l'enseignement medieval Arts Libéraux, Grands Maitres Et Universités

les arts libéraux
Les sept arts libéraux désignent toute les disciplines intellectuelles fondamentales des écoles de l'Antiquité, mais également du Moyen Âge. Les arts libéraux étaient groupés en deux cycles :  le trivium (mot qui signifie les trois chemins en latin) concerne le « pouvoir de la langue »: la grammaire, la rhétorique et la dialectique.  le quadrivium (les quatre chemins du second degré) se rapporte au « pouvoir des nombres », groupant les quatre branches des mathématiques (arithmétique, géométrie, astronomie et musique). Dans la pensée chrétienne telle que la formule saint Augustin dans le De Doctrina christiana et le De Ordine, la connaissance des arts libéraux fut considérée comme l'étape préalable à l'étude de la théologie fondée sur l'Écriture sainte, qu'il importait de comprendre et d'interpréter car l‘enseignement médiéval placait la foi au centre de toute connaissance et les arts lib éraux en propédeutique à l‘étude de la théologie. Ils sont définis dans ces deux vers mnémoniques : Gramm loquitur, Dia verba docet, Rhet verba colorat, Mus canit, Ar numerat, Geo ponderat, Ast colit astra. Ce qui sgnifie :
la Gram (maire) parle, la Dia (lectique) enseigne, la Rhé (torique) colore les mots, la Mus (ique) chante, l'Ar (ithmétique) compte, la Géo (métrie) pèse, l'Ast (ronomie) s'occupe des astres.

On résumait aussi leur objet par sept substantifs formant également un vers : Lingua, tropus, ratio, numerus, tonus, angulus, astra.

les grands maîtres

St Augustin
Lorsque, après une période de déclin, la culture se réveilla en Occident au moment de la renaissance carolingienne, l'enseignement de ces e disciplines, particulièrement du trivium, reprit dans les écoles monastiques et cathédrales. Il faut attendre la fin du X siècle pour assister à un enseignement systématique du quadrivium dans certains centres, ainsi à Reims au temps de Gerbert, puis dans les écoles de Chartres. La e renaissance duXII siècle a été, entre autres, celle des arts libéraux dont l'étude fut stimulée par l'introduction dans l'enseignement des œuvr es d'Aristote et des scientifiques grecs traduits au préalable en latin. Quand se formeront les universités, les « sept colonnes de la sagesse », renforcées par la philosophie et les sciences de la nature, constitueront l'objet des études à la faculté des arts.

Ils ont notamment été transmis par Alcuin, précepteur de Charlemagne et sont à l'origine de la réforme scolaire de celui-ci, durant la période dite de la Renaissance carolingienne.

C‘est selon cette répartition du savoir et du « savoir-dire » que Martianus Capella rédigea son oeuvre principale (vers 400), le De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiæ (« Les Noces de Mercure et de Philologie »). Véritable manuel scolaire, cet ouvrage, où chaque science est personnifiée, fut la base de l‘enseignement des écoles monastiques carolingiennes, complétée par les réaménagements et les enrichissements apportés au VIe siècle par Cassiodore (Institutiones)et Boèce. Au VIIe siècle, Isidore de Séville reprend ces disciplines, mais, à travers un classement thématique des connaissances, il élargit les domaines du savoir, composant la première encyclopédie (Ethymologiæ) qui servira de référence aux compilateurs et de livre de chevet aux clercs jusqu‘au XVIe siècle. Au début du XIIe siècle, Hugues, maître de l‘École de Saint-Victor élabore une méthode d‘enseignement destinée aux clercs, suivant une classification d‘inspiration aristotélicienne :
  

sciences logiques (le trivium des arts libéraux), ou pratiques (sciences éthique), sciences théoriques : théologie, mathématique (contenant le quadrivium des arts libéraux) et physique. et il introduit les arts mécaniques (ou science des techniques).

Le XIIe siècle découvre la Logique, la Physique et la Métaphysique d‘Aristote, et la science grécoarabe, par les traductions latines ; l‘enseignement va en être bouleversé. L‘assimilation de ces nouveaux savoirs prendra un siècle.

les universités
Les universités se créent et se multiplient dans la première moitié du XIIIe siècle. Les statuts de l‘université de Paris sont promulgués en 1215. Quatre facultés la composent :     la faculté des Arts, la faculté de Théologie, la faculté de Décret (droit Canon) la faculté de Médecine.

Les arts libéraux (trivium, puis quadrivium) forment la base de l‘enseignement de la faculté des Arts, dispensé entre quatorze et vingt ans. Un « baccalauréat » est délivré au bout de deux ans et une « maîtrise ès arts » quatre ans plus tard. L‘étudiant peut ensuite aborder la médecine ou le droit, - de nouveau six années d‘études sanctionnées par la licence et le doctorat.

Les études de théologie sont beaucoup plus longues : huit ans sont prévus dans les statuts de l‘université de Paris qui impose, en outre, l‘âge minimum de trente-cinq ans pour l‘obtention du doctorat ; il semble, en fait, que la durée d‘apprentissage ait été de quinze à seize ans. Inscrites au programme de la faculté de Médecine, on trouve les oeuvres d‘Hippocrate et de Galien, puis les sommes arabes d‘Avicenne (le Canon), d‘Averroès (le Colliget) et de Rhazès (l‘Almansor). La faculté des Arts est un bouillon de culture de l‘averroïsme ; les discussions y sont passionnées, certains maîtres y soutiennent la thèse de l‘éternité du monde (niant ainsi la création), et l‘on y culti ve le raisonnement. L‘oeuvre logique d‘Aristote (l‘Organon) est enseignée dès 1215 à la faculté des Arts, mais sa Physique et sa Métaphysique sont interdites par les autorités ecclésiastiques. Les thèses d‘Aristote y sont cependant débattues à travers les commentaires d‘Averroès. Roger Bacon, venu de l‘université d‘Oxford en 1245, y donne des cours sur la Physique et la Métaphysique d‘Aristote. En 1277, l‘évêque de Paris, Étienne Tempier, et l‘archevêque de Cantorbéry condamnent l‘aristotélisme. Mais d‘autres querelles vont secouer l‘université : la lutte, récurrente jusqu‘au XIVe siècle, entre les séculiers et les réguliers des ordres mendiants. Bientôt, c‘est la méthode même de l‘enseignement universitaire - la scolastique - qui sera remise en cause : le premier coup lui est porté par Roger Bacon, qui, dans son Opus Majus (1268), jette les bases de la science expérimentale.

Au XVIIe siècle. la musique. Dans l’Occident médiéval. enseignés dans les collèges de la Faculté des arts : « Et après quelque espace de temps qu’il y eut demouré et fort bien estudié en tous les sept ars libéraux (…) » ( Pantagruel. outre ces deux disciplines. À partir de la fin du Xe siècle. l’astronomie. ministre de Théodoric le Grand (empereur des Ostrogoths et des Romains). cet enseignement se poursuivit. Au XIIe siècle. appliqué par les jésuites. boulengers. les arts libéraux redevinrent à l’honneur.Les origines des arts libéraux sont lointaines. devenu grande référence des lettrés médiévaux. C’est durant la période carolingienne que l’enseignement du trivium se développa. Cassiodore fut un des premiers à parler des « sept arts libéraux » : il présenta l’arithmétique. accordait une place prépondérante à ces arts libéraux. etc ». notamment de la rhétorique et de la dialectique. Le terme quadrivium fut employé pour la première fois au VIe siècle par Boèce. se développa également l’enseignement du quadrivium. . la peinture ». la musique. la dialectique. arts des mathématiques et du symbole ( quadrivium). dans les écoles monastiques et les cathédrales. Dès lors les arts libéraux comprirent sept matières bien précises : la grammaire. À ceux-ci s’opposent les « arts mécaniques » qui « sont ceux où l’on travaille plus de la main et du corps que de l’esprit : ce sont d’ordinaire ceux qui nous fournissent les nécessités de la vie comme celuy des horlogers. Chez les anciens Grecs. le terme triviumdésigna un cycle d’études que les élèves devaient suivre dans les écoles de grammaire et de rhétorique. comprenant. la rhétorique. imagine que son héros. Durant la République et l’Empire romains. la rhétorique. bien que les arts en question se soient diversifiés : « Les arts libéraux sont ceux qui sont nobles et honnestes. Ainsi Rabelais. se distinguaient ceux qui devaient travailler pour vivre et ceux qui pouvaient étudier et pratiquer la philosophie.236). la redécouverte de la philosophie d’Aristote. La grammaire incluait la littérature. l’astronomie et la musique comme parties de la philosophie. la géométrie. comme la poésie. l’opinion de Furetière. Les arts libéraux dispensaient une formation dans les disciplines où l’intelligence avait la plus grande part. etc. étudie les arts libéraux. Le système d’éducation des jeunes gens. est encore conforme à celle qui avait cours au Moyen Âge. charpentiers. fondeurs. cordonniers. Au XVIe siècle. poète et philosophe latin. par exemple à la Sorbonne. la géométrie. favorisa l’enseignement et la pratique des arts libéraux dans les Universités. les mathématiques. tourneurs. dans son Dictionnaire (1690).Autre écrivain et ministre célèbre de Théodoric. la dialectique. arts du discours ( trivium) et l’arithmétique. Pantagruel. Pléiade. la dialectique. p. à Paris.

elle désigne les enseignements incluant l’étude de la littérature. p. les arts libéraux étaient souvent désignés par le simple pluriel « les arts »./ Voulant apprendre la morale. les sciences physiques et biologiques ainsi que les mathématiques et la logique. S’agissant des universités. Pléiade. . linguistique. disciplines auxquelles s’ajoutent souvent les sciences de l’éducation. beaux-arts.Jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle. pour bien gouverner. Ainsi. les disciplines des sciences humaines (littérature. ces matières sont enseignées dans des collèges privés en tant que disciplines de formation intellectuelle. aux États-Unis. L’expression est encore parfois utilisée à l’époque moderne. V : « Le lion. comme dans ces vers de La Fontaine : « Le Lion. le singe et les deux ânes »./ Se fit un beau jour amener/ Le Singe Maître ès arts chez la gent animale » ( Fables. l’expression liberal arts ou liberal education les distinguant des disciplines dont le but est exclusivement professionnel.433). histoire. Il arrive aussi que l’on désigne par « arts libéraux ». philosophie. XI. de la linguistique – ou de l’apprentissage des langues– de la philosophie et de l’histoire. sociologie). surtout dans les pays anglo-saxons ( liberal arts).

agréable. c’est essayé de captiver son auditoire par la vigueur de son argumentation. nombre qui consacre notre loge et la rend juste et parfaite. Le Trivium se polarise donc sur la parole. les voyages ne sont plus des épreuves mais des déplacements vers les échelons de la connaissance. forme orale qui montre à quel point le verbe joue un rôle déterminant. nous donnons de la force et de la grâce à nos discours.permettant ainsi d’évoluer dans sa foi maçonnique. LA GRAMMAIRE. éveil de la pensée certes. Ne parler pour rien dire » quel ennui ! Pour l’assistance ». poursuivre la connaissance c’est chercher à s’instruire. Le 1 er degré (trivium) comporte 3 échelons. Par LA RETHORIQUE. mais aussi de diriger nos recherches sur l’éveil de la conscience.Les 7 Arts Libéraux Représentent l’étude de l’ancienne classification du Savoir humain. de rechercher notre propre perfectionnement. par la beauté de l’expression. essayer de guider les autres. de raisonner. et la ponctuation pour donner un rythme. Au cours de mon initiation au 1er degré les voyages sont parsemés d’obstacles. car la logique nous permet : de déduire. pour ensuite. L’élocution doit être. l’importance de l’écriture. un sens différent à une phrase. mais aussi de soi-même . la grammaire. mesurée. LA LOGIQUE. de conclure. . des paroles appropriées ne donnent que du bonheur à l’auditoire. qui se trouve dans cette permanente richesse de l’initiation qui nous permet. Nous nous devons de laisser guider notre raison par la Logique qui doit nous amener avec prudence vers la connaissance générale des choses . le TRIVIUM . la rhétorique et la logique.le QUADRIVIUM . et que cela soit pour enseigner ou approuver. science Quaternaire dite mathématiques. car. nous enseigne l’arrangement des mots. Porteur du fil à plomb et du niveau. le récipiendaire subit symboliquement 3 épreuves. qui se rapporte au pouvoir des nombres . le compagnon découvre le cartouche des 7 arts libéraux. Ces 7 disciplines se divisent en 2 degré. science Ternaire des paroles et des voix . Pour mon élévation au 2ème degré.

Les 4 chemins du second degré. m’a fait découvrir que dans leur forme primitive. aux règles immuables. nom du très haut. ont transmises à l’époque de vive voix. elle nous enseigne . elle est le moyen de communication de connaissance et d’action. les apôtres . le Grand Architecte.elle est quelquefois obscure . L’Astronomie et La Musique. . ont été et sont communiqués oralement. ainsi l’homme de pensée pénètre dans l’amour de la fraternité. monogramme du grand Géomètre. la Géométrie. confidences. qui est un être essentiellement relationnel. JEAN qui décrit au moyen d’une phrase courte : « Au commencement était la parole « c’est par celle-ci que l’homme .le volume de la loi sacrée symbole de la tradition . des rites. communications des coutumes. Ces 3 chemins abordés. un frère. et qu’il se doit de leur apporter affection et solidarité. communique et échange avec ses semblables. L’ARITHMETIQUE. »que serait 1 tout seul « ? Je trouve que les nombres sont beaux et magiques. d’où la nécessité une nouvelle fois de recourir à la tradition c'est-à-dire . et qui appelle à méditer sur les mystères insondables des nombres et donc de la création ? LA GEOMETRIE. le créateur de l’univers aux règles harmonieuses et rigoureuses.La parole permet aux hommes de se comprendre. c’est une bibliothèque qui brûle « disent-ils. Prenons l’écriture. mais l’écriture ne renferme pas tout. de l’histoire. Cette science des nombres est en usage constant dans nos travaux. elle peut-être aussi un instrument pour conduire les hommes. Ceux-ci sont représentés : Par L’Arithmétique.les pouvoirs et les propriétés des nombres aux moyens de tables et de figures . Parmi les 3 grandes lumières symboliques . cheminons maintenant sur le QUADRIVIUM. popularisés par les Arabes mais d’origine Phénicienne. est ouvert au prologue de St. que les anciens ont conservé dans leur mémoire » Lorsque un vieux meurt. à la DOCTRINE ou OPINIONS qu’un des grands initiés qu’était JESUS et ses compagnons. chaque nombre possédait une quantité d’angle égale à sa valeur ! Surprenant. Au centre de l’étoile flamboyante nous trouvons la lettre G. source de toute lumière et de toute science. secrets des mots. L’Afrique a cultivé cette communication orale. En tout temps la parole a été le moyen de transmission entre les êtres humains. Grâce à cet art nous avons le pouvoir de compter.

