.

Stress in piping components Relation between Elbow geometry and SIF ! ! ! Elbow / bend radius . Has no bearing on header SIF Branch thickness .Has direct relation to header & branch SIFs Header thickness .Has direct relation to branch SIF. Has no bearing on header SIF .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 17 .Has inverse relation to header & branch SIFs Branch diameter .Has direct relation to SIF Elbow thickness .Has direct relation to branch SIF.Has inverse relation to SIF Elbow diameter .Has inverse relation to SIF Relation between Branch geometry and SIF ! ! ! ! Header diameter .

STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 18 Increasing SIF – Welding Tee .Stress in piping components Relation between Branch type and SIF ! The various branch types are listed with their SIF in the increasing order – Integrally reinforced fitting as per MSS SP 97 – Reinforced fabricated Tee – Unreinforced fabricated Tee .

hammer. safety valve thrust . insulation and inline components • Live loads like weight of contents in the pipe ! Occasional loading – These loads act on the pipe only for certain duration or during abnormal operating conditions and include • wind • Dynamic loads like earthquake.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 19 .External load categories ! Types of external loading on pipes Sustained loading – These loads will act on the pipe throughout its operating tenure and include • Dead loads like weight of pipe.

. Constant effort support .An inflexible restraint used primarily to carry the sustained pipe loading. – Rigid hanger – Sliding base support Variable effort (spring) support .Piping supports Types of pipe supports ! ! ! Rigid support .Used to carry the sustained pipe loading while allowing for upward / downward pipe movement. They cannot be used where there is upward pipe movement.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 20 . The supporting effort varies as the pipe moves up or down. The supporting effort remains constant throughout the upward / downward travel of the pipe.A flexible spring used to carry the sustained pipe loading while allowing for upward / downward pipe movement.

This is usually a rigid element used to alter / control the thermal growth of the piping system so as to bring the terminal point forces / moments and thermal stresses under limit. – Axial restraint : Movement prevented in pipe axial direction – Transverse / Lateral restraint : Movement prevented in pipe transverse direction ! Guides . – Transverse / Lateral guide : Pipe movement guided into the transverse direction – Axial guide : Pipe movement guided into the pipe axial direction ! Anchors .Anchors arrest all the six degrees of freedom of the pipe. .Piping supports Types of pipe supports (cont…) ! Thermal Restraint .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 21 . Anchors are sometimes inserted to completely separate two connected pipes to enable the analyst to analyse the pipes independently.Guides are similar to bi-directional restraints but with the primary purpose of guiding the pipe smoothly into the pipe axial or lateral direction.

.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 22 .e the vertical pipe length x the coeff of thermal expansion ! Selection of appropriate spring constant – An appropriate spring constant from a supplier catalogue based upon the weight balance load and vertical thermal movement such that the load variation between the cold and hot positions is within 25%.Spring Hangers Spring Hanger selection procedure For spring hanger selection the following steps are required ! Calculation of weight balance load – The load that would act on the spring hanger if it were completely rigid and the piping system was in static equilibrium under sustained loading condition ! Calculation of vertical free thermal movement – The thermal growth of the pipe under the influence of temperature I.

. The behavior of the piping system will vary under hot and cold setting because the spring carries different loads under the two settings.The spring is set such that it carries the weight balance load in the cold position of the pipe.Hot setting and Cold setting ! Hot setting .Spring Hangers Hot setting / Cold setting of springs There are two ways of setting the springs . Fig-4 shows how exactly these two types of spring setting affect the load carried by the spring.The spring is set such that it carries the weight balance load in the hot position of the pipe ! Cold setting .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 23 .

Spring Hangers Weight balance load Fig-6 Hot / Cold setting 0% Spring cage movement Hot pos of pipe Cold setting Hot setting Cold pos of pipe 100% Load .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 24 .

The load carried by the spring when the pipe is in hot position Installation load .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 25 .The load the spring would carry when the pipe is at its installation position I. The spring is pre-compressed to the installation load. locked and then erected on the pipe. The installation load would be equal to the cold load provided the vertical pipe displacement in the cold condition is zero. But this may not be the case always.The load carried by the spring when the pipe is in cold position Hot load .Spring Hangers Spring hanger terminologies ! Cold load .e zero vertical displacement. ! ! .

