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Biochemical Engineering Journal 28 (2006) 36–43

Mathematical modeling to investigate temperature effect on kinetic parameters of ethanol fermentation
Muenduen Phisalaphong ∗ , Nuttapan Srirattana, Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon
Department of Chemical Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Received 21 June 2005; received in revised form 28 July 2005; accepted 27 August 2005

Abstract A mathematical model was developed to describe the effects of temperature on the kinetic parameters of ethanol fermentation by the flocculating yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae M30, using cane molasses as the substrate. Three state variables, biomass, ethanol and the substrate and 12 kinetics parameters were used to describe the phenomenon. The kinetic parameters of the model were determined by using the least-square method. The influence of temperature and initial sugar concentration on cell activities was investigated and quantified. Arrhenius relationships between operating temperature and the maximum specific growth rate, specific production rate, specific death rate were then established. The activation energy for growth, ethanol production and death rate were 3.461 × 104 , 3.496 × 104 and 1.777 × 105 kJ/kmol, respectively. Polynomial equations were established for the effects of temperature on the other kinetic parameters. A high temperature led to a decrease in the ethanol and cell yields but an increase in the inhibition effect of ethanol and sugar on cell growth and ethanol production. In addition, an inhibition effect of the initial sugar concentration on cell growth was clearly observed. The adopted mathematical model could describe very well the dynamics of ethanol fermentation from the beginning up to the stationary phase. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Ethanol; Fermentation; Kinetics; Modeling; Temperature; Yeast

1. Introduction On account of limited global supply of oil, ethanol has reemerged as an alternative to, or extender for, petroleum-based liquid fuels. To effectively and efficiently operate the fermentation process, the kinetic characteristics of cell growth and ethanol production are required. During fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activities of the microorganisms closely respond to changes in the environmental conditions, which are accompanied by variations in the mass transfer around and the metabolic behavior of the microorganisms. To gain insight into the morphology-associated time-variant process dynamics, various kinetic models associated with key parameters for ethanol fermentation have been proposed [1–11]. One of the most important variables is temperature. Temperature effects on fermentation performance of selected yeast strains for ethanol productivity were reported [11–21]. In the work of Baranyl and Roberts [14], an arbitrary factor expressed as a function of the

Corresponding author. Tel.: +66 2 218 6875; fax: +66 2 218 6877. E-mail address: muenduen.p@chula.ac.th (M. Phisalaphong).

environmental conditions including the temperature was introduced to describe the physiological state of the cells and the growth kinetic equation was multiplied by this factor. The exponential increase of growth rate and productivity at high fermentation temperature were reported [15]. The deleterious effects of high temperature were considered to be due to the denaturation of ribosomes and enzymes and problems associated with the fluidity of membranes [16]. In order to describe the effect of temperature, an empirical linear polynomial model was proposed to illustrate the effect of temperature and nutrient supplement on ethanol production rate [17]. The influence of temperature on the kinetics parameters of ethanol and xylitol fermentation by Pachysolen tannophilus was investigated by S´ anchez et al. and the dependency of the maximum specific growth rate on the temperature was explained by the superposition of activation energies for cell growth and death [18]. The dependence of the kinetic coefficients on temperature using Arrhenius-type equations for autohydrolysis of brewery’s spent grain was proposed [19]. On the contrary, according to Dalsenter et al. [20], the specific growth rate constant did not depend directly on temperature. The effect was suggested to be the delayed responses to