elle permet au compagnon maçon par l’utilisation des outils symboliques. la musique produit des harmonies délicieuses. cette science traite de la grandeur en général ou toutes les dimensions sont considérées. que ce soit dans le domaine maritime ou terrestre. nos travaux s’effectuent sous la voûte étoilée. cette musique est « nature » elle est dans la nature . mais elle passe autant par les symboles de son écriture (les notes de musique). sphère céleste et globe terrestre nous permettent de contempler « la géométrie des mondes » La géométrie enseigne les lois de la construction universelle. elle permet l’observation des astres. cette œuvre à laquelle nul ne peut assigner un fin. de l’immensément grand à l’immensément petit nous voilà en relation spirituelle entre le haut et le bas. Aidés par cette science. dans tous nos temples. Dans l’hémisphère céleste. ces sciences. Cet art. Par son arrangement des sons . grâce à un ou des scintillements référencés. Considérée comme la plus ancienne des sciences.La géométrie nous a fourni la plus grande partie de nos symboles. nous ouvrons et fermons nos travaux. sensorielles et esthétiques.elle permet d’appréhender l’espace. elles remplissent donc une fonction essentielle dans notre existence. cet art nous permet de comprendre la grandeur des corps célestes. elles nous permettent d’agir avec méthode et discernement. à travers l’espace et le temps. nous observons les mouvements des astres. le bas et le haut. nous les utilisons et entendons quotidiennement. sa route. que par le sens émotionnel qu’elle peut procurer. dans cette construction de poésie perçue par l’ouie. l’homme y trouve son cap. La période de construction des cathédrales fut propice à la culture des arts libéraux qui font appel à des facultés : intellectuelles. de se façonner comme « pierre vivante » en vue de prendre sa place dans l’édification du temple. les étoiles ont toujours servies de guide. car le travail doit se poursuivre sans répit. Le 7ème des arts libéraux est la MUSIQUE. mais avant tout. mesurées . Par l’utilisation rituelle des points cardinaux.la musique arrange et ordonne des sons pour construire « ce matériau musical « agréable à l’oreille. Dans la pensée formulée par St. détendeur des mystères sacrés de l’hémisphère céleste. ( L’Astronomie ) nous apprend principalement à « LIRE « la sagesse la force et la beauté du principe créateur qu’est le tout puissant . L’ASTRONOMIE. Augustin :" La connaissance de ces arts est indispensable pour comprendre et interpréter . calculons et fêtons les solstices. la belle musique ! une des pratiques culturelles les plus anciennes .

et la puissance des connaissances devant lesquelles nous demeurons humble et modeste. de comprendre. mais animée d’un besoin inlassable. qui nous utilisons journellement et dont nous ne mesurons pas toujours l’importance. de nous communiquer ces héritages (les arts).justement " car ceux-ci nous font apprécier. ont réunis leur savoir pour nous faire découvrir ces sciences fondamentales résultantes d’une noble curiosité . JP M . l’harmonie du beau. Mais avant tout notre ordre n’est-il pas principalement basé sur la tradition orale ? VMet vous tous mes frères j’ai dit. Ces arts qui ont exigées de grandes études et de profondes méditations. à s’unir et à travailler mutuellement pour le bien commun. La FM est en quelque sorte une loi humanitaire qui engage les hommes à s’aimer. sont le résultat de la pensée et du travail des hommes qui progressivement. au fil du temps. d’apprendre. Curiosité certes.

suivant le résultat obtenu. Les textes ne disent que ce qu’ils veulent dire. fut-il religieux. comme on distingue l’alchimie pratique des souffleurs de l’alchimie spirituelle des « cherchant » et de vérifier le bien-fondé de la théorie de la transition qui nous relie au « livre des métiers » de 1268 d’Étienne Boileau et autres. Ainsi les mythes et légendes sont des éléments probants de la connaissance initiatique. nombre d’entre nous n’ont pas hésité. La question préalable est de vérifier si les arts dits « libéraux » appartiennent bien au corpus initiatique des maçons opératifs ou s’ils doivent être rattachés à une autre filiation. pour les besoins d’une démonstration ou d’une croyance. Si une preuve irréfragable ne peut être rapportée. à orienter l’interprétation d’un texte. c’est l’analogie qui nous permet de faire des liens troublants. en précisant que nous émettons une simple hypothèse. et ne concerne que les disciplines libres de toutes contingences. à éclairer les tenants de la théorie de l’emprunt qui distingue la maçonnerie pratique et la maçonnerie spirituelle. en dehors des intentions orientées de leurs commentateurs. Est libéral un art pratiqué par un homme libre de son jugement. . aveuglés par les convictions qui nous animent. Parfois. Elle contribuera. celui de la quête infinie d’un idéal divin. Notre définition fait rejoindre le point de vue antique qui s’affranchit de la matière et le point de vue moderne du libre arbitre détaché du cadre corporel. C’est bien qu’il en soit ainsi. Sans cesse le franc-maçon cherche à se relier à une tradition ancienne qui est bien souvent plus légendaire qu’historique. préférant ainsi créer un lien doctrinal. et la légende. plus forte que tous les raisonnements universitaires parlent à cet autre nous-mêmes. nous faisons consciemment parler notre cœur. voire spéculative. en nous retirant d’un débat aussi aride qu’intéressant qui est celui d’une vérité historique dûment fondée sur des textes. ont dans la franc-maçonnerie de tradition.Les sept arts libéraux ou l’exaltation de l’âme Les arts libéraux. Avertis par ces constatations. nous allons essayer d’analyser la pertinence des arts libéraux dans la vie d’un tailleur de pierre du Moyen Âge. Ainsi les arts libéraux sont les servants de la description et de la compréhension de l’essence des choses. une aura particulière qu’il nous semble utile d’expliquer. à supputer un rapprochement entre deux faits historiques. nous l’espérons. Cette démarche. plutôt que d’émettre une simple hypothèse. nous permettra d’établir un pont avec la source potentielle de la franc-maçonnerie opérative.

Le cinquième des arts est la première porte d’accès sur la métaphysique. compendium de l’art du trait.Les arts libéraux sont cités dans de nombreux rituels maçonniques tels le Régius dés 1390. nombre. La géométrie est le langage de l’architecte et l’architecture est servante du . par la parenté et l’origine unique des dites matières. Ainsi Dieu sera le grand Géomètre. mais rien ne dit non plus qu’il ne fut pas sensibilisé. pour un bâtisseur du moyen-âge. Il établit un cycle septénaire de sciences qui ne touchent pas aux choses mortelles comme la médecine et aux choses terrestres comme l’architecture. Quoi qu'il en soit. De nos jours on en retrouve des traces dans nos rituels. qui nous font côtoyer la parole perdue. Qu’ils soient de type anglais ou écossais. poids ». C’est sur cette source néoplatonicienne que la maçonnerie des Anciens Devoirs entend se souquer. en libérant l’âme. J. La révélation unique se substitua aux multiples vérités. Il nous semble évident que la Géométrie crée le lien entre opératif et spéculatif. Dans un but doctrinaire et hégémonique. Il s’agit donc de s’élever au plan spirituel.-C. On les divise en « Trivium » qui sont les arts du langage pour comprendre les écritures et « Quadrivium » pour les arts du nombre. La géométrie exhale et libère le cœur de la matière. Ces sciences sont supposées permettre de s’élever au niveau du divin. qu’ils reposent expressément sur les Anciens Devoirs ou sur la structure du Masson Word. qu’ils soient anciens ou modernes. la théologie chrétienne se substitua à la philosophie grecque. fondement pratique du grade de compagnon. La mère de toutes les sciences est pour les Grecs la philosophie. qui produit le premier traité d’architecture mentionnant les arts libéraux sous un angle utilitaire et technique. Les arts libéraux sont cités dans de nombreux textes et manuscrits anciens. pour comprendre comment Dieu a organisé le monde « en mesure. C’est ainsi que naissent les légendes et les mythes. Ils font partie du corpus que doit connaître le compagnon et dans ce corpus figure évidemment le cinquième art qui est le premier dans le métier. C’est Marius Cappella qui en 400 fit la liste septénaire que l’on connaît. c’est une fausse idée. appelés Anciens Devoirs ce qui semble témoigner de leur authenticité dans une continuité et une constance. Cette antériorité livresque plaide pour la constance immémoriale et invérifiable de la source première. La géométrie semble occuper le domaine périmétrique de la pratique architecturale. la source est incontestablement ant ique. à notre avis. Le solde positif des 7 arts libéraux est la Géométrie. On peut conclure que ces arts dits « libéraux » devinrent une propédeutique à l’étude théologique. la science est à la fois de la matière et de l’esprit. Le lien fondateur qui justifie explicitement l’intégration des arts libéraux aux corpus de la maçonnerie est Vitruve l’architecte romain du 1er siècle av. et connue de Platon. Le cycle s’explique aussi. ce qui exclue la matière. celui de la Géométrie. Faut il préciser qu’il ne fut jamais philosophe ou musicien.

ses secrets doivent nous révéler le schème. aux mélanges des mortiers et ciments. Ces secrets n’étaient pas entre les mains du clergé. affaire de nécessité. qui armèrent nos moines dans leurs études. doit-il pour autant étudier les autres arts libéraux ? Que viennent faire la rhétorique. Il s’agissait donc de la grammaire. C’est donc les clercs de l’église et les moines qui se dotèrent d’outils. pour la perfection de l’œuvre divine. mais aussi. se rapproche de l’institution cléricale.sacré. La situation n’est pas si simple. Ces arts sont considérés comme supérieurs aux arts mécaniques dits « inférieurs » qui appartiennent à l’artisanat dont fait partie la taille de la pierre. sauf peut-être. ils étaient détenteurs des secrets de la géométrie de la construction et de l’élévation des colonnes. Si un compagnon doit savoir faire un relevé et un tracé géométrique qui justifie sa future qualification de maître. Cet apport consiste non seulement à la production d’une élite au sein de la classe artisanale. Ce rapprochement n’est pas douteux. de la dialectique. Au surplus ces arts constituent le fondement de l’éducation cléricale et bourgeoise du moyen-âge. C’est lui qui dirige les travaux. soumission au pouvoir temporel de droit divin. mais aussi à faire la distinction entre ceux qui sont aptes à connaître et concevoir et ceux qui ne seront que de simples exécutants. Dans le même registre. L’église et le monastère sont les donneurs d’ordre principaux de cette époque. car il est nécessaire à la bonne conduite des travaux. Ces secrets étaient relatifs aux rituels de fondation des ouvrages. dans un premier temps. plus qu’aux maçons. à une époque où l’on pouvait tout apprendre et devenir un « savant ». la grammaire. et surtout. il était bien affirmé dans les Anciens Devoirs. La différence tenait au caractère progressif à sept degrés de cet enseignement. Il n’est donc pas anormal que le contact forcé des deux univers produise un résultat qui propose la perfection de soi. Ces esprits sélectionnés par la difficulté de mise en œuvre de ces arts étaient d’office les gardiens des secrets de la profession. . Les arts libéraux sont bien connus depuis l’antiquité et le moyen-âge en fit un passeport pour l’étude biblique. le plan divin. Il s’agissait d’ouvrir l’esprit des opératifs pour les aider à communiquer avec leurs prescripteurs. la nécessité de respecter le pouvoir du seigneur. C’est donc aux clercs que revient la maîtrise des arts libéraux. pour mieux comprendre et étudier la Bible. C’est là. appelés Arts libéraux. de la rhétorique et de la logique. ou la musique avec la statique et le tracé d’ogives ? Voyons ce que l’histoire peut nous apprendre à ce sujet. aux techniques de découpe et de placement des pierres et clef de voûte. des ogives et des dômes sur bases carrées. Ils servirent à l’éducation morale plus qu’à l’exercice de style. Il existe un autre apport à la pratique des arts libéraux. Le chanoine est le premier architecte connu du moyen-âge. La géométrie est donc d’essence sacrée. à une petite élite qui se détache de la masse et qui dans une soif d’entreprendre et d’apprendre.

Dieu est omniprésent dans le quotidien du maçon et dans le vécu de la confrérie à laquelle il appartient. Il est impossible de travailler sur le chantier d’une cathédrale sans en connaître le dimensionnement intellectuel et spirituel. Pouvait-on s’affranchir de la pesanteur de la matière sans élever son âme par l’étude et le perfectionnement ? Une cathédrale n’est pas uniquement affaire de technique. Par son élancement et ses ruptures d’ogives. sans doute éduqués. Les cathédrales gothiques aux flancs desquelles étaient installées les loges de tailleurs de pierre témoignent de cette élévation de l’âme. socle ordinaire d’expression et de pensée commune. Le Chef-d’œuvre est toujours dédié à un Saint à une Église ou à un Roi. La théologie est omniprésente. bons praticiens dans le maniement du maillet et du ciseau. dont la double perfection est au bénéfice de l’ouvrage cultuel. l’architecture n’est que la figure servante et technique des 7 arts libéraux. Cette affirmation est d’autant plus pertinente si elle s’adresse au chef du chantier et à ses adjoints. Sa vie en est « réglée » à la manière Des Moines. Les rituels maçonniques ne font rien d’autre que d’assimiler les cycles de la nature que Dieu a laissé se manifester. Le maître maçon n’était pas la brute épaisse que l’on peut imaginer. l’harmonie des formes fait écho aux harmonies musicales et à la sonorité du lieu. sa transparence cristalline. on a connu Des Moines bâtisseurs. la cathédrale libère enfin l’esprit enfermé dans la matière. ou l’évêque.C’est ce que nous appellerons la production du Chef-d’œuvre. Connaître la Bible c’est comprendre la dimension sacrée du bâti et l’élévation à donner à l’architecture. Le maître était suffisamment aguerri aux arts libéraux. C’est ce dimensionnement dans l’interprétation des écrits sacrés qui est véritablement initiatique et que l’on retrouve illustré dans le bâti sacré. Aucune des sciences d’élévation de l’âme n’est superflue. la grammaire et la rhétorique ordonnancent l’explication et la lecture logique du livre de pierre. Le maître maçon s’oblige à l’étude des 7 arts libéraux comme préparation à l’étude de la Bible et donc à la sagesse chrétienne. toutes se conjuguent dans l’exhaussement du genre humain. Tous ne pouvaient être des clercs formés dans un cursus classique. C’est une ascension de l’esprit qui s’appuie sur l’amélioration du tour de main en conscience et en perspective d’un but intellectualisé. Inversement. cisterciens notamment. . Dans ce cadre. même de manière superficielle. si l'on en croit les anciens devoirs. Il est donc hautement probable qu’il ait existé une maçonnerie spirituelle composée à la fois d’opératifs éclairés et volontaires et de cléricaux rompus aux arts libéraux. pour entrer dans un dialogue fructueux avec le chanoine. Cette connexité plaide pour cette maçonnerie spirituelle. L’étude de la Bible n’était pas à cette époque uniquement exotérique. la proportion des corps sous l’enseignement de la médecine se retrouve dans la statuaire et la divine proportion. elle était aussi ésotérique.