! Constant effort hangers as the name suggests apply a constant effort on the pipe throughout the complete range of the pipe vertical movement. it is usually not possible to select variable effort hangers with load variation within 25%. ! The effect of the constant effort hanger is similar to that of supporting the pipe with a chain-pulley-block system .Constant effort Hangers Constant effort hangers ! When pipe vertical movement is high (above 50 mm).STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 26 . constant effort hangers are used. In such a situation.

Cold and Hot reheat piping systems . ! If sliding supports / restraints are used for critical applications. .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 27 .like Main steam. ! It is advisable to avoid sliding supports / restraints in hot critical piping systems .Friction Frictional effects of pipe supports ! Friction at sliding surfaces of supports especially in hot pipes generate significant forces which affect the pipe stresses as well as the loads on anchors and restraints.and use instead the angulating types. then the sliding surfaces should be of rust free materials like stainless steel / teflon and the appropriate friction coefficient must be included in the analysis.

! ! .Piping codes Importance of piping codes in stress analysis ! Piping codes are industry specific.while largely based on the fundamentals discussed earlier .differ from code to code. The difference in the criteria are in some cases also attributed to the historical circumstances / different committees that have established the codes. The stress evaluation criteria . They outline the stress evaluation criteria and also the design requirements specific to the industry over which they have their jurisdiction. the different criteria necessitated by the specific operating conditions and requirements of the industry to which the particular code caters to.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 28 . A piping system necessarily has to be qualified as per the stress criteria established in the particular piping code. The piping code lies at the heart of any stress analysis.

8 ASME section III The ASME B 31.1 power piping code forms the basis for piping design and stress analysis of all piping except Boiler internal piping at ALSTOM.Piping codes Important ASME piping codes ! ! ! ! ! ! Power piping Process piping Pipeline transportation systems for liquid hydrocarbons and other liquids Refrigeration piping and heat transfer components Gas transmission and distribution piping systems Nuclear piping ASME B 31.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 29 .4 ASME B 31. .5 ASME B 31.1 ASME B 31.3 ASME B 31.

0. 0. 1.1 . section II ! Basis for allowable stress in ASME section II part D Min of: R/4. Rt = Specified minimum tensile strength at the temperature. Sr min = Minimum stress at the temp to cause rupture at the end of 100.2% proof stress at the temp) Sr = Average stress at the temp to cause rupture at the end of 100.Power piping code Allowable stress ! The allowable stress for various ASTM piping materials at various temperatures are listed in Appendix-A of the code.000 hr.8 Sr min and 1. 0. 0.67 E.67 Et.67 Sr.000 hr.2% proof stress at room temp) Et = Yield point (0.0 S R = Specified minimum tensile strength at room temperature.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 30 . S = Average stress at the temp to produce an elongation of 1% (creep) in 100. E = Yield point (0. The allowable stresses are actually reproduced from the ASME Boiler & pressure vessel code.000 hr.ASME B 31.1/4 x Rt. .

ASME B 31.1 . ! The formulae for the SIF and flexibility factors for various pipe components are listed in Table D-1 of Appendix-D of the code.Power piping code Other important data ! The thermal expansion data for the various materials are listed in Table B-1 of Appendix-B of the code. ! The modulus of elasticity data for the ferrous materials are listed in table C-1 of Appendix-C of the code.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 31 . .

Since in stress analysis.1 . the allowable stress for stress calculation must be obtained by dividing the values from appendix-A by the appropriate weld efficiency factor. we are interested in the longitudinal stresses only. Weld joint efficiencies affect only the hoop direction and not the longitudinal pipe direction. .ASME B 31.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 32 . The actual stress may exceed the allowable for occasional short periods by the following factors: – 15% for events duration < 8 hrs at any one time and 800 hrs/year – 20% for events duration < 1 hrs at any one time and 80 hrs/year ! The allowables may be exceeded due to external occasional loads or due to pressure-temperature excursions (which would bring down the allowables).Power piping code Comments on allowable stress values of Appendix-A ! The values listed include weld joint efficiency factors where applicable.

ASME B 31.Power piping code Comments on allowable stress values of Appendix-A ! The allowable stress in shear can be taken as 80% of the allowables listed in appendix-A. ! The stress in pipe during hydrotest can be considered as high as 90% of yield stress.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 33 .1 . . ! The allowable stress in bearing can be taken as 160% of the allowables listed in appendix-A.