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Savithree Limthong (Department of Microbiology.d. The experiments were carried out for 3 days in isothermal conditions at 30. sugar and ethanol analyses.05% ammonium sulfate and 5% inverse sugar . A column (0. The rate of cell growth. The proposed kinetics was therefore.1N HCl and washed twice with distilled water and then dried at 90 ◦ C for 48 h and then weighed. Stock cultures were stored in a PDA agar slant. / Biochemical Engineering Journal 28 (2006) 36–43 37 Nomenclature KCM Kd KS KSP KSS KSSP Pm Pm CP CP0 CS CS0 CX CX0 E ED EP YP/S YX/S maintenance constant (h−1 ) specific cell death rate (h−1 ) saturation growth constant (g/L) saturation production constant (g/L) substrate growth inhibition term (g/L) substrate production inhibition term (g/L) ethanol inhibition term for growth (g/L) ethanol inhibition term for production (g/L) ethanol concentration (g/L) initial ethanol concentration (g/L) substrate concentration (g/L) initial substrate concentration (g/L) cell concentration (g/L) initial cell concentration (g/L) activation energy for cell growth (kJ/kmol) activation energy for cell death rate (kJ/kmol) activation energy for ethanol production (kJ/kmol) yield coefficient for product on substrate used for produce formation yield coefficient for cells on substrate used for cell formation from molasses at pH 5. 2 m. insights into the influence of temperature on ethanol fermentation can be consolidated through model validation. Concentrations of ethanol were determined by a gas chromatography system using a Shimadzu Model GC 7AG equipped with a flame ionization detector. cerevisiae. Batch fermentation Batch fermentation experiments were carried out in duplicate with 17–22% (w/v) of the initial reducing sugar solution from cane molasses as the sole carbon source for S. Culture and culture media S. The results consequently provide a better understanding of temperature effects on the cell activities for further development of the process. modified in both substrate and product terms and combined with death rate and cell maintenance. a 5 mL sample of the fermentation broth was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. In the present paper. the dissolve oxygen was not concerned as a limiting substance of the system. Materials and methods 2. Experiments were initiated by transferring 5% of the starter culture to the prepared medium. To construct a mathematical model that could describe the dynamic process of ethanol fermentation by S. The cell pellet was resuspended in 0.. SS) packed with Porapak Q 80–100 mesh was used with N2 as carrier gas. Analytical methods For cell dry weight determination.4. and the detector temperature was 300 ◦ C.0. ethanol production and substrate consumption were related to the cell Greek symbols µ specific growth rate (h−1 ) µm maximum specific growth rate (h−1 ) ν specific production rate (h−1 ) νm maximum specific production rate (h−1 ) the shifts in temperature and depended on the level of an essential component within the biomass. Bangkok) was used in this study. Kasetsart University. Then the reducing sugar content in the sample solution was determined by Lane and Eynon’s method. The mathematical model is proposed to quantify and describe the temperature effect on the kinetic parameters of ethanol fermentation. cerevisiae M30. Starter cultures were prepared by transferring a loop of the stock culture to 100 mL of medium and incubated at 33 ◦ C for 20 h before each starter culture was transferred to the main culture.2 mL of the sample solution was hydrolyzed in 33% HCl at 100 ◦ C for 10 min and neutralized with NaOH solution. 33. Yeast strains used in industrial processes normally have limited osmotolerance. with the rate of the synthesis and denaturation reactions of this component depending on temperature. The cell metabolism was strongly affected by the substrate and product concentrations. The medium for the starter culture contained 0. 2. However. rotary of the shaker should be effective enough to provide gentle mixing and surface aeration during the first period of the growth phase. In view of the fact that ethanol fermentation was an anaerobic process.1. 2. a comprehensive kinetic model modified from the Monod kinetics responding to changes in the environmental conditions was proposed. Mathematical modeling Mathematical model was developed to determine the quantitative linkage between an environmental parameter and cell kinetics. To measure the amount of sugar in the sample. The inhibition by the substrate and product was always observed. Phisalaphong et al. 35. 2. Fermentation flasks were then shaken in the incubator at 150 rpm.M. Oxygen content in the medium could also play an important role for the cell growth and also varying with the operating temperature. The prepared medium was sterilized at 121 ◦ C for 20 min.125 cm i. cerevisiae M30 kindly provided by the laboratory of Dr. a 0. with 250 mL total liquid volume. The injector temperature was 280 ◦ C. 2. 38 and 42 ◦ C and monitored by removing 6 mL samples every 6 h for cell. Experiments were performed in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flasks.2.3. which could be classified into two types: limiting and inhibiting. especially at high substrate concentration.