une vague trace d’un passé révolu. à permis aux générations de maçons qui se succédèrent sur les chantiers. À l’issue de ces constatations nous pouvons émettre l’hypothèse que les arts libéraux. œuvre de l’esprit. Il me semble que le poids de l’église étant si important. C’était bien le but initial de l’enseignement des sept arts libéraux : exalter l’âme du corps. Ces arts sont du niveau du compagnon. il s’élève spirituellement tout comme il gravit les échelons représentés par les barreaux de la Scala Philosopha. de parler d’une même voie et d’amener progressivement l’architecture. Le but est le même que celui des opératifs.. dans une application superficielle au métier. temple de l’esprit et temple intérieur pour les spéculatifs. tout en affirmant clairement sa pensée. à une science de l’élévation de l’âme et de l’esprit. (. d’une science technique inhérente à la matière. C’est l’éternel combat entre tradition et modernité dont les arts libéraux font les frais. L’harmonie et la perception juste de l’univers sont les préalables nécessaires à la production de l’œuvre. étaient d’origine ecclésiale.) Y a-t-il une actualité dans la pratique des arts libéraux ? De nos jours les maçons spéculatifs trouvent-ils une quelconque élévation de l’esprit dans l’étude des arts libéraux ? Loin d’être obsolètes. le maître se relève et son âme s’exalte.. et que l’on tâche de travailler sur les cinq sens qui viennent alimenter notre boîte d’os. sous couvert de la Géométrie. Arrivé au sommet. le maçon construit la maison de Dieu. se détache de la matière. Réactualisées dans leur sens initiatique. Tel Lazare. Pour ceux d’entre nous qui voyaient dans cet enseignement. Le malentendu pour nos contemporains est de percevoir ces sciences libérales et leurs accessoires. Il éventre la terre des enfers pour ses fondations puis il tutoie la puissance céleste du haut d’un clocher. le pouvoir des clercs « scribes » dans les . Le travail du maçon spéculatif se résume dans la taille de sa planche. Ces disciplines sont actuelles et indispensables à la progression initiatique et ne peuvent être remplacées par aucune modernité ni virtualité numérique.À l’évidence. C’est une mort et une résurrection dans la plus pure tradition chrétienne. sous l’angle de l’actualité des nouvelles sciences dont la contrepartie est la rentabilité du produit. Il doit les connaître pour passer au grade de maître et changer d’univers. qu’ils en sont pour leurs frais. Symboliquement il gravit un certain nombre de marches. C’est une des conséquences du productivisme de la pensée moderne que de vouloir transformer un art ou une science en technologie rentable. construire un temple. il entrevoit la figure de Dieu pour les opératifs et il accède à la chambre du milieu pour les spéculatifs. le premier ressuscité de la Bible. les arts libéraux mettent le franc-maçon sur la voie de la logique et de l’harmonie. Le but d’interpréter les textes sous l’angle ésotérique. La théorie de la transition tout comme la théorie de l’emprunt s’accommodent fort bien de l’usage des arts libéraux dans les rangs des opératifs. C’est ainsi que l’on enseigne encore les ordres d’architecture. elles enracinent et fondent le socle de la progression pour l’étude des textes sacrés.

En retour. On peut dire que l’« acceptation » dans les confréries et les corporations a toujours existé et que l’« emprunt » par les « modernes » anglais est hautement probable. augmentée. Je pense que les premiers maçons acceptés. (.assemblées de métiers et des confréries. depuis fort longtemps. ou créant une loge spéculative. et nous pouvons affirmer qu’il existât une initiation de métier fondée sur l’ésotérisme de l’interprétation des textes chrétiens. transmette valablement la continuité de la chaîne initiatique.. De plus il est certain que nombre de loges se créèrent. Les arts libéraux témoignent par leur universalité que l’élévation de l’âme peut être la chose la mieux partagée dans les idées comme dans leurs « mises en Œuvre ». Nous vivons sur la richesse de ces espaces-temps. prise pour temple de Salomon dans son sens ontologique. C’est ainsi que la rose du bâtisseur rencontra la rose sur la croix. codes et outils. Il est donc clair que la maçonnerie spéculative est bien régulière dans son lignage. typiquement spéculatifs arrivèrent bien plus tardivement. Les intellectuels rose-croix.. perfusera une pensée opérative rythmée par l’église. par d’autres influences. Cette continuité repose sur l’élévation des connaissances pour atteindre la perfection du Chef d’œuvre. et autres familiers de la royale société. avec dans leurs bagages l’initiation rose croix. celles de l'emprunt et celle de la transition s’appliquent pour le bien de l’ordre maçonnique contemporain. On ne peut affirmer de manière péremptoire qu’il n’y a pas eu transition. dont le but était la construction de la maison de Dieu. Au plan initiatique. furent les moines bâtisseurs du moyen-âge roman. Notre avis est que les deux théories.) Eri Rom . que l’on soit de tradition opérative ou spéculative. la technique opérative infusera dans l’esprit clérical. Il suffisait alors qu’il y ait parmi eux des acceptés ou des maçons de métier dûment initiés pour que la chaîne de la transmission se poursuive. Le maçon spéculatif continua l’édification de son temple intérieur en prenant exemple sur les Chefs d’œuvre dédiés des anciens. il a suffi que trois maçons spéculatifs soient acceptés dans le temple opératif pour que ceux-ci revenant. à l’imitation des loges opératives auxquelles elles empruntèrent leurs attributs.

Mieux connaitre les raciness de sa tradition permet de mieux comprendre ses fruits. ―tirer à soi‖. au participle passé) au latin classique educare.tr. mener‖. de ducere. ―élever. qu‘ils soient amer ou sucrée. Mark Van Doren. Comprendre d‘où l‘on vi ent. L‘Occident est enclin/a la facheuse tendance d‘oublier que la tradition islamique fait . représente un emprunt (1385. Van Doren faisait parti d‘une tradition aux USA connu sous le nom de ―the Great Books Tradition‖. Corpus de la tradition occidentale.. Liberal Education. Cela permet à l‘homme de comprendre pourquoi le fruit récolté et comme il est. qui consistait à étudier les textes fondateurs de la civilsation occidentale et qui avait pour objectif de mieux comprendre notre place dans l‘univers. Grands Maitres Et Universités education Éduquer v.L'enseignement medieval Arts Libéraux. Eduquer. instruire‖. d‘où ―conduire. signifie ―diriger la formation de qqn par l‘instruction et la pédagogie‖. sain ou bien malsain/insalubre.

distilled by analytical and interpretive tools developed by some of the finest minds in history. Zaytuna College has developed a unique curriculum for a Bachelor‘s program that relies on various pedagogical approaches such as selective memorization and critical analysis. both spiritual and philosophical. We believe that this knowledge. and spiritual tradition. even if he revises his view with every succeeding year. rooted in disparate academic universes. a welldesigned college education will change lives and transform the world. Islam‘s critical role in the modern world. In a seminal essay on Liberal Education. intellectual. we will be able to produce the future leaders. at their root. EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY The idea of Zaytuna may be captured in a few phrases: As God‘s creation. the power of the imagination is unleashed in literature. and to ensure that it remains accessible as a living. they lead and participate in religious gatherings. the Islamic intellectual legacy begs to be integrated into a global conversation on great ideas shaping our planet. mastery of grammar and rhetoric in English and Arabic propels us through great ideas embedded in timeless texts. they provide counsel. we are all interconnected. The courses are designed collectively by a diverse faculty who bring unique strengths and perspectives to the conversation. discussions in the Qur‘an class spill over into astronomy. the ―rise and fall of civilizations‖ is reassessed through a study of world religions and contemporary Islamic tho ught. WHY STUDY AT ZAYTUNA COLLEGE? . an in-depth examination of critical methodological issues.‖ This spirit captures an essential aspect of Zaytuna College‘s academic curriculum. through our diverse cultural histories. Mark van Doren tells us: ―The student who can begin early in his life to think of things as connected. they are integrated into the life of the surrounding Muslim community. They deliver lectures and sermons. a solid command of the Arabic language. and citizens needed to serve a rapidly growing Muslim community and an ever-changing America. teaching. At the heart of our mission is the Islamic legal. We believe that one of the primary purposes of Islamic education today is to keep that scholarly tradition alive. The curriculum emphasizes key foundational texts. imams. a familiarity with the most important Islamic sciences. Courses in law speak to concerns in Ethics. text-based tradition in its central place in modern Islamic education. we discover our shared humanity and dream of a common future. In order to do this. which we believe to be derived f rom the Qur‘an and the words and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ . the utility and limits of logic are explored in philosophic theology and the history of science. not only for Muslims. This curriculum also fulfills the requirements established by the most rigorous accrediting organizations of American higher education. As our students learn. especially for the youth of the community. It is the sincere prayer of Zaytuna College that by bringing together these many elements. holistic reality. and a firm grounding in the tools of learning with an emphasis on the qualitative elements of the traditional liberal arts. has been passed on by successive generations of believers. through practice. has begun the life of learning. and they are exposed to the full range of daily trials and triumphs that characterize human society. Zaytuna College aspires to revive the sciences of Islam and to position this nuanced. tensions in the freshman seminar are resolved in a class on spiritual psychology and cosmology. Our educational philosophy also reflects our belief that the ability of a student to become part of a living intellectual and spiritual tradition is enhanced by an ongoing involvement with an active community of believers.Bachelor Arts Program ISLAMIC STUDIES IN THE LIBERAL ARTS TRADITION AT ZAYTUNA COLLEGE Zaytuna College is committed to demonstrating. but also for people of other faiths. scholars. and the free exchange of ideas. our collective problems are.

the communities they inhabit. as well as into commercial and business endeavors. the policies they draft. first-and-foremost. At Zaytuna. As Zaytuna students graduate from their studies. but we all strive to better ourselves. Regardless of where our graduates go. thereby providing students with a firm footing in the present and a basis for looking at the future with clarity and vision.Every doctor faces uncertainty. Every chaplain has passions. the classrooms they teach. and our task is generational. part of a shared humanity. the charities they support. It also incorporates the most relevant aspects of modern social science and humanities courses. We invite them to think critically about the forces that shape all of our lives. Students want to feel confident that they are receiving an education that will give them an advantage in the professional world. the families they raise. We invite them to dream of a different now. but rather ends in themselves. while allowing them to explore issues and ideas that will enrich their lives in ways tangible and intangible. Parents want to know that their children are receiving a quality education and that they are being competently prepared for a productive future. we educate people not simply to ―make a living. insight. and the wars they choose to fight. the associations they form. We invite them to dream of different possibilities.‖ we inspire them to ―make a life worth living. these dreams will penetrate the professions they pursue. and becoming inspiring Islamic Studies teachers in a rapidly expanding network of Muslim schools in North America and elsewhere in the Western world. thereby grounding them in the best traditions of the past. We want everyone‘s children to realize that they are not the means of someone else‘s ends. entering into public service. Everybody makes mistakes. we provide an academic environment that fosters a productive and invigorating meeting of the hearts as a means to enrich and nourish the mind. . Every teacher has something to learn. We are confident that a Zaytuna College education will prepare our students to effectively participate in a full array of occupations and professions.‖ Every lawyer has a heart. we help them see themselves as. Every merchant confronts dilemmas. We envision our graduates working as Muslim community and religious leaders. At Zaytuna College. Students leave with the conviction that our human flaws are overcome through lives of service. We believe our graduates will bring compassion. Our comprehensive curriculum has been designed to ensure that our students receive an education that exposes them to the best of a vibrant Muslim intellectual tradition. succeeding in graduate and professional schools. we are sensitive to these concerns. What we offer is a civilizational vision. and a fresh perspective to nonprofit and NGO sectors.Choosing a college is a momentous decision for students and their parents. At Zaytuna College. and a different tomorrow.

his student. and historian. which is in fact closer to ignorance than knowledge.” Qadi Abu Bakr b. every time he is mentioned. Muhammad b. we believe we must acknowledge and remain connected to the giants who have laid the intellectual and spiritual foundation upon which we aspire to build. May Allah grant all of us a state of well being that will never be followed by any tribulation or torment. Al-Sakhawi. al-„Arabi (Muhammad b. he traveled to the eastern Islamic world and studied with al-Ghazzali. and mujtahid. His exegesis on the Qur‟an is entitled Ahkam al-Qur‟an. and accompanied it with a minimum amount of adab and yet it was enough to rescue us from death. And I beseech (God) that He sends His mercy upon Muhammad. al-Asha„ab b. Cairo) “By the gate of your generosity stands a sinner. Ali b. Sunan Abu Dawud. including biographies and assessments of accuracy of the chains of transmission./ from fear of Him. later he turned to hadith and became a hadith scholar. Imam al-Bukhari(d. sweet.” Imam Abu Dawud (Sulayman b. AH 256. historian. Muhammad) was originally from Asqalan (Palestine). Fez) “I utilized a small amount of a sort of learning. Ishaq al-Azdi) was a master hadith scholar who collected many hadiths. the one besides whom there is no other God. as well as histories and books on the hadith sciences. Qadi Abu Bakr b. AH 275. wrote a grand biography of him. but perhaps. and wrote a commentary on al-Bukhari. He served as a judge in Egypt.” Imam Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (Ahmad b. His works include Awasim min al-qawasim and Aridat al-ahwadi. He is the compiler of one of the seven major hadith collections. Though it was unusual at the time. hoping for Allah‟s forgiveness of slips. AH 852. encyclopedest. hadith scholar. early in his career he was interested in poetry and literature. its verses will be transformed into mansions. Basra) Abu Dawud opened a letter he addressed to the people of Mecca with the following advice: “Peace upon you. well traveled./ For I see nothing that could ever deflect me from your praise. peace upon him./ Although his genealogy attributes him to a stone (hajar).A people disconnected from their past will never move confidently into the future. He was handsome. Khartang) . At Zaytuna College. pure and fresh!/ Praise of you does not do you justice. his eyelid is wet with pouring tears. well to do. Imam Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani(d. AH 543. al-Mu‟afiri) was a Maliki judge./ O best of mankind in radiance of face and countenance!/ Through you he seeks a means (tawassala)./ In eternity. his books became famous during his life. He traveled in search of hadith throughout the Muslim world. I encourage you to praise Allah. Verily. a commentary on Imam Tirmidhi‟s book. al-‘Arabi(d. He is commonly confused with the Andalusian Sufi Muhyi al-Din ibn „Arabi./ how often tears have flowed. and married scholarly women./ My praise of you shall continue for as long as I live. „Abd Allah b. who is mad with love. Jawahir wa durar. Imam Abu Dawud(d. entitled Fath al-Bari.

Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali(d. Alawi b. and action without knowledge is vanity. including two well-known histories: al-Tarikh alkabir and al-Tarikh al-saghir. collected his sayings into a book entitled Tathbit al-fu‟ad. (This is because) what is with Allah endures. „Uthman. including poetry. Ibrahim b. If you do not act today and do not derive lessons from your past days. it is from there that you have come. and a scholar of textual criticism of hadith. Ahmad b. Abu Hamid) traveled far and wide in search of knowledge. One of his students. His most famous work is Ihya „ulum al-din. and we will do good deeds. He was appointed professor in the prestigious Nizamiyah college in Baghdad. capital of Abbasid caliphate. Abu „Abd Allah) was a historian. and those who are proud are abased by Him.” Imam Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi (Muhammad b.‟ and it will be said to you: „O Fool. al-Mughira. Ahmad b. Ismail b. He wrote the twenty-three volume Siyar alam al-nubala‟. later in life.“I used to earn five hundred silver coins a month and I spent them all seeking sacred knowledge. when oppressed by rulers of Tarim. Hadramawt) “Be humble for humility is the attribute of believers. AH 1132. He is said to have prayed two rak‟as for guidance before writing any hadith in the Sahih. He was blinded by chicken pox in his childhood. Muhammad b. AH 505. which is known for its accurate descriptions of scholars. and the following: Aqidat al-tawhid. AH 748. He then left his teaching position for a life of asceticism. Al-Bukhari was an orphan.” Imam al-Bukhari (Muhammad b. Tabsirat al-waliy. Many believe his work is second in importance only to the Qur‟an. he wrote many other books. Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali(d. but a light which God casts into the heart. Muhammad) was a Sufi and author of many books. and a work on literature: al-Adab al-mufrad. he moved to al-Hawi. AH 795. and a thirty-six volume history. Damascus) “(Knowledge is) not the profusion of narration. compiler of the famed Sahih. Da„wat al-tamma wa tadhkirah al-ammah. Beware of pride for God does not like the proud. Abu „Abd Allah) is the undisputed hadith master. nor bring you into obedience. He wrote Tahafut al-falasifah as a refutation of metaphysics. Its condition is followership and the flight away from egotism and innovation. Imam Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi(d. Tarikh alIslam al-kabir. Al-Ghazzali was a Shafi„i jurist and perhaps the Islamic world‟s most famous Sufi author. Those who humble themselves are raised up by God. „Abd al-Karim al-Shajjar. Ahmad. Know that knowledge today will not distance you from sin. nor distance you from the fire of Hell tomorrow. popular until today for his very readable and clear works on Islam. Damascus) . Muhammad b. Imam al-Dhahabi went blind seven years before his death.” Imam al-Haddad („Abd Allah b. an expert in Qur‟anic recitation.‟” Imam al-Ghazzali (Muhammad b. and Masa‟ilat al-sufiyah. Imam ‘Abd Allah b. by the time of his death he had memorized hundreds of thousands of hadith and traveled throughout the Islamic world in his efforts to verify chains of hadith transmission. Tus) “Knowledge without action is insanity. you will say on the Last Day: „Return us to our previous life. Alawi al-Haddad(d. and considered by Muslims to be the most authentic source for prophetic traditions.

He wrote al-Fath al-Rabbani. and Sufism. Ahmad) was a hadith scholar and jurist. The true lover (of God) has a voice rooted in his subconscious. AH 709. who buttresses his physical strength with righteous deeds. AH 478. that everyone is lost except one who buttresses his intellectual strength with faith. Musa b. his strivings will only bring about more assiduousness. a dictionary of uncommon terms in the Qur‟an. Muhammad b. and who buttresses others by counseling them with truth and patience. Ayyub) was one of the most famous students of Ibn Taymiyah. He was the author of al-Hikam al-„Ata‟iyah. Isfahan) “O One striving assiduously to hide his whims! Verily. Cairo) “Nothing you seek relying on your Lord will ever be difficult. AH 502. he was known for his sharp intellect and quick mind. Damascus) “(In Sura al-„Asr). He adhered to the Maliki school with Shafi„i leanings. When it speaks his hidden whims will be known.” Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah (Muhammad b. he wrote Zad al-ma„ad while traveling on pilgrimage. AH 751. He also wrote on many aspects of earthly life. Imam al-Juwayni(d. Nishapur) . a significant work in the Shadhiliyah order. Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah(d. Imam Raghib al-Isfahani(d. God swears. it is not only a matter of utterance by the tongue. Muhammad b. Fuyudat al-Rabbani. Abu Bakr b. AH 561. „Abd al-Karim) was a Sufi imam and second in succession to al-Shadhili. making them fifty hadith and calling it Jami‟ „ulum wa al-hikam. His work „Ilam almuwaqqi'in is a book on the foundations of jurisprudence. he was imprisoned with his shaykh in the citadel of Damascus. such as love. and nothing you seek relying on yourself will ever be easy. He also wrote important works on jurisprudence and an influential book on Hanbali methodology. He wrote a commentary on Imam Nawawi‟s al-Arba‟in. „Abd Allah.” Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali („Abd al-Rahman b. Baghdad) “When the thankfulness of the servant is genuine. and taught at al-Azhar. jurisprudence.” Imam al-Isfahani (Abu al-Qasim al-Husayn b. and the two of them are incomplete without patience. Truth is faith and righteous deeds. but also the heart's acknowledgment of the Lord's bestowal of gracious favor. and al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq. Imam ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani(d. Abu Muhammad) was one of the great mystics of Islam and the founder of the Qadiri sufi order. He is the author of many works on theology. glorified is He. al-Mufaddal) was the author of al-Mufradat fi gharib al-Qur‟an. Imam Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah al-Iskandari(d. Futuh alghayb.” Imam Ibn „Ata‟ Allah al-Iskandari (Ahmad b.” Imam „Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani („Abd al-Qadir b.“The scholars occupy the position of the prophets in a noble station between God and humanity. and he authored a comprehensive work on the effects of Satan on human affairs (Ighathat al-lafhan).

The kingdom is a city. extensive commentaries. Egypt) “I have been looking into al-Shafi‟i‟s Risala for fifty years. Imam al-Nawawi(d. even if it is less. al-Jami‟ li-ahkam al-Qur‟an. to be happy with what Allah gave you.” Imam al-Muzni (Ismail b. Imam al-Qurtubi(d. AH 264. his complete commentary on Muslim‟s Sahih is considered to be among the best in its class. AH 676. and a Shafi„i scholar in his own right. The state is the sultan whose guardian is the Law. whose gardener is the state. to keep away from people and from asking them. theology or creed (aqidah). a work on the principles of Islamic jurisprudence. Abu „Abd Allah al-Ansari) was a scholar of hadith. a summary of the school‟s rulings. to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet by actions and speech. brought into being by the army. They are in no doubt of His punishment no matter what the sin is. among which is al-Irshad and al-Shamil.” Imam al-Nawawi (Yahya b. AH 671. Imam al-Muzni(d. and to always refer your matters to Allah. Imam al-Ghazzali was among his most famous students. and author of the extensive Qur‟anic commentary.” Imam al-Qurtubi (Muhammad b. Justice is the axis of the prosperity of the world. Abu Bakr. Ahmad b.. Abu Ibrahim) was a student of Imam Shafi„i. Sharaf Abu Zakariyah Muhyi al-Din) was an imam of the later Shafi„i school. the proof) and al-Waraqat (lit. and many works on theology. which is protected by the kingdom. the Nizamiyah school in Nishapur was built for him by Nizam al-Mulk. or Forty [hadiths] and many other works. He was known for his brave political stance and successfully petitioned the Mamluk sultan Rukn al-Din Baybars on behalf of Damascene residents who sought relief from heavy tax burdens during a drought that lasted many years.. Yahya b. Ismail. He wrote al-Burhan (lit. The army is made secure by wealth. Nawa) “The specifications of the Way of the Sufis are five: to keep the Presence of Allah in your heart in public and in private. The subjects are made servants by justice. He wrote but did not complete his commentary on Sahih alBukhari. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi(d. the author of Riyad al-salihin and Minhaj al-talibin.“I do not eat or sleep out of habit. paper sheets. He authored al-Arba‟in.” Imam al-Juwayni was a Shafi„i jurist and theologian. Herat) “The world is a garden.” . whatever the time. The Law is a policy. He also wrote on Arabic grammar and the science of Qur‟anic recitation. a popular manual set to verse that many memorized). Egypt) “The scholars are those who know the power of Allah. He was considered a key promoter of al-Shafi„i‟s school and wrote al-Mukhtasar. and only if I need to eat. but only if sleep overcomes me whether by night or by day. AH 606. Wealth is gathered from the subjects. and I do not recall a single time I looked at it without learning some new benefit.

” Imam Taj al-Din al-Subki („Abd al-Wahhab b. and leaving them—are an obligation on every Muslim. Imam al-Sakhawi(d. Cairo) “Whoever records a biography of a believer. then alphabetically. and if they witness good in people that would move eyes to tears. it is as though he has brought him or her back to life. philosophy. or to expose the flaws in his argument. al-Husayn.” . Idris b. arrogance and pride. „Abd al-Kafi. He was Ibn Hajar al-„Asqalani‟s neighbor and student. AH 902. If it be that the truth is on my side. theology. described by scholars as everything but Qur‟anic commentary. endeavor to attach their hearts to it. the original work on usul al-fiqh (Islamic jurisprudential principles). and if the truth be on his side. He was a luminary and a scholar‟s scholar. if they see something questionable endeavor to hide it. Damascus. may he follow me. Al-Subki was from a long line of scholars. because he included philosophy. al-Abbas. and more. Muhammad) was a Shafi„i jurist known for his biographies and histories. medicine. ultimately he returned to Cairo where he taught hadith. Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti(d. and thus vanquish him. considered a main text of the discipline. including al-„Alan bi-al-tawbikh li man thamma ahl al-tarikh.‟” Imam al-Shafi„i (Muhammad b. AH 204. Hasan b. a contemporary of Ibn Taymiyah with whom he had many public debates. he traveled throughout the Islamic world. Abu „Abd Allah) was an encyclopedist. and a Qur‟an exegesis (Mufatih al-ghayb). Imam Taj al-Din al-Subki(d. Medina. Cairo) “I am among those individuals who if they hear something virtuous endeavor to spread it. then moved to Egypt and founded the later Shafi„i school. Abu „Abd Allah al-Qurayshi al-Makki) studied with Imam Malik and Abu Hanifah‟s students in Baghdad. a comprehensive biography of Shafi„i scholars arranged chronologically. which sometimes incited crowds and mobs against him.” Imam al-Sakhawi (Muhammad b. and throughout Syria. He traveled far and wide throughout the Muslim world in search of knowledge and spent time with Bedouins in order to learn classical Arabic before it was corrupted and changed by the growing Muslim world. Imam al-Shafi’i(d. grammar. a work on historiography. Cairo) “Never do I debate a man with a desire to hear him err in his speech. Abi Nasr) was a Shafi„i jurist and the author of Tabaqat al-Shafi„iyah al-kubra. „Ali b.Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (Muhammad b. Whenever I face an opponent in debate I silently supplicate. he wrote on theology. AH 711. his father was Taqi al-Din al-Subki. Cairo) “Pursuit of the science of the hearts—knowledge of its diseases such as jealousy. AH 911. He wrote a great work (al-Mahsul) on the principles of Islamic jurisprudence. He was known for his many public debates. help him so that truth may manifest itself in his heart and on his tongue. Umar b. „Abd al-Rahman b. „O Lord. He authored al-Umm and al-Risalah. rhetoric. to Mecca. may I follow him.

AH 321. Ashir b. Be happy with what He sent. How can such a person find any enjoyment in his recitation?” Imam al-Tabari (Muhammad b. veiling their faults. and securing what will benefit them. Muhammad b. AH 1163. Muhammad b.” . Salama. Imran and followed the Hanafi school. He grew up an orphan in Cairo. He also wrote on hadith. giving to the needy. Be abstinent and to Him repent. Sila) “Depend on God. He founded his own school of fiqh (al-Jaririyah) and wrote a commentary on the Qur‟an. then with Ahmad b. Cairo) “Only a fanatic follows another blindly!” Imam al-Tahawi (Ahmad b. Love God. a multi-volume history. Baghdad) “I am amazed by someone who recites the Qur‟an and does not know its explanation. it is unique in Muslim literature. al-Itqan fi „ulum al-Qur‟an. which he completely revised upon finding more source material. Qadi Ayyad(d. Imam Ahmad Ibn Ashir(d. a biography of Ahmad b. Abu Ja‟far) was a Hanafi jurist and a hadith scholar who studied at al-Azhar. historian. „Umar b. Al-Suyuti wrote perhaps the most comprehensive manual on Qur‟anic sciences. a biography of the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ . „Abd al-Rahman al-Hafi al-Silawi) wrote a book titled al-Fahrasta. Jalal al-Din) was a polymath: a hadith master. he gave up successful work teaching and committed himself to writing books. AH 544. He studied with al-Muzni and was a Shafi‟i jurist. Marrakesh) “Advice for the sake of the common Muslims is to guide them to their best interests. Muhammad. Imam Ahmad b. al-Aqidah al-Tahawiyah.Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti („Abd al-Rahman b. Abu Ja‟far) is most known as a historian. Baghdad) “The best of my days is when I awaken and find my cupboards bare. Imam Abu Ja’far al-Tabari(d. a concise summary of the essentials of the Islamic creed. He is one of the famed Jalals of the Tafsir al-jalalayn. He wrote a commentary on the Qur‟an and a work on hadith work entitlied Mushkil al-athar. AH 314. biographies of famous scholars of his time. Abu Bakr b. His autobiography is Tahadath bi na‟mat Allah. Jarir. Hanbal(d. at the age of forty. and completed over five hundred books in various disciplines. and Qur‟an scholar. and the author of al-Shifa‟. and wrote Tuhfat al-za‟ir. AH 241. For that is a day my reliance on Allah is complete. repelling what will harm them. Imam Abu Jaf’ar al-Tahawi(d. His works on the hadith sciences continue to be studied by scholars today. as well as Tarikh al-rusul wa muluk. help them in the affair of their religion. He is known for his work. commonly known as Tafsir al-Tabari. Jami‟ albayan. reminding those of them who forget. Ashir al-Andalusi who died in 764 or 765. and this world by word and action.” Qadi Ayyad was a Maliki scholar of hadith and Arabic. enlightening the ignorant.” Imam Ibn Ashir (Ahmad b. and exegete. jurisprudent. including works on al-Muwtta‟ and a highly regarded commentary on Sahih Muslim.

in the view of some. Ibn Khaldun‟s history. He survived the trials (al-mihna) over the createdness of the Qur‟an. other people have eyes too. he wrote the famous book of hadith. Hanbal. „I do not know. Born in Basra to a destitute family. not hope or fear. which emphasizes that an ascetic‟s motivation in worship and the service of God should be love. Egypt. Cairo) “Prestige is an accident that affects human beings.'' Rabi‟ah al-„Adawiyyah is. the sinner. Medina) “The shield of the scholar is. a doctrine advocated by the Mut„azili. Now Rabi‟ah. became an ascetic under the tutelage of Hasan al-Basri.Ibn Ahmad b. Anas(d.‟ so if he neglects it. Muhammad b. and later introduced her own spiritual insights to the Sufi tradition. there he wrote his most famous work.” Qadi Ibn Khaldun („Abd al-Rahman b. stands before You. which is known for taking into consideration the practice of the people of Medina. Imam Ahmad Zarruq(d. during his long and eventful life. the first woman Sufi. his statement is open to attack. also ambassador (from Damascus) to Tamerlane. He memorized one million hadith. AH 179. Hanbal (Ahmad b. she is the source of the concept of Divine Love (mahabbah). Imam Malik b. thirty thousand of which were recorded in his famous work. It comes into being and decays inevitably. No human being exists who possesses an unbroken pedigree of nobility from Adam down to himself. al-Musnad. the most authentic chain to be found in Bukhari and Muslim. AH 808. al-Muqaddimah. Perhaps You will gaze upon her with a blessed gaze that will prevent her from sleeping during the time of Your service. In Egypt he was appointed a Maliki judge (and dismissed and reappointed many times). Malik) was a jurist and founder of the school of Islamic law that bears his name. Rabi’ah al-‘Adawiyyah(d. his involvement in many (failed) usurpations led to his retirement from politics. He is also considered part of the golden chain of narration. Takrin) “Watch your eye. should it ever reveal to you the faults of others. but in the course of the journey lost his family and all his property in a shipwreck off the coast of Alexandria. Imam al-Shafi„i was one of his most well known students.” Imam Malik (Malik b. Kitab al-„ibar. Muhammad) originally trained as a government employee and served under various rulers. Muhammad b. al-Muwatta‟. Qadi Ibn Khaldun(d.‟” . who had persuaded the Abbasid caliph to adopt the position and enforce adherence to it. say to it: „O my eye. This book is considered the first work on sociology and historiography. Abu „Abd Allah al-Shaybani) was a scholar of hadith who traveled for sixteen years throughout the Islamic world in an effort to gather hadith. He emigrated to Cairo. is one of the first detailed Berber histories. a science that he invented. before beginning her night prayers: ''The eyes have fallen asleep and the heedless are engulfed in their heedlessness. Anas b. she eventually accepted the mystic path. He was. In particular. Jerusalem) Rabi'ah would say. AH 185. Muhammad b. AH 899.