PDO/4t + M/Z < Sh Incorporating fitting SIF into the above eqn gives the 31. BM/Z} Where M = (Mx +My +Mz ) = PDO/4t + M/Z ( by substituting BM with M.75iMA/Z < Sh .ASME B 31.75iMA/Z) < 1. Max shear stress can be calculated from mohr's circle (fig-2) as follows: 2τmax = 2 x radius of mohr's circle = {(σh-σ l)2 + 4τ2}1/2 = {(PDO /4t + BM/Z) + 4 (TM/J) } 2 2 2 2 1/2 1/2 2 2 2 1/2 = {(PDO /4t) + (M/Z) + 2 . this makes the calculated τmax slightly conservative) To avoid failure.Power piping code Code qualification equations ! Stress due to sustained loads (Clause 104.1 code eqn for sustained stresses PDO/4t + 0. PDO /4t . From maximum shear stress theory.8. failure would occur when the max shear stress is > half of allowable stress in tension.1 .1) – SL = (PDO/4Tn) + (0.1 of B31.0Sh Where MA = resultant moment loading on cross section due to all sustained loads The above relation can be easily derived by considering the stress state of fig-1 and applying the Maximum shear stress theory.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 34 .

STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 35 .25 Sh) Sc = basic material allowable stress (appendix-A) at cold temperature Sh = basic material allowable stress (appendix-A) at hot temperature f = stress range reduction factor for cyclic loading (= 1 for general power plant applications) .Power piping code Code qualification equations (cont…) ! Stress due to occasional loads (Clause 104.1 .3 of B31.ASME B 31.75iMA/Z) + (0.1) – (PDO/4Tn) + (0.2 of B31.20 depending on occasional load duration) ! Thermal expansion stress range (Clause 104.Sh Where MB = resultant moment loading on cross section due to all occasional loads k = stress exceeding factor (1.1) – SE = iMC / Z < SA + f (Sh-SL) Where MC = range of resultant moments on cross section due to thermal expansion SA = Allowable stress range = f (1.75iMB/Z) < k.25 Sc + 0.15 or 1.8.8.

25 Sc) .(0.25 Sh + 1.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 36 .25 Sh + 1.Sh for sustained loading) Incorporating the fatigue factor gives the 31.1 . Total stress range ST = Shy + Scy = 1.25 Sc Thus for thermal expansion.3% so as to have margin.5 Sc Taking only 83.Power piping code Code qualification equations (cont…) ! Understanding allowable stress range From figure-3.5 Sh + 1.ASME B 31.25 Sh + 1. the allowable stress range SA = 0. ST = 1.1 code equation SA = f .25 Sc (deducting 1.

Power piping code Important code considerations ! Modulus of elasticity .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 37 . ! Corrosion allowance and mill tolerance .ASME B 31.The stress analysis including evaluation of restraint loads is to be done on the nominal pipe thickness. Corrosion allowance and mill tolerance are not considered.1 . However. forces and moments on anchors and restraints can be evaluated considering the hot modulus. .The code stipulates that the stress must be evaluated considering the cold modulus of elasticity.

. All bi-directional restraints without gap and friction and spring hangers fall in this category ! Non linear supports – These supports change their stiffness when the pipe moves from cold to hot position.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 38 . All restraints with gap and friction and single directional restraints fall in this category.Linear and non linear supports What are Linear and non linear supports ! Linear Supports – These supports do not change their stiffness over the complete range of pipe displacement in the direction of their application.

primary and secondary stress characteristics and hence must be checked against the primary & secondary stress allowables simultaneously. Hot position .STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 39 . Cold position ! Upward pipe movement In case of significant displacements.Effect of supports on stress Pipe supports & stress ! When a pipe lifts up in hot condition. the change in stress from cold to hot position can be considered as secondary stress only if the displacement is minor. the stress assumes both .

Effect of supports on stress Spring hangers & stress ! Similarly in case of spring hangers. the stress level in the pipe changes due to change in the supporting effort of the spring. The change in the stress level has primary characteristics and hence should be limited to 25% to ensure a safe design. Hot position Cold position . when pipe moves from cold to hot position.STRESS ANALYSIS Date of last change Reference/Name of Presentation/SN 40 .

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