KSS . Cell growth and ethanol production declined considerably at temperature exceeding 35 ◦ C. 35. entered a stationary phase after 18 h and the cellular concentration dropped after 60 h of fermentation for all operating temperatures. Influence of temperature The influences of temperature on the ethanol fermentation by S. the substrate inhibition term and the ethanol inhibition term for ethanol production. the ethanol production and the cell maintenance (Eq. The KCM represented the maintenance constant. This suggested that the proposed kinetic model and associated kinetic parameters were valid for data interpretation. High residual sugar concentration could suggest the occurrence of cell death or inactive conditions including nutritional limitations or high toxic metabolite accumulates. 1 demonstrated the experimental results. KSSP . Pm . By the modification. the saturation constant. the saturation constant. For general ethanol production by yeast. the residual sugar which the cells were unable to consume was less than 40 g/L. as well as the modeled values of the cell. YP/S and KCM were allowed to vary as a function of the temperature in each experiment. The biomass and ethanol production rates were enhanced slightly by the increase of the isothermal control from 30 to 33 ◦ C but the rates slightly decreased at 35 ◦ C. awamori growing on whole wheat flour. were tentatively estimated from the experimental data during the growth phase with the initial rate method by using Lineweaver–Burk plot [11] based on Monod rate equation.38 M.1. (1) and the substrate consumption was separated into the terms of substrate used for the biomass production. Hereby. 20 and 22% (w/v) and controlled at constant temperatures 30. At the optimal temperature for cell growth and ethanol production. the numerical solution was obtained using functions in MATLAB (version 6. 3. respectively. Phisalaphong et al. the optimization for parameter set significantly depended on the initial guesses for the parameter values. The best-fit values of the parameter were estimated using the least-squares method by minimization of the sum of squared errors between the predicted and experimental data. The differential equations from the developed model were solved using the routine ODE 15 s available in MATLAB. The µ and ν were controlled by substrate limiting effect and inhibition effects of the substrate and ethanol as follows:   C S  1 − CP µ = µm  (4) 2 CS Pm K +C + S S The initial YP/S was tentatively estimated from the mass balance of the substrate to ethanol. which was consistent with the report by Torija et al. The maximum ethanol concentration was obtained after 35 h of the fermentation at 30 ◦ C.2. KS . [24]. The other parameters (Kd . νm . (3)). Pm were. Kd . The above experimental results revealed the biomass increased exponentially at the beginning. respectively. / Biochemical Engineering Journal 28 (2006) 36–43 concentration (CX ). Fig. The initial YX/S was obtained from the literature [23]. respectively. The Newton method was applied to improve the estimated parameters. Results and discussion 3. KSS . KSS . KS and KSP . 33. Pm . ethanol production and cell death. Pm .1). respectively. The YX/S and YP/S represented the yield coefficient for cell on substrate used for cell formation and the yield coefficient for ethanol on substrate used for ethanol formation. . 38 and 42 ◦ C. KSSP . the partial residual sugars were unfermentable sugars including arabinose and xylose. KSP . specific production rate ν and specific death rate Kd represented the rate constants for cell growth. In a previous publication [22]. KSP . the following 12 kinetic parameters: µm . KSSP . the maximum fermentation time in batch process was 72 h. The model estimations gave an adequate fit to the experimental data for all the growth. cerevisiae M30 was studied with regard to the kinetic parameters related to biomass and ethanol production and sugar  ν = νm  CS KSP + CS + KSS   1 − CP Pm (5) 2 CS KSSP where µm and νm were the maximum specific growth rate and the maximum specific production rate. the initial parameter values. substrate and ethanol concentrations at 22% (w/v) initial sugar concentration with different controlled temperatures. 3. Pm . YX/S . ethanol concentration (CP ) and substrate concentration (CS ) as follows: cells : ethanol : dCX = µCX − Kd CX dt dCP = νCX dt − 1 dCS = dt YX/S + 1 YP/S dCX dt dCP dt + KCM CX (3) (1) (2) substrate : The development of the modified model was based on the conventional model structure introducing some modifications to take into account in terms of death rate (Kd CX ) in Eq. νm . The specific growth rate µ. µm . the substrate inhibition term and the ethanol inhibition term for cell growth. Fermentation performance Batch fermentation in shake flasks for ethanol production was carried out in duplicate for 72 h with initial reducing sugar concentrations of 17. In order to investigate the effect of temperature. With cane molasses as the C-source. Pm were. Since the model was a non-linear model with multi-parameters. the similar modified model was applied to identify the kinetic parameters of A. the influence of temperature and initial sugar concentration on cell activities could be clearly investigated and quantified. substrate and ethanol concentration from the beginning to the stationary phase. and KCM ) was tentatively estimated by manual adjustment until a good visual fit with the experimental data. KS . The initial guesstimates of kinetic parameters were then re-calculated by running the program iterations.