He later became one of the most prominent and accomplished legal. and is considered by some to be a renewer of his time (mujaddid). He was also the first to be given the honorific title “Regulator of the Scholars and Saints” (muhtasib al-„ulama‟ wa al-awliya‟). His grandmother. and spiritual scholars in Islamic history.Imam Ahmad Zarruq (Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn „Isa) was a scholar from Fes. raised him and was his first teacher. Morocco. theoretical. . an accomplished jurist. He was orphaned of both his mother and father within the first seven days of his birth.

when we moved to Plato‘s Republic. The students. We started with a general survey of philosophical thought that focused on Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas‘ philosophies as presented in An introduction to Philosophy by Jacques Maritain. In an effort to encourage the students to engage with the philosophers and work on their critical thinking. however. were responsible for beginning the dialogue on a specific book of the Republic. We will be finishing up the Republic this week and moving on to study Islamic Philosophy. . We will begin with a survey using An Brief Introduction to Islamic Philosophy by Oliver Leaman. The students will again be asked to lead our discussion of these texts and I am looking forward to the discussions and observations they will make. one Greek and two Islamic philosophers. The students were responsible for providing a brief outline of the book and for beginning its analysis and discussion. Some of the students were having difficulty understanding the concepts of ―accidents‖ when all of a sudden a real conversation started with various students trying to explain the concepts with different examples. I gave the students the lead in the discussion. March 12. The students were very excited about being able to study philosophy and some asked for the book list in advance so they could begin looking at the material. We will then move to our primary texts Ibn Tufayl‘s Hayy Ibn Yaqzan and Averooë‘s Decisive Treatise & Epistle Dedicatory. It uses both survey books which are designed to give an overview of philosophy and three primary sources. After that class participation greatly improved as the students realized they had made a valid contribution and it was fun.The Philosophy Class by Dr. they saw a resemblance to the janissaries who were Baltic Christians who taken as slaves in the Ottoman Empire and trained to be the body guards for the sultan and as a standing army. working in pairs so that they could bounce ideas off of each other. The students have been making lots of observations about the Republic. our first primary source. At first the students were reluctant to give their comments in class. We then looked at Aristotle‘s Metaphysics so the students could compare the survey with the actual text. we had a real breakthrough when we began discussion the precepts of ontology (the study of being) and Aristotle‘s concept of ―substance‖ vs ―accidents‖. Some of the students have commented on how much more they got out of theRepublic though their preparation and it really shows in their presentations and discussions. 2013 at 9:34am The Philosophy class is focused on class participation and discussion of Philosophical concepts and texts (although there are exams). Cindy Ausec by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Tuesday. such as when we were discussing the ―guardians‖.

to analyze the beliefs of other groups. and classification of terms. The last homework I assigned was for students to read Book I of the Republic. The process we use to study these concepts is simple: I introduce the topics in class. 2012 at 2:43pm The stated mission of Zaytuna College is ―to educate and prepare morally committed professional. I am also hoping to give them (with the help of other faculty members) a list of the Arabic equivalents for the terms we are using and a general introduction to the connections between Aristotelian and Islamic logic. the students have been interested and enthusiastic and have shown considerable proficiency in understanding some challenging concepts. and to partake in an exchange of ideas with academic and policy-making organizations. who are grounded in the Islamic scholarly tradition and conversant with the cultural currents and critical ideas shaping modern society. arguments. propositions. and Aristotelian Principles. The course ―Introduction to Logic‖ provides a comprehensive overview of classical Aristotelian logic. Each student picked a fallacy to work on and then explained that fallacy to the class through presentations. thinking clearly and logically becomes a habit. That is why the study of formal logic is foundational to any liberal arts curriculum. Platonic Questions.Introduction to Logic with Dr. syllogisms. and spiritual leaders. intellectual.‖ Some of the topics to be covered through the rest of the semester include propositions. October 12.‖ We then delved into the rules of definition and the various kinds of definitions. and arguments. I also bring in additional material from other logic text-books and from Sister Miriam Joseph‘s text on the Trivium. enthymemes. Students practiced creating definitions for every-day objects such as ―chair‖ and ―raincoat‖ and for more abstract concepts such as ―justice‖ and ―religion. Once trained thus. terms. Persons trained so will be better able to understand their own beliefs. The next major unit was on material fallacies. and analogies. in which Plato describes Socrates exploring the definition of ―Justice.‖ One of the most important prerequisites for leadership is a firm grasp of thinking skills. They will need precisely those skills that are practiced in a course on logic. The text-book—Socratic Logic by Peter Kreeft – is sub-titled ―A logic text using Socratic Method. As leaders of the community. hold on to the truth. We started the class with a study of basic terms: the three acts of the mind. induction and deduction. My goal is to cover enough of the text for the students to get a real understanding of the principles of classical logic. . and defend it throughout their lives. So far.‖ This system of logic is most appropriate for Zaytuna students. causal arguments. Both units were followed by brief quizzes. Shirin Maskatia by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. Zaytuna students will be called upon to explain their own beliefs. the students read the chapters at home and hone their understanding of the concepts through class discussion and practice exercises. The last chapter we studied was on definitions. It trains persons to constantly examine their own thinking and that of others and to evaluate it for accuracy and validity. both because it is practical and because it is the system that played an important role in the development of Islamic philosophical ideas.

―It's only been a month. but by the wide variety of subjects we are becoming familiarized with. there is merely the limited imagination. when it was still September. Without belittling any of those settings.‖ as if I could use an entire extra month to just digest and memorize what was feasible from it. I can say. we have covered a lot – not just by the rolling page count of the new collection of books we all find ourselves organizing and reorganizing in our growing family of various-sized shelves. Implementing it and eventually embodying it is another task entirely. Zaytuna College has provided me an opportunity that I have not had before to learn from a perspective I would remain unable to envision had I not been here. that comprehension is secondary. I have had things explained to me with a clarity I did not believe even existed. In fact. praise be . so I may not be in the best position to conduct a comparative study between Zaytuna College and other educational institutions. majoring from two different departments after having changed my major twice previously. I have been brought to the shores of on an ocean whose depth is unknown. I couldn't help but think to myself. yet we‘ve covered so much material already. But in the same breath. or that we Zaytuna students are intellectually or motivationally incapable. with all my heart. and by the particular insights that God has blessed us to receive at their hands. by the depths that we have had the light of knowledge shone upon. and surely not their teachers nor mentors – may God bless and reward them all. they have been foundational in ways I can‘t express and beneficial to a degree I am unable to quantify – Zaytuna has been truly something unique. by the degree of comprehension our professors are providing us. that quantity trumps quality. October 16. worked in the Islamic non-profit sector. or that we are not given the opportunity within the time constraints of being a student to reflect upon what we‘ve learned as minimally the first step toward practicing it. This isn't meant to sound like a treatise on the virtues of studying at the feet of Zaytuna's scholars – although certainly I could write an extensive one that may knock on the doors of exaggerated embellishment with not a concern for the reader's opinion or perspective as to the degree of my objectivity – but it is to say. spent time in other schools in three different countries in the Muslim world. Some things in life have to be experienced. To make use of a metaphor. This isn‘t to say that we cover material so fast there‘s no opportunity to understand it. as a matter of reference and not a point of gloating. helped to assemble a vessel alongside some of the most astute shipbuilders. 2012 at 2:45pm Two weeks ago. received my masters. I wasn‘t brought up going to madrasah as a child nor did I attend an Ivy League university or its training grounds. that the study of religion is somehow divorced from its practice. I have witnessed things I could not have imagined had I not seen them.Bismillah by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Tuesday. the institutes. and attended many classes in different masajid. Nor is it to say that we don‘t morally strive to embody the school‘s teachings. whether by outsiders or by our very selves. that I‘ve been to college before. And in that sense. nothing could be further from the truth. I have experienced here what I never have elsewhere. Despite any shortcomings that have been attributed to it. and for everything else. and been given the instruments of navigation by veteran compasssmiths. I say that without hesitation as to its truth but with reservation as to my ability to express its reality in mere words.

you will find yourself in a state of regret. the second year felt like school might. can be just as (and sometimes even more) effective. There is a story that has been often narrated about a group of people traveling at night who came upon some rocks. motivational. others did not. it‘ll be half way over. to me. ―Had we only picked up more rocks!‖ Such is time. It was said to them that whoever picked up the rocks would have regret and whoever did not would have regret. And although we can use positive emotions as motivation – a hope for great reward. albeit for a different reason with a totally different outlook). Those who had not picked up any rocks said to themselves. And as for the bounty of your Lord.. A confusing dilemma for the people – some chose to pick up some of the rocks and take them with them. It wasn‘t until this year that it all began to sink in. I find myself still in school. all by Divine facilitation. such are our lives. In the morning when they reached home they found that those rocks had turned into diamonds. the opportunities we are presented with. proclaim it 93:11 . Fear of regret. ―Had we only picked up some rocks!‖ while those who did pick up some of the rocks said to themselves. the desire to accomplish some sort of goal that we have set for ourselves. And to be honest. and what an opportunity this is! Eventually all things come to pass. and by the next time I check. And if somehow I am wrong in saying that. to everyone striving to learn something new or accomplish something worthwhile. to the best of our ability. if you have not seized them with the utmost of your effort.to God for this blessing. I close with a brief reminder to myself. my fellow students from every walk of life. as well as the individual. and these we should all keep in mind as we struggle from day to day – sometimes a ―negative‖ emotion. it‘s very refreshing because it encourages me to make the best of my time and my opportunities. by citing two hadith from our beloved Prophet. it behooves us to take advantage of the time we have been given. and the blessings bestowed upon us. It simply depends on the situation. last forever. and with one mid-term down and two on the way it‘s starting to hit me: ―This semester will be over before I know it!‖ It‘s already year three.And so now it's almost the middle of October. while a little frightening.. salla Allahu ‗alayhi wa sallam: . if we may call it that. we all know that sinking feeling in our hearts. and such will be the Day of Judgment.. for better or worse (at that point I had been in school for more than fourteen straight years. and then the third year (along with reality) hits – this is going to be over before I know it. the satisfaction that our time has paid off. these are all real.and ironically ten years later. and when they do. then let it be Him who takes me to task for praising Him for what He bestows. well. The first time I went through college I had a similar experience: the first year of school was fresh and exciting. of not living up to a God-given potential and of not taking advantage of all of God‘s blessings in order to strive in His cause is. and to anyone struggling to find that extra ounce of motivation.. Thus.

your richness before you become poor. and your life before your death.‖ -Bukhari ―Take advantage of five matters before five other matters: your youth before you become old. your health before you fall sick. your free time before you become busy.‖ -Ahmed .―There are two blessings which many people lose: health and free time.

the various types of financial partnerships. and much more. types of exchanges. debts. and business ethics. spends. The semester has been divided into two parts: the first half is meant to acquaint students with fundamental teachings and principles concerning contracts. investments. monopolies. bankruptcy. business law. An Introduction to Islamic Finance. In our reading of this work. impermissible forms of transactions. we are studying Economic Teachings of Prophet Muhammad: A Select Anthology of Hadith Literature on Economics compiled by Muhammad Akram Khan. Islam impacts both the religious and secular affairs of the Muslim. During the first half of this semester.Islamic Business Law with Ustadh Abdullah bin Hamid Ali by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. The goal of the use of this work is to offer students a broad overview of the kinds of hadith literature that exists on the subject of sales. 2012 at 4:29pm On August 28. lease-purchase. stocks & bonds. the rules of buying and selling. The Basics of Islamic Business Law & Ethics. sales. We also spoke about the agrarian . This work is supplemented by my own original unpublished primer entitled. During the second half of the semester. types of exchanges. how it differs from currency. the question in economics concerning scarcity. the rules of buying and selling. mortgages. 2012. One will learn the basic components of a business transaction and contracts. property rights and the laws of acquisition. and ethics. we will be reading from Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani‘s. Students will be acquainted with a basic overview of developments in Islamic finance. the various types of Islamic corporations. That includes how a person acquires. and transacts wealth. The primer acquaints readers with the basic components of a business transaction. So a Muslim is expected to have knowledge of what is lawful and unlawful with regard to his/her everyday financial dealings. November 16. the second half of the semester will bring students into the modern age to study some of the newer forms of business practices with an aim of discerning their legality and/or to understand the reasons that contemporary Muslim jurists differ about their illicitness. and the distinctions between economics. refunds. property exchange. We began the semester with discussions about the nature of wealth. and scriptural teachings on illicit forms of property exchange. the impermissible forms of transactions. Students have started to learn more about how Islam directly impacts and directs every aspect of human life. the Sunna. and the findings of Muslim scholars. the Class of 2014 commenced its study of ―Islamic Business Law‖ at Zaytuna College. The class meets every Tuesday and Thursday from 11:30 am to 12:45 pm. and banking. The aim of this course is to acquaint students with the Islamic teachings on business transactions. financing. bank accounts. warranties. business transactions. which provides the framework for most of our discussions. earns. and much more. insurance. All topics will be dealt with based on the guidance of the Qur‘an. and transactions. students will have a look at how contemporary jurists are navigating the challenging terrain of economic novelty and innovation and how they have accommodated these new forms of exchange with inspiration from the early Islamic principles of commerce.

the difference between the ownership of the corpus or usufruct of an item. like the sale and use of dogs. We discussed the different laws governing movable and immovable property. When a practice erodes the trust between the members of society or between corporate society and consumers. Islam has as one of its stated goals the protection of wealth. silk. satisfaction. and its laws against charging interest on loans. fraud. and trust between members of society with the aim of obliterating or at least minimalizing exploitation. the practices are deemed to be unethical even if by ruse of legal deliberation it is declared to be licit by certain jurists. and the transition into universal currency. Not everything that is lawful is deemed to be ethical according to Islam‘s moral teachings. They recently submitted their first reflective summary for the semester. injustice. sundry usufruct agreements. And I‘m proud to be given the opportunity to help them improve their understanding of the issues outlined therein. financial risk. . and wrong. and the discussion of selected legal particulars. We discovered that the Islamic teachings on business weigh heavily on the importance of maintaining mutual consent. Students have been expected to keep up with the readings and be actively involved with in-class discussions. and visual art. and other exploitative financial arrangements magnify the importance of that goal. the barter system.origins of human interconnectivity. My review of those reflections informs my belief that they ar e thoroughly enjoying this course.

factory workers. One day one of my students made the observation that the pictures of the presidents all looked alike until you get to Clinton. which really facilitates discussion and questions. which focuses on American History from the point of view of the lower and underrepresented classes. in class I show a lot of pictures of historical figures. Our main text book is Howard Zinn‘s A Peoples History of the United States. colonization and the American Revolution. Constitution and we were looking at the Federalist Papers which were written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. the owners of Quakers Oats Company selected the name as they believed Quakers were a symbol of honesty and good value. we will be using Jerald F.S. Finally. the poor and immigrant laborers. etc. I was very curious as to what the student meant by their statement (was it the style of the portrait the pose. For our study of the U. The student could not quite explain and so one of the other students posed the possibility that Clinton as the first President that they could remember and that is why they look different. We researched the question and found that while not owned by Quakers. such as women. the development of the English colonies and the revolts that led to the creation of the United States. to see Islam‘s contribution to American History. Dirks Muslims in American History a Forgotten Legacy.) and I asked them to clarify. Your Annotated Guide to the Constitution. Cindy Ausec by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. One of the wonderful things about teaching at Zaytuna is the small classroom size. S. During discussion I often bring in primary sources for us to compare. Currently we are looking at the United States constitution and the Amendments which make up the Bill of Rights. Constitution we are using Linda R. I was really pleased that they wanted the counter argument. . We also focused on the Enlightenment philosophies and the political developments in Europe which contributed to the American values of freedom and the natural right to rebel against an unjust government. Monk‘s The Words We Live By. Recently we were discussing the U. A student asked me if I had an Anti-Federalist view. The student‘s questions and observations really demonstrate that they are engages with the material. 2012 at 5:06pm The American History course is designed as an introduction to United States history from the arrival of the Europeans until the present. We encourage free and open discussion for example. Monk explains the Constitution line by line. When we were discussing the colonization of Pennsylvania by the Quakers. American Indians. The class then moves on to a discussion of the reading material and the importance of the events to our history. and in fact had one that I could quickly make copies of and we continued the discussion. providing historic examples to demonstrate how its Articles and Amendments affect American History. slaves. one of the students asked if the Quaker Oat Company was owned by Quakers. Each class I present a brief lecture on the basic historical framework of the period we are studying and show short film clips that augment the period. November 30.American History with Dr. Some of the topics we have covered thus far are the periods of exploration. We have looked at some of the early struggles between European whites and Native Americans.

they will study Aristotle‘s theory of tragedy in the Poetics and see if the tragedies they read fit Aristotle‘s definition. for instance. Only then will they be truly ―engaging the great works. Since these works are challenging. It will succeed in its goals only if it can inspire students to continue to make the reading of ―great works‖ a regular activity in their lives. 2012 at 10:56am Engaging the Great Books is a course designed to introduce students to intellectual excellence through a reading of "great books" -.‖ Although reading the classics is an important goal. In addition. on his method of questioning.‖ Students can read them again and again and discover ideas that are as relevant to us as they were to contemporary audiences. but I am also very aware of my limitations. The Apology and theCrito contain Plato‘s account of the trial and death of Socrates – one of the most significant moments in Western literature and philosophy. The students have just submitted their first formal paper on Plato‘s writings.Engaging the Great Books with Dr. Oedipus‘ situation. The class is currently engaged in a study of two major tragedies – Oedipus Rex by Sophocles and Hamlet by Shakespeare. participate in stimulating discussions. and create a synthesis of the ideas they encounter with their own thoughts and interpretations We started the semester reading and discussing two works by Plato. The final unit of the course will consist of a selection of poems ranging from preShakespearean lyrics to Eliot and Yeats. and it is wonderful to see the students‘ faces light up in amazement as they read selected sections in class. raises the troubling question of whether man is a victim of fate or the maker of his own destiny.While some of the instruction in . students will learn to grapple with important ideas. The students had animated discussions on the effectiveness of Socrates‘ defense. since they are concerned with timeless issues of the human condition. This class can only function as an introduction to great works. After the tragedies. Sophocles‘ lines –even in translation – are majestic and powerful. These will be followed by George Orwell‘s Nineteen Eighty-Four. This conflict between ―blind‖ faith and scientific reasoning is reflected in the play. Shirin Maskatia by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. December 7. A semester is a very short period of time. I find it very exciting to share the literature I love with my students. we plan to read the Communist Manifesto and an interesting companion piece – Socrates meets Marx—by Peter Kreeft. this class also aims at teaching a clear and accurate style of writing. These plays are truly ―classics. and on his personality as it emerges from Plato‘s writings. students will develop the skills and acquire the knowledge required to understand them. Sophocles wrote at a time when science was emerging in Greece and the infallibility of the oracles was being questioned.works of literature that represent the highest achievements of the human mind. These readings also provided an interesting background for the concepts the students are studying in their logic class. .

. I hope to achieve more with regular student-teacher conferences in which students get feedback on their papers.writing can be done in class.

It was in this era that Hajjah Durriah al-Aytah took on the task of studying the Sacred Sciences with hopes to reach out to the women of Syria and help in bringing back to them the relevance of studying the rulings of Allah. The book gained so much acceptance in Syria that you can find it in just about every bookstore and on the bookshelves of students and non-students alike. It is further my honor to be teaching one of the most widely taught modern fiqh books. ‗azza wa jal. and alMajmu'. for her book has not only educated the women of Damascus in the science of fiqh. Perhaps the population most greatly affected by this phenomenon was the womenfolk whose already limited access to serious Islamic scholarship became virtually non-existent during this era.class is truly unique. The sources Hajjah Durriah used in compiling this book are the core. December 14. the instructor is female and the author and translator of the book we are studying are also female! Allah SWT clearly has a special plan in store for us this year! I must first mention that is really an honor to be the first female instructor of the Islamic Sciences of Zaytuna College. Sharh al-Tahrir .Shafii Class with Dr. Surely she was gifted with Tawfiq illahi. Shaykh Abdul-Karim ar-Rifa‘i. religiously obligatory knowledge. Rowdat at-Talibeen . licensing. may Allah SWT grant him mercy. Divine Success. You see. She felt that this would be the key to ensure that women studied their fard 'ayn. It just so happens that all the students are female. Divine Acceptance.Shafi‘i Fiqh. the women who held on to the once rich tradition of Islamic scholarship became few and far in between. in Damascus where I studied the Sacred Sciences. the foremost of those students being Hajjah Durriah who would then author the book we are currently studying. She dreamed of reaching the women of Shaam. educated or not. but reached the entire Syrian society and beyond. particularly by women. 2012 at 10:23am This year‘s Islamic Law. classical texts of the Shafi‘i madhhab that she studied with Shaykh ar-Rifai'i: al-Muqademah al-Hadramiya. to teach them? The answer lies in the fact that fiqh was a discipline largely neglected by people. One might ask why would she decide to write a modernized book on Shafi‘i fiqh when she had studied the classical texts and was granted ijaza. it is said because of its immense popularity. the book was written at a time when the seeking of classical Islamic knowledge had greatly dwindled and the wave of secularism had left its devastating marks on post-colonial Damascus. Rania Awwad by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. publishing companies have published the book even without permission! Yet when the author would be told of these many pirated copies. by writing a book that conveyed the classical rulings but in language that was accessible to the modern reader. It is said that Shaykh ar-Rifa‘i bucked the trend of his time and welcomed a group of women to study fiqh with him. She studied fiqh at the hands of the late eminent scholar. and implementing these rulings in their daily lives. Fiqh al-Ibadaton the Shafi‘i Madhhab. As the numbers of women entering college followed by graduate studies increased. In fact. Sharh al-Bayjouri. Mughni al-muhtaj. . she would just say that she had made du'aa that Allah accepts her work and hopes this a sign of qubool.

being a female author.‖ it‘s been great fun thus far to be able to discuss questions that pertain to women without any embarrassment or hesitation! I pray that the students taking this class and studying this book will carry on the tradition of its author and spread the Light of Islam on their life‘s journey.The book is set up like a college textbook and suits our Zaytuna College class perfectly. being that ―we are all female in the room. Hajjah Durriah has taken great measures to provide clear and in-depth discussion on rulings pertaining to female-related fiqh issues.at the hands of the Zaytuna College students. use us in the service of His Deen and protect the blessed lands of ash-Shaam and its people. elevate the status of our teachers. I pray that our religion‘s long lost trad ition of strong and serious female scholarship will once again resurface. May Allah SWT grant us all sincere intention. It is unique in that just about every ruling is accompanied by its supporting evidence from Hadith or Qur‘anproviding true aid to its student by giving them these references at their fingertips! Furthermore. In our Zaytuna College classroom. .something that is lacking in many works of fiqh.

2012. The objectives we wish to meet are the following:  To understand the foundation of sacred knowledge and the validity of following qualified scholarship. we‘ve covered how the schools of fiqh evolved. knowing each action. To acquire knowledge of the details related to ritual purification. sunnah. some of them were: Types of water. By then end of these sessions. while the class is taking place. among the many subjects covered. The questions and discussions are happening as the teaching is continuing. Some parts were very simple. 2012 at 9:32pm This class introduces the student to the foundation of Muslim law as the basis for a life of devotion and servitude to God as envisioned in the school of Imam Abu Hanifah. In Taharah. etc. The class will also introduce the student to reading legal manuals in the Arabic language. there are many stipulations misunderstood or unknown. wajib.) and the entire chapter on Purification (Taharah). etc. To understand how Muslim scholars classify human actions. authored by Hasan Shurunbulali. Abdullah ibn Mas‘ud.Islamic Law I: Introduction to Hanafi Fiqh with Imam Tahir Anwar by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Wednesday. . December 19. and others even came as a surprise! We also went through the biography of Imam Abu Hanifah and the great companion. the rulings (fardh. The students will learn about the reasons Muslim schools of law evolved and the nature and rationale of the legal schools. sunan. To strengthen one‘s knowledge of the Arabic language and augment one‘s ability to access the primary sources. waajibat. to the types of prayer. We began our first class with a fresh group of students on August 28. Students will learn the detailed rulings relating to purification (Taharah) and prayer (Salat) along with an examination of some of the textual proofs for those rulings. to fara‘idh. The primary text we are using is Nur al-Idah (The Light of Clarification). the students will look at prayer very differently. and translated by Wesam Charkawi. but they will be ready to teach the perfect prayer to others.      We enjoy the discussions we have in class. and understanding the reasoning behind the action. prayer and fasting along with their corresponding legal classifications in the Hanafi School. In the five classes we‘ve had so far. The chapter on Prayer (Salah) covers everything from the times of prayer. Not only will their prayer be perfected. To become acquainted with the nomenclature of Islamic jurisprudence. Ghusl. Wudu. Tayammum and many more. As simple as they are. and makes the experience a very rich one. To learn the major sources of law in the Hanafi School.

authored by Abdur Rahman ibn Yusuf. and translated by Faraz Khan. A text that the students are reading is Fiqh al Imam.We are also using Maraqi‘l-Sa‘adat (Ascent to Felicity). authored by Hasan Shurunbulali. .

Muhammad b. I chose to inaugurate the semester with the famous introductory text on juristic principles. since it incorporates applications of the jurisprudential principles to selected rulings found in the Four Schools of Sunnism. What made the matter so difficult was that—as students explained—they could not comprehend every word or phrase of mine. This work is a fitting end to the semester. The reason is that it was this semester — Spring 2013—that I would decide to adopt all-Arabic instruction for at least one of my courses at Zaytuna College. The fact that my students were juniors meant to me that it was now time to test how useful nearly 4 years of the study of Arabic alongside other courses would pay off. After my introductory session.Jurisprudential Principles By Ustadh Abdullah bin Hamid Ali by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Monday. 2013 at 10:43am The semester started and by the end of the first week we still had not met for the first lesson in Islamic Jurisprudential Principles. mentor of the Proof of Islam. Comparing one‘s self to other students is often the source of this sort of frustration. Abu Bakr Ibn al-‗Arabi. Tafsir al-Jalalayn. the complaints were over. coauthor of the superbly adapted Qur‘anic gloss. the worry of some students was very clear. not only for me as a teacher and for my students. Algeria. February 25. and also covers topics not mentioned in the former work. students spoke of noticing a marked improvement in their ability to follow. Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali (505 AH/1111 CE). I chose this work after Sharh al-Waraqat. Now they would have to study in Arabic. However. . Better yet. Upon completion of Al-Mahsul. The book is accompanied by the famous commentary of Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli (835 AH/1431 CE). our aim will then be to complete Miftah al-Wusul ila Bina‘ al-Furu‘ ‗ala al-Usul of the Maliki scholar of Tlmecen. because it adds more nuance and detail to the first book. written by the esteemed scholar Imam al-Haramayn ‗Abd Al-Malik al-Jawayni (478 AH/1085 CE). as the author and commentator were both Shafi‘is. Once we complete Sharh al-Waraqat. This was only natural since until now they had been studying Arabic. It would also be a big test for the College overall as a way of knowing just how effective our curriculum and pedagogy have been. look up words they don‘t know. it usually doesn‘t take long for students to note similar challenges faced by even heritage speakers. It would be a real test. and ask questions when they are confused. but in this case the excitement was all mine as a teacher. Ahmad al-Tilmasani. By the second class. The book offers a very good overview of Islamic jurisprudential principles and sources even though some issues apply specifically t o the Shafi‘i School of law. we will move onto Al-Mahsul fi Usul al-Fiqh of the Maliki judge from Seville. known as alWaraqat (The Papers). As a student I recall the excitement involved with coming back to school. I reassured them that with time comprehending would become much easier as long as they were taking the time to try to read the r equired texts outside of class.

not only because I am able to help students to access these works in their original language. Students will now know that a firm grounding in Islam can be achieved here in America.I must say that I am a proud teacher. . not only in the Muslim world. It is also because I firmly believe that by approaching the study of Islam in America in the way that Zaytuna College is will make it the envy of both undergraduate and graduate programs in the West.

This lesson. Fazlur Rahman‘s Major Themes of the Qur‘an. In this work. A close reading of classical texts is one of the hallmarks of a Zaytuna education. In addition to engaging in a close reading of Imam al-Ghazali's work. the entry in the Encyclopaedia of the Qur‘an. where one verse (3:190) combines the activities of the heart and mind (dhikr andfikr). for us. where students are grounded in Islamic scholarship but also able to think for themselves. is learned best from the Quran. students also read and discuss a more recent work that takes into account modern sensibilities. Each of these three approach the topic from a different perspective. enables students to become life-long learners through systematic exposure to research methods and resources. but students of rhetoric will understand that it is not intended to be literal. It is the beginning of a process of reflection that brings the texts to life and makes them relevant for today. with islands full of valuables and depths unfathomable. 23:08 The Quran class is magical. Von Denffer‘s ‗Ulum al-Qur‘an. The field of Quranic Studies is vast and difficult to cover comprehensively in a lifetime. We do our best to offer a real education. The Quran is the ultimate source of guidance for Muslims and the greatest miracle of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). students visited the UC Berkeley library to explore reference materials and journals like the Journal of Qur‘anic Studies.‖ which the course begins with.Introduction to Quranic Sciences with Dr. therefore. along with many other precious minerals. As I said: magical! . and gems. it is. Mahan Mirza by Zaytuna College (Articles) on lundi 1 octobre 2012. This lesson is best learned by reading Imam al-Ghazali's Jawahir al-Qur‘an. we collectively pondered why Surat Ya Sin is called "the heart of the Quran. substances. In their next assignment. or ―Jewels of the Quran. Now. one of the greatest scholars of Islam tells us that the Quran consists of pearls and rubies. These chapters are read in conversation with contemporary literature in Quranic studies through reference works in local libraries. and a chapter in The Blackwell Companion to the Qur‘an. only a beginning. students are comparing the approaches to the theme of ―God‖ in the Quran between Fazlur Rahman. too. Last week. This course." It is truly exciting to be able to study in an environment that prizes both devotion and critical thought. But instead of that being an end. This week. A class at Zaytuna is not about indoctrination. some of you may be offended by the association of Quran and magic. The allegory speaks of the Quran as a vast ocean that offers adventurous travelers the opportunity for an endless journey of discovery. let alone in a single semester. We also cover a book that summarizes the topics of the discipline of Quranic Studies. over and above the treatment of core content.