777 × 105 kJ/kmol. growth on cane molasses: ( ) 30 ◦ C. reducing sugar and ethanol concentrations at different operating temperatures. the equation for the specific growth rate was modified with the inhibition terms of ethanol and substrate concentrations (Eq. The effects of the temperature on the model parameters were clearly evident. cerevisiae M30. ( ) 33 ◦ C. From our testing. 3. values of the kinetic coefficients estimated from the experimental data in the range 30–42 ◦ C at various initial sugar concentrations from 17 to 22% (w/v) were obtained. Moreover. ( ) 38 ◦ C. the temperature dependency of the reaction rate was fitted very well with the experimental results (Fig. The estimated values of the activation energy for cell growth (E). 2). Therefore.461 × 104 . tannophilus to produce ethanol has been reported previously [18]. it is noteworthy that the maximum specific growth rate.496 × 104 and 1.690 × 104 kJ/kmol) and for cell death (ED = 1. Using the least-squares curve-fitting method. Arrhenius plots illustrating the effect of temperature on (a) the maximum specific growth rate (µm ). (1)). ethanol production (EP ) and death rate (ED ) were 3. lines correspond to model simulation while dots correspond to experimental data of S. 1. As a result of the activation of both cell growth and death rate. The estimated value of µm hereby was obtained from the model in which the cell accumulation was separated into the terms of cell growth and cell death (Eq. / Biochemical Engineering Journal 28 (2006) 36–43 39 Fig. The apparent activation energies for cell growth (E = 5. and ( ) 42 ◦ C. this relationship could satisfactorily be used to simulate the experimental data of various yeast strains for the effect of temperature on the overall maximum specific growth rate reported in the literature [12] (data not shown). growth on cane molasses at initial sugar concentration: ( ) 17%. respectively. the effect of temperature on the overall maximum growth Fig. µm from this study was not the overall maximum specific growth rate.10 to 0.389 × 105 kJ/kmol) on the fermentation of dxylose by P. ( ) 35 ◦ C. Phisalaphong et al. The apparent (or overall) maximum specific growth rate could vary from 0. the value for ED was higher than those for E [15]. Nevertheless. The maximum specific growth rate (µm ) and specific death rate (Kd ) of cells and the maximum specific production rate of cells (νm ) increased exponentially as the temperature increased. 2.M. the . consumption.78 h−1 depending on yeast strains and operating conditions [12]. ( ) 20% and ( ) 22% (w/v). As was normal with most microorganisms. Experimental results and simulation of cell. (b) the maximum specific production rate (νm ) and (c) the specific death rate (Kd ) of S. Expressed by the Arrhenius relationship. cerevisiae M30. rate could be estimated. (4)).

the saturation growth constant (KS ) was found to increase. The present investigation illustrated that ethanol was produced from the primary metabolite. 6. The biomass (YX/S ) and ethanol yields (YP/S ) obtained in this study were 0. The effect of temperature on (a) the saturated growth constant (KS (g/L)) and (b) the substrate inhibition term (KSS (g/L)) of S. Pm ) and the values for ethanol production (EP . the ratio of cell yield to ethanol yield gradually increased with temperature until the optimum temperature was reached. 4 and 5. In addition. Again. ( ) 20% and ( ) 22% (w/v). As for the cause of the inhibition effect on cell growth.30–0. 3. (3)) in which the substrate consumption term was Fig. At high temperature. growth on cane molasses at initial sugar concentration: ( ) 17%. the maintenance constant (KCM ) was found to be relatively constant. whereas the saturation production constant (KSP ) remained relatively constant (Fig. respectively. respectively. the inhibition effect of ethanol concentration expressed as −1 ) the inverse of the ethanol inhibition term on cell growth (Pm −1 and on ethanol production (P m ) significantly increased with temperature as well.40 M. 3).55 and 0. 4. The effect of temperature on the substrate (sugar) inhibition term on (a) cell growth (KSS (g/L)) and (b) on ethanol production rate (KSSP (g/L)) of S. Phisalaphong et al.55. it is noteworthy that the yields hereby obtained from the substrate balance equation (Eq. ( ) 20% and ( ) 22% (w/v).30–0. . Although the yield coefficients (YX/S . growth on cane molasses at initial sugar concentration: ( ) 17%. The effects of temperature on the substrate inhibition terms (KSS . According to Blanch and Clark [11]. The indirect effect of high temperature might also be ascribed to the denaturation of ribosome and enzyme and problems with the fluidity of membranes [16]. / Biochemical Engineering Journal 28 (2006) 36–43 Fig. A similar effect of the temperature on the overall growth rate and cell yield coefficient was also observed in this work. polynomial expressions were derived for the dependence of the other estimated kinetic parameters on the temperature. a high temperature could result in changing the transport activity or saturation level of soluble compounds and solvents in the cells. KSSP . KSS . Pm ) were of the same magnitude. In addition. the cell yield coefficient was reduced at a sufficiently high temperature due to the denaturation of enzymes within the cell and cell death. cerevisiae M30. which might increase the accumulation of toxic concentration including ethanol inside cells. YP/S ) for cell and ethanol on substrate declined as the temperature increased in Fig. KSSP ) and the ethanol inhibition terms (Pm . Nevertheless. cerevisiae M30. Pm ) were depicted in Figs. It should be pointed out that the values of the activation energy of the specific growth rate together with the sugar and ethanol inhibition terms for cell growth (E. values of the estimated µm in this work should be higher than the estimated values of the overall maximum specific growth rate obtained from the Monod formalism. Repressive effect of the reducing sugar expressed as the inverse of the −1 substrate inhibition term on cell growth (KSS ) and on ethanol −1 production (KSSP ) increased as temperature increased.