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not simple absorption of information. the vocabulary of foreign languages. though. Students also begin to specialize in whatever branch of knowledge attracts them.‖ is a time when the child begins to pay attention to cause and effect. A student is ready for the Logic Stage when the capacity for abstract thought begins to mature. And it follows a specific three-part pattern: the mind must be first supplied with facts and images. to the way facts fit together into a logical framework. This classical pattern is called the trivium. a child‘s mind begins to think more analytically. just as grammar is the foundation for language. Images. the brain can ―sit back‖ and relax. Classical education is language-focused. rather than through images (pictures. foreign travel. poems. college courses. education involves not self-expression and selfdiscovery. Rules of phonics and spelling. Astronomy (for example) isn‘t studied in isolation. written and spoken. apprenticeships. A classical education. A classical education is more than simply a pattern of learning.What is Classical Education? by Susan Wise Bauer Classical education depends on a three-part process of training the mind. Children at this age actually find memorization fun. students learn to think through arguments. the brain is forced to translate a symbol (words on the page) into a concept. The student of rhetoric applies the rules of logic learned in middle school to the foundational information learned in the early grades and expresses his conclusions in clear. rather than simply reading its story. faced with the written page. elegant language. Language requires the mind to work harder. It is language-focused. allow the mind to be passive. the facts of mathematics — the list goes on. which l eads into the . rules of grammar. they learn to express themselves. has two important aspects.‖ or the basic building blocks. learning is accomplished through words. and begins to apply logic to all academic subjects. the logic of reading involves the criticism and analysis of texts. and television). The final phase of a classical education. for example. The first years of schooling are called the ―grammar stage‖ — not because you spend four years doing English. it‘s learned along with the history of scientific discovery. for the second stage of education. This information makes up the ―grammar. to the relationships between different fields of knowledge relate. then given the logical tools for organization of facts. The early years of school are spent in absorbing facts. then. such as those on videos and television. forceful. During these years. and other forms of specialized training. the mind is required to roll its sleeves up and get back to work. the logic of history demands that the student find out why the War of 1812 was fought. and finally equipped to express conclusions. but because these are the years in which the building blocks for all other learning are laid. In front of a video screen. all knowledge is interrelated. the ―Logic Stage. To the classical mind. So during this period. includes paragraph construction and learning to support a thesis. The logic of writing. the high school student learns to write and speak with force and originality.‖ builds on the first two. but rather the learning of facts. In the high school years. descriptions of plants and animals and the human body. By fifth grade. At this point. In the elementary school years — what we commonly think of as grades one through four — the mind is ready to absorb information. the student begins algebra and the study of logic. videos. Why is this important? Language-learning and image-learning require very different habits of thought. the logic of science requires that the child learn the scientific method. In the middle grades. in reading. the ―Rhetoric Stage. Middle-school students are less interested in finding out facts than in asking ―Why?‖ The second phase of the classical education. the stories of history and literature. systematically laying the foundations for advanced study. But that isn‘t all. these are the years for art camps.

This is easier said than done. undaunted. science. or the desire to watch another half hour of TV) in order to reach a goal — mastery of a subject. the nature of heroism. Much modern education is so eclectic that the student has little opportunity to make connections between past events and the flood of current information. Four years later. classification and the human body (subjects known to the ancients). systematic — in direct contrast to the scattered. ―is that it dwells on one problem. She‘ll read Beowulf. science. medicine. and taking an even more complex approach in grades 912. art and music. recurring symbolisms. Middle Ages. The classical education is. when she‘s studying medieval and early Renaissance history. unorganized nature of so much secondary education. and finding the links between fields of study can be a mind-twisting task. Rigorous study develops virtue in the student. and literature — subjects that are too often fragmented and confusing.‖ . Dante. patterns of action. she starts with Swift (Gulliver‘s Travels) and ends with Dickens. early medieval writings. dance. and Modern Times.church‘s relationship to science and from there to the intricacies of medieval church history. creative writing) in depth. We suggest that the twelve years of education consist of three repetitions of the same four-year pattern: Ancients. The pattern widens and deepens as the student progresses in maturity and learning. and (for the older student) the classical texts of Plato. Chinese and Japanese fairy tales. and the ninth grader — faced with the Iliad itself — plunges right in. and man‘s understanding of the divine. The world is full of knowledge. Virgil. The classical education continually asks a student to work against his baser inclinations (laziness. she reads modern literature as she is studying modern history. a first grader listens to you read the story of the Iliad from one of the picture book versions available at any public library. earth science and basic astronomy (which flowered during the early Renaissance). and motifs. Systematic study also allows the student to join what Mortimer Adler calls the ―Great Conversation‖ — the ongoing conversation of great minds down through the ages. when the student works through these time periods using original sources (from Homer to Hitler) and also has the opportunity to pursue a particular interest (music. The child studies these four time periods at varying levels — simple for grades 1-4. the tales of the Iliad and Odyssey. literature. lines of reasoning. rigorous study has two purposes. Four more years go by. Herodutus. the development of the epic. For example. or Roger Lancelyn Greene‘s Tales of Troy. Shakespeare the following year. ―The beauty of the classical curriculum.‖ writes classical schoolmaster David Hicks. the fifth grader reads one of the popular middle-grade adaptations — Olivia Coolidge‘s The Trojan War. Renaissance and Reformation. Chaucer. finally. above all. even when it runs against his inclinations. The other subject areas of the curriculum are linked to history studies. one author. or one epoch long enough to allow even the youngest student a chance to exercise his mind in a scholarly way: to make connections and to trace developments. A classical education meets this challenge by taking history as its organizing outline — beginning with the ancients and progressing forward to the moderns in history. This pattern lends coherence to the study of history. plots. technology. The sciences are studied in a four-year pattern that roughly corresponds to the periods of scientific discovery: biology. biology. The virtuous man (or woman) can force himself to do what he knows to be right. and then basic physics and computer science (very modern subjects). This systematic. The reading of the Odyssey leads the student into the consideration of Greek history. chemistry (which came into its own during the early modern period). When the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are studied. Aristotle defined virtue as the ability to act in accordance to what one knows to be right. more difficult in grades 5-8 (when the student begins to read original sources). The student who is working on ancient history will read Greek and Roman mythology. Aristotle.

software. the growing mind begins to switch gears. the sixth grader discovers that gerunds. with scorn. so the area inside the square is always going to measure the same horizontally and vertically. and noun clauses can also act as nouns. she can extrapolate from it to cover other situations. I‘ll know how much area the triangle covers.Chapter 13 The Argumentative Child The Pert age . . . times one-half. (―To find the area of a square. .‖) Instead. . . ―What keeps the earth in orbit around the sun?‖ The mind begins to generalize. the student begins to connect all the facts she has learned and to discover the relationships among them. to analyze—to develop the capacity for abstract thought. That‘s why I multiply the side by itself. ―What if I have only one two-digit number and an answer? Can I discover the missing number if I call it x ?‖ Now it‘s time for critical thinking.‖ as the above quote from a critical-thinking manual . and an army made up entirely of mercenaries weakened the empire. The first grader has learned that Rome fell to the barbarians. ―Increasingly. —Dorothy Sayers. The second grader has learned that a noun names a person. this triangle is like half a square .‖ ―metacognitive strategies. then evaluating it to reach a logical conclusion or answer. to question. times itself. The young historian says. answering back. Critical thinking can‘t be taught in isolation (or ―directly. In the second stage of the trivium.‖ ―problem solving. The area of a triangle is this side.‖ All these boil down to one simple concept: critical thinking means that the student stops absorbing facts uncritically and starts to ask ―Why?‖: ―Why do you multiply the tops and bottoms of fractions?‖ ―Why did the North and South really go to war?‖ ―Why do scientists believe that nothing can go faster than the speed of light?‖ ―Why do words that begin with pre. ―Critical thinking skills‖ has become the slogan of educators from kindergarten through high school. (―Hmmm .all have to do with something that comes ‘before‘?‖ ―How do we know that water boils at two hundred twelve degrees Fahrenheit?‖ The student who has mastered ―higher-order thinking‖ and ―problem-solving techniques‖ doesn‘t simply memorize a formula.‖1 But you shouldn‘t consider critical thinking and fact gathering to be mutually exclusive activities. place. thing. so if I multiply this side by itself. as ―mere fact assimilation‖ or ―rote memorization. multiply the length of a side by itself.‖) Some critical-thinking advocates suggest that ―thinking skills‖ can somehow replace the acquisition of specific knowledge. liking to ―catch people out‖ (especially one‘s elders). or idea. corruption. I‘ll get the area of a square . ―The Lost Tools of Learning‖ Somewhere around fourth grade. is characterized by contradicting. and then if I take half of that. ―Traditional teaching‖ is referred to. Criticalthinking books.‖ an outdated mode of learning that should be replaced with classes in ―learning to think. The child who enjoyed rattling off her memorized spelling rules now starts noticing all the awkward exceptions. . and curricula abound. and by the propounding of conundrums. Its nuisance-value is extremely high. the fifth grader asks why and discovers that high taxes.‖ The popular teacher‘s journal Education Week defines critical thinking as ―the mental process of acquiring information. ―That may be too late for your children.‖ and how are they to be taught? A quick look through education materials reveals certain phrases popping up again and again: ―higherorder thinking. ―Are you going to wait until schools teach thinking directly?‖ asks the back cover of one critical-thinking tome.‖ and adds. infinitives. educators believe that schools should focus more on critical thinking than on memorization of facts. she memorizes the formula and then figures out why it works. . (―How would I find the area of a triangle? Well. The third grader has learned how to multiply two-digit numbers together to produce an answer. the seventh grader asks. ―But why did Alexander the Great want to conquer the whole world?‖ The young scientist asks. . Catastrophe is predicted for children who miss out on this vital training.‖) Once she knows why the formula works. the sides of a square are the same.‖ But what are these ―critical thinking skills.

suggests). You can‘t teach a child to follow a recipe without actually providing butter, sugar, flour, and salt; piano skills can‘t be taught without a keyboard. And your new focus on the whys and wherefores doesn‘t mean that your child will no longer learn facts. A math student can‘t think critically about how to find the area of a triangle unless she already knows the formula for finding the area of a square. A fifth grader can‘t analyze the fall of Rome until she knows the facts about Rome‘s decay. So we won‘t be simply recommending workbooks that claim to develop isolated ―critical-thinking skills.‖ Instead, as we cover each of the subjects— math, language, science, history, art, music—we‘ll offer specific instructions on how to teach your middle schooler to evaluate, to trace connections, to fit facts into a logical framework, and to analyze the arguments of others. The middle-grade student still absorbs information. But instead of passively accepting this information, she‘ll be interacting with it—deciding on its value, its purpose, and its place in the scheme of knowledge.

BUILDING ON THE FOUNDATION
The poll-parrot stage has prepared the middle-grade student for the logic stage in two important ways. First, the middle-grade student should no longer be struggling with the basic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. A child must read fluently and well before entering the logic stage; the student who still battles her way through a sentence cannot concentrate on what that sentence means. The logic-stage student will write extensively as she evaluates, analyzes, and draws conclusions; the study of grammar and punctuation will continue through high school, but the basic mechanics of spelling, comma placement, capitalization, and sentence construction should no longer act as barriers to expression. The middle-grade child will begin to think of mathematics in terms of concepts and ideas; she can‘t do this unless the basic facts of arithmetic are rock solid in her mind. Second, the student has already been exposed to the basics of history, science, art, music, and other subjects. Now she has a framework of knowledge that will allow her to think critically. On pages 221–225, we discussed the differences between parts-to-whole and whole-to-parts instruction. When you taught bugs in first grade, you used parts-to-whole instruction. You got out all the pictures of bugs (or used actual bugs) and described the five different types of legs and feet. Then you asked the child to tell you what she just heard, to point out the different types of legs, to write a sentence or draw a picture. In other words, you taught the bits of information—the parts—to the child and then helped her to assemble them into a whole. The middle grader has already learned something about bugs, though. And her mind has matured and developed beyond the need for spoon-feeding. In the middle grades, you‘ll move toward a whole-to-parts method of teaching—presenting the student with a piece of information or a phenomenon and asking her to analyze it. When you study biology with a fifth grader, you lay out a trayful of insects and ask: ―What differences do you see between these legs and those?‖ ―How would you describe each leg?‖ ―What function does each have?‖ In the following chapters, we‘ll guide you through this type of teaching in the middle-grade curriculum.

LOGIC AND THE TRIVIUM
A classical education isn‘t a matter of tacking logic and Latin onto a standard fifth-grade curriculum. Rather, logic trains the mind to approach every subject in a particular way—to look for patterns and sets of relationships in each subject area. But formal logic is an important part of this process. The systematic study of logic provides the beginning thinker with a set of rules that will help her to decide whether or not she can trust the information she‘s receiving. This logic will help her ask appropriate questions: ―Does that conclusion follow the facts as I know them?‖ ―What does this word really mean? Am I using it accurately?‖ ―Is this speaker sticking to the point, or is he trying to distract me with irrelevant remarks?‖ ―Why is this person trying to convince me of this fact?‖ ―Why don‘t I believe this argument—what do I have at stake?‖ ―What other points of view on this subject exist?‖ These are questions that very young minds cannot grapple with. A seven year old has difficulty in understanding that (for example) a public figure might twist the facts to suit himself, or that a particular text

might not be trustworthy because of the writer‘s bias, or that newspaper reports might not be accurate. But in the expanding universe of the middle-grade child, these questions will begin to make sense. You may find yourself indebted to formal logic as well. Any parent of a fifth grader should be able to point out such logical fallacies as the argumentum ad nauseam (the incorrect belief that an assertion is likely to be accepted as true if it is repeated over and over again) and the argumentum ad populum (if everyone‘s doing it, it must be okay).

LOGIC IN THE CURRICULUM
In language, the logic-stage student will begin to study syntax—the logical relationships among the parts of a sentence. She‘ll learn the art of diagramming (drawing pictures of those relationships). The grammarstage student wrote compositions that summarized information—how the Egyptians wrote, the important battles of the Civil War, the life of George Washington. Now, compositions will begin to focus on questions of motivation, of historical development, of debated fact. How did picture language such as hieroglyphics develop into written language? What were the real causes of the Civil War? Why did George Washington keep slaves? Logic-stage students will also begin to read literature more critically, looking for character and plot development. Properly speaking, grammar-stage math is concerned with arithmetic— adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing actual numbers. Arithmetic isn‘t theoretical. Arithmetic problems can be worked out in apples and oranges and pieces of bread. But in the second stage of the trivium, the student begins mathematics proper—the study of the many different relationships between numbers, both real and theoretical (negative numbers, for example). In other words, arithmetic is the foundation for mathematics proper. History in the logic stage will take on a new character. The student will still be responsible for dates and places, but you‘ll encourage her to dig deeper into the motivations of leaders, into the relationships between different cultures that existed at the same time, into forms of government and causes of war. Morality should become a matter of discussion as well. Was this action (this war, this threat) justified? Why? The study of art and music at this point will become synchronized with the study of history. The student will learn about broad developments in society and culture, and will try to understand how these are reflected in the creative works of the times.