. YP/S ) and the increase of maintenance constant (KCM ) was observed only at high concentration (22%. 3. the biomass (YX/S ) and ethanol yields (YP/S ) derived from the overall substrate consumption were 0. a significant effect of the initial substrate on the reduction of yield coefficients (YX/S . Similarly. 2(b) and (c).3. In this case. osmotic pressure was increased linearly with temperature. Fig. the relevant kinetic parameters were estimated as described above. KSSP ) and ethanol inhibition term (Pm . The loss of sugar transport activity could limit the growth rate and lead to more cell death.7. An excessively high initial sugar concentration could result in growth inhibition by osmotic stress that occurred when the concentration of a certain solute became so high that a large osmotic pressure gradient was established across the cell membrane. respectively). The effect of temperature on the yield coefficient for (a) cell on substrate used for cell formation (YX/S ) and (b) ethanol on substrate used for ethanol formation (YP/S ) of S. respectively). From these definitions. However.51 depending on the operating temperature and initial sugar concentration (data not shown) which were comparable to those reported elsewhere [2. In this study. interactions between temperature and initial sugar concentration on substrate inhibition term (KSS . respectively. Within the controlled range. cerevisiae M30.25].M. separated into the terms of substrate used for biomass production. growth on cane molasses at initial sugar concentration: ( ) 17%. growth on cane molasses at initial sugar concentration: ( ) 17%. the values of YX/S and YP/S should be higher than those of the yields (YX/S and YP/S ) based on the overall substrate consumption. 6. In order to examine possible interaction between temperature in the range from 30 to 42 ◦ C and initial sugar concentration in the range from 17 to 22% (w/v) and their effect on cell activities. Influence of initial reducing sugar Significant effects of the initial reducing sugar on the metabolic activation and repression of cell metabolism have been reported [1. 5.11]. 6 and 7. ethanol production and cell maintenance. The effect of temperature on the ethanol inhibition term on (a) cell growth (Pm (g/L)) and (b) ethanol production rate (Pm (g/L)) of S. a significant inhi- bition by the initial sugar concentration on the maximum specific growth rate was clearly observed as shown in Fig. Pm ) were observed as illustrated in Figs. 3. The effects of the initial sugar concentration on cell activities were consistent with published reports [9.21]. 2(a). / Biochemical Engineering Journal 28 (2006) 36–43 41 Fig.011–0. A negative relationship between the initial sugar concentration and the saturated constants for cell growth (KS ) and for ethanol production (KSP ) was determined as shown in Fig.8.22–0. the ethanol yield (YP/S ) was the ratio of ethanol production to substrate consumption for ethanol in particular. The biomass yield (YX/S ) was defined as the ratio of biomass production to substrate consumption for biomass in particular. The range of experimental conditions was based upon the operating conditions in fuel–ethanol production plants. ( ) 20% and ( ) 22% (w/v). cerevisiae M30. ( ) 20% and ( ) 22% (w/v). Nevertheless. no significant influence of the initial sugar concentration on the maximum specific ethanol production rate or specific death rate was observed (Fig. Obviously. the influences of temperature on the kinetic parameters at various sugar concentrations all showed a common trend. Phisalaphong et al. 4 and 5. w/v) (Figs.059 and 0. Furthermore.

The estimated activation energies for cell growth. Z. some kinetic parameters might have to be adjusted according to the variation in the microorganism strain and the aeration and shear rate caused by differences in the geometry and mixing intensity between the two systems. cerevisiae M30 in batch. F. Kinetic modeling of continuous production of ethanol from cheese whey. Simulat. The maximum specific growth rate.496 × 104 and 1. However. the Thailand-Japan Technology Transfer Project (TJTTP-OECF) for the support of analytical equipments and S. Kinetic model for beer production under industrial operational conditions. respectively. In this study. Acknowledgments Fig. 8.777 × 105 kJ/kmol. Modeling of yeast metabolism and process dynamics in batch fermentation.461 × 104 . E. on the cell activities could be elucidated and quantified by the utilization of mathematical models. Phisalaphong et al. positive relationships of the initial sugar concentration and the substrate inhibition on cell growth and on ethanol production were determined. Batch and multistage continuous ethanol fermentation of cellulose hydrolysate and optimum design of fermentor by graphical analysis. 7. ( ) 20% and ( ) 22% (w/v). lines correspond to model simulation while dots correspond to experimental data of S. 33 (1998) 763–771. Process Biochem. 48 (1998) 65–74. The effect of temperature on the maintenance constant (KCM (h−1 )) of S. Bioeng. cerevisiae M30. From the scale-up test. Biomass and Bioenergy 12 (1997) 461–472. [3] R.R. J. TRF. P´ erez-Correa.M. temperature and initial sugar concentration. 8. we have shown how the effects of the environmental parameters. Project TRG 4580047. Math. Giron-Sierra. ethanol production and death rate were 3.I. at different temperature and different initial molasses concentration. J. 22 (1980) 1907–1928. A. for the application in production scale. Experimental results and simulation of cell ( ). thereby lowering both cell and ethanol yields. Limthong for provision of the cell cultures. References ¨ ¨ [1] G. Comput. Doruker. 4. The estimated values were well fitted with the experimental data.K. High temperature also accelerated the inhibition effect of the substrate and ethanol on the cell activities. cerevisiae M30. Tyagi. the developed model from the small scale process reproduced adequately the kinetic behavior of the large-scale experimental data. for financial support. Agosin. . we have cultivated S. growth kinetics from the initial condition until the stationary phase. T.A.A. the maximum specific production rate and the specific death rate of cells increased with temperature as Arrhenius functions. P. Kirdar. These will contribute to a better understanding of the environmental effect on cell activities and could be applied as a tool for further process development. batch ethanol fermentation experiments using cane-molasses as the main substrate were carried out in duplicated with 22% (w/v) of the initial reducing sugar in a 10 l fermentor at 33 ◦ C and 300 rpm.D. In order to investigate possible scale-up effects on the application to fermentation process. Andr´ es-Toro. Conclusions In this paper.E. Onsan.42 M. [4] J. / Biochemical Engineering Journal 28 (2006) 36–43 Fig. B. Ghose. WT also received support from Research Team Award. Mathematical description of ethanol fermentation by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. K. Sainz. Biotechnol. Ghaly. Biotechnol. Bioeng. reducing sugar ( ) and ethanol ( ) concentrations in a 10 l fermentor at 33 ◦ C and 300 rpm. A mathematical model was developed in order to follow We thank the Thailand Research Fund (TRF). The model parameters were tentatively estimated by the initial rate method and then adjusted using a non-linear regression technique assisted by a computer program to minimize the sum-of-squares deviation between the model predictions and experimental data. the interaction between temperature and initial sugar concentration to accelerate the inhibition effect was observed. 81 (2003) 818–828. El-Taweel. 3. it can be said that the mathematical model and estimated kinetic parameters developed from the small scale could adequately predict the dynamics of ethanol fermentation in 10 l fermentor. growth on cane molasses. From Fig. only some minor deviations of ethanol concentration profile at the beginning and substrate concentration profile at the end of the fermentation were observed. [2] A. Besides. Furthermore. Birol. Ulgen. Pizarro. [5] B.A. The simulation results were close to the experimental data throughout fermentation. growth on cane molasses at initial sugar concentration: ( ) 17%.

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