HOW TO TEACH THE LOGIC STAGE
For you, the teacher, the teaching process will change slightly. In first through fourth grades, your focus was on memorization—on the learning of rules, dates, stories, and scientific facts. You told the student what she needed to learn, either by reading to her or by giving her a little lecture, and you expected her to be able to repeat that information back to you. You used narration and notebook pages to bring this about. Now, you won‘t be feeding the child with a spoon. You‘ll be asking her to dig a little deeper, to do more discovering on her own. Instead of lecturing, you‘ll concentrate on carrying on a dialogue with your child, a conversation in which you guide her toward the correct conclusions, while permitting her to find her own way. You‘ll allow the child to disagree with your conclusions, if she can support her points with the facts. And you‘ll expect her not simply to repeat what she‘s read, but to rework the material to reflect her own thoughts. Once she‘s done this, she‘ll have learned the material once and for all. Here, one-to-one tutoring has an obvious advantage over the large public-school classroom. Classrooms encourage children to answer questions set to them; one-on-one instruction encourages children to formulate their own questions and then pursue the answers. Even the most dedicated teacher can‘t allow a class of thirty to dialogue their way to comprehension—the noise would be overwhelming. As the logic stage progresses, you‘ll be using more and more original sources, steering away from ―textbooks.‖ Many textbooks are boring. And most present information in a way that‘s actively incompatible with the intent of the logic stage. History, for example, is often given as a series of incontrovertible facts. As Neil Postman observes, there is usually ―no clue given as to who claimed these are the facts of the case . . . no sense of the frailty or ambiguity of human judgment, no hint of the possibilities of error.‖2 A textbook leaves nothing for the child to investigate or question; it leaves no connections for the student to discover. How do you guide this journey toward discovery?

Start with logic. In the next chapter, we‘ll introduce you to the formal study of logic. In the chapters that follow, we‘ll guide you in applying the categories and structures of logic to the various subjects. We cover logic and mathematics first; then, since the middle-grade humanities curriculum is structured around the logic of history, we present history before continuing on to reading, writing, grammar, science, foreign languages, art, and music.

PRIORITIES
The logic-stage student is doing much more independent work than the grammar-stage student and is requiring much less one-on-one attention from you. Home-educated students typically spend an hour in self-directed work for every ten minutes of parental tutoring. Because of this new time economy, and because the student has now mastered the most basic elements of reading, writing, and math, you‘ll find that you‘re able to cover more material. Language, mathematics, logic, history, and science are staples of the logic stage; art and music should be pursued, if possible. While you won‘t need to do as much one-on-one teaching with the student, maintain close supervision. Every home-schooling parent has made the mistake of handing a textbook off to a seemingly mature seventh grader only to find at Christmas that two lessons had been completed. Check assignments on a weekly basis. By the middle grades, students will often develop a particular fondness for one subject (or a loathing for another). Because home education is flexible, you can structure your academic day to allow a child to follow an interest. If, for example, your seventh grader acquires a passion for King Arthur, let her follow the knights of the Round Table throughout literature and history for several months; don‘t insist that she move to the Reformation right on schedule. At the same time, though, do insist that the student keep up in each subject area. Don‘t let math slide for history, or foreign language for math. It‘s too early for the child to develop a speciality; she still hasn‘t been exposed to the full range of possibilities.
1 2

―Critical Thinking,‖ Education Week on the Web, www.edweek.org. Neil Postman, The End of Education: Redefining the Value of Schools (New York: Knopf, 1995), p. 115.

the student uses knowledge and the skill of logical argument to write and speak about all the subjects in the curriculum. The logic stage taught the student to think through the validity of arguments. hairstyles—assume an exaggerated value as the clearest forms of self-expression possible. ―all men attempt to discuss statements and to maintain them. grace. The last four years of classical education stress expression and flexibility. high-school students should have training in the skills of rhetoric so that they can say. the student will undertake two major writing projects in an area of her own choice. These demand a great deal of time and effort. other subjects in which she has already received a good basic grounding will fade into the background. which will show her mastery of rhetoric as well as her skills. clearly and convincingly. Rhetoric SUBJECT: Rhetoric and debate TIME REQUIRED: 3 hours per week in grades 9 and 10. elegance. plus time spent in extracurricular debate activities Rhetoric is the art of expression. rhetoric is a specific subject for study. to defend themselves and to attack others. the desire for self-expression is frustrated. When the high schooler decides on the fields she‘ll study in depth. The student expresses herself by continually writing and speaking about what she‘s learning. —Aristotle. without knowledge. and persuasiveness. just as logic was during the middle grades. for the use of rational speech is more distinctive of a human being than the use of his limbs. the rhetorician has nothing of substance to say. Flexibility becomes paramount as the student pursues her junior and senior writing projects. tattoos. External objects— clothes. ―To a certain extent. The grammar stage laid a foundation of knowledge. Since self-expression is one of the greatest desires of adolescence. jewelry. In the rhetoric stage. and literature.Chapter 24 Speaking Your Mind: The Rhetoric Stage It is absurd to hold that a man should be ashamed of an inability to defend himself with his limbs. Ordinary people do this either at random. science. Expression itself becomes inarticulate. the classic text on the subject. During the rhetoric stage—grades 9 through 12.‖ The study of rhetoric is designed to make success in speech a matter of skill and practice. the traditional high-school years—the student learns to express herself with fluency. not accident. 1 2 A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE RHETORIC STAGE Rhetoric is dependent upon the first two stages of the trivium. ―Those who are likely never to have any great use . but not ashamed of an inability to defend himself with speech and reason. to weigh the value of evidence. In the last two years of schooling. But the skills acquired in the study of rhetoric are then exercised in history. what‘s on their minds.‖ Aristotle writes in Rhetoric. Without these skills. or through practice and from acquired habit. At first.

‖ teaches you how to evaluate the words you use when you give your argument. A third distinctive characteristic of the rhetoric stage is its focus on great books. the setting you‘ll be arguing in. Great books provide historical perspective on the accepted truths of our own age. 3 THE STUDY OF RHETORIC During the rhetoric stage. but ―in order that we may see clearly what the facts are. It requires both logic and knowledge. ―invention. the student will study the principles of self-expression and exercise them in both writing and speech. Dispositio teaches you to arrange all your evidence in the most convincing way. The way you present an argument depends on a slew of factors—the makeup of the audience. she will know how to learn—a skill that she can use for the rest of her life. dispositio. from ancient Greece to the present day. or ―canons‖: inventio. But even though the student may not finish twelfth grade with a comprehensive grasp of science or history. their persuasion has stood time‘s test.‖ is the process of formulating an argument and gathering all the supporting evidence. is universal. The first three of these apply to both written and spoken rhetoric. Inventio. and so on. upon their oars. Which words will most clearly reveal the truth? (Alternately. they can prevent the student from swallowing the rhetoric of modern-day orators undigested. Aristotle tells us. leads to fair-mindedness. and pronuntiatio. not in order to convince his audience of that which is wrong. more or less. figures of speech should you use? How can you structure your sentences for maximum effect? For debate. lining up all the proof needed to make your thesis convincing. Rhetoric. inventio occurs when you select a thesis and research it. (The question of whether this is also the best and truest way is a source of tension within the study of rhetoric. Rhetoric. Great books are rhetoric in action. while memoria and pronuntiatio apply specifically to debate and speechmaking.) Elocutio.or aptitude for mathematics.‖ And this is true for every subject in which rhetoric is employed. History and literature meld together as the student reads the works of great minds. Dispositio is the skill of putting all that information into persuasive order. elocutio.‖ The same can be said for languages and for highly technical aspects of the sciences. The student of rhetoric must be able to argue persuasively on both sides of an issue. Aristotle concludes. memoria. which words will produce the desired emotions in the listener?) Which types of metaphors. you‘ll also need skills in memoria (memorizing important points or entire speeches) and pronuntiatio (effective methods of delivering the speech). 4 5 HOW TO DO IT . As the high schooler studies the rhetoric of classic authors. ―elocution. the emotional effect various types of information might produce. she analyzes the force of their arguments.‖ writes Dorothy Sayers in ―The Lost Tools of Learning. using modern texts that build on the classical foundations. parallelisms. Twelve years of schooling aren‘t sufficient for a student to complete her studies in a particular field of knowledge anyway. The study of rhetoric involves developing skill in five areas. In essay writing. which continually brings ethical issues to the fore.‖ ―[should] be allowed to rest.

The ninth grader using A Rulebook for Arguments will encounter. she‘ll follow a slightly different pattern. good readers should be able to pursue this study independently by following this pattern: 1. Ricardo‘s class. . C. This is the ―ad hominem‖ fallacy: attacking the person of an authority rather than his or her qualifications. A. The student would follow this by finding two examples of ad hominem attacks in a political speech (a depressingly easy exercise) or by writing her own ad hominem refutation of something she‘s read. Otherwise. Thomas S. An authority can be attacked for three reasons. . or that other equally reputable economists disagree with his findings. In most cases. these sections are then divided further by subheadings in regular type. divided into two sessions of one and a half hours each or three sessions of one hour each. Other sorts of attacks on authorities are not legitimate. those ―German professors‖ have to show that his evidence was incomplete—that is. C. Ludwig von Mises describes a series of illegitimate attacks on the economist Ricardo: In the eyes of the Marxians the Ricardian theory is spurious because Ricardo was a bourgeois.‖ Weston‘s text reads: 6 (17) Personal attacks do not disqualify a source. Some German professors advanced all three arguments together against the validity of Ricardo‘s teaching. a section entitled ―Personal attacks do not disqualify a source. Being out of agreement with most other authorities. and may occupy all four of the high-school years. Anthony Weston‘s A Rulebook for Arguments. the student should study rhetoric during those hours previously devoted to logic. Outline the content of the text.During ninth and tenth grades (seconde et premère). religion. . B. Beginning in ninth grade. To disqualify him as an authority. Plan on three hours per week. . the student should probably construct one outline for each chapter. 3. they have to show that his judgments were not fully informed—or that he was not impartial. Class. An authority cannot be attacked for his person. When the student turns to The New Oxford Guide to Writing. This study will cover at least two years. with bold headings generally treated as major outline points. at the end of Chapter 4. religion. This is the ―ad hominem‖ fallacy. As with other advanced subjects. or largely in agreement. However. Ad hominem attacks disqualify the attacker. 2. either from someone else‘s rhetoric or of your own creation. and finally Edward Corbett‘s Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. The German racists condemn the same theory because Ricardo was a Jew. Provide two examples of the text‘s lesson. 3. 2. impartial. Kane‘s The New Oxford Guide to Writing. Read a section in A Rulebook for Arguments. Supposed authorities may be disqualified if they are not informed. II. personal attacks only disqualify the attacker! 7 8 A good outline of this passage might look like this: I. you can use a tutor or online tutorial for the study of rhetoric. or other personal attacks are irrelevant. The student‘s first step should be to outline the chapter. Each chapter is divided into sections with bold-print headings. nationality. Not being informed. the student will work her way through three texts: 1. and nationality are irrelevant to the possible truth of his theories. and the German nationalists because he was an Englishman. Either exercise will show that she understands the concept. A. B. an introduction to rhetoric that provides a quick review of logic as applied to written essays. Not being impartial.

the student should complete the practice exercises at each chapter‘s end. Arrange several reasons in order. Chapter 16 ends with several practice exercises. For example. .‖ II.‖ is divided into the following headings and subheadings: Cause Ordering Reasons within a Paragraph Effects Multiple Effects Cause and Effect A good outline of this chapter might look like this: I. a. Explaining ―why‖ is a major purpose of writing. b. she shouldn‘t feel obliged to make the subheadings into outline points as well. While the student should generally do the analysis exercises as written. she should always feel free to substitute her own topics (perhaps drawn from her study of history. Otherwise.‖ etc.However. Or each effect may actually be the cause of the next. this is ―serial order. either from someone else‘s rhetoric or of her own creation. . The cause should be found in the topic sentence. A. she should make an effort to use all of the different techniques described by Kane in the chapter. 2. they should be listed from least to most important. The effects may be independent of each other. 1. Students who are putting a high level of effort into the study of upper-level . For example. the expansion of professional sports in the last twenty-five years . Kane gives clear examples of each kind of paragraph. If the reasons are independent of each other. science. Give a single reason and repeat it or expand it. How to write a paragraph containing the effects or consequences of a cause. There may be more than one effect. If each reason causes the next. . they are ―parallel. B. C. Cause. B. A writer may also choose to give cause and effect implicitly. for more detailed chapters). Some of the chapters have no practice exercises. After working through Kane.‖ a. When completing these exercises. After outlining the chapter (an exercise which may take the whole week or perhaps longer. or another subject) for those suggested by Kane.). The effects should be found in the rest of the paragraph. Chapter 16. II. There may be a single effect. the student will have a good grasp of the basics of written rhetoric. the first involving analysis (―Analyze the cause-effect relationship in the following paragraph‖) and the next two involving composition (―Compose a single paragraph developing three or four reasons to support one of the following topics: The enormous increase in the cost of housing. How to write a paragraph containing reasons for a cause. B. The simplest strategy: ask ―Why‖ and then give the answer. the student should provide an example for each technique described in the chapter. ―Paragraph Development: Cause and Effect. without using the word ―Why.‖ 2. the contemporary mania for exercise. b. A. Parallel reasons that have an order in time should be listed chronologically. A. In this case. 1.

However.‖ carefully. ask three questions about it (Corbett writes that you should define a topic for argument by asking whether you intend to prove that the topic is a fact. ―The Progymnasmata. The fifth chapter. consider one of the following options: (1) Cindy Marsch‘s Writing Assessment Services (www.‖ walks students through a set of writing exercises which have long been used in classical tutorials to develop writing skills. The following chapters are not quite as lengthy.‖ the student should choose a general topic.00 for an evaluation session is a nice gesture.mathematics or science may need to end their study of rhetoric here in order to have enough time to specialize. so that the teacher knows the principles the student is trying to put into place. and will give her all the tools needed for the junior and senior projects (see Chapter 33). writing a narrative. The second chapter.‖ in which the student argues ―for or against the goodness of a law. also. if you‘d like some additional help in evaluating your high school student‘s writing. ―A Survey of Rhetoric.writingassess ment. After outlining. the same honorarium is acceptable. Make sure that you take the rhetoric text with you. the ―legislation. after outlining ―Formulating a Thesis.‖ deals with inventio. or to show what kind of thing it is—three classic strategies for narrowing the subject of an argument). and then state a thesis in a ―single declarative sentence. The chapter is quite long (over 200 pages!) and should be outlined. ―Discovery of Arguments.00–$50. The student should begin by simply reading the first chapter. Note: Evaluation of these writing exercises can sometimes present a challenge. However. ―Introduction. (3) Call the secretary of the English department at your local university or community college and ask whether any of the writing teachers might be willing to evaluate your student‘s papers. Corbett‘s six-chapter study of rhetoric uses models ranging from Socrates to Rachel Carson to teach students the art of persuasion. there is no ―right‖ answer to a writing assignment. explaining an anecdote. Often. Generally. most students (and all those interested in the humanities) should go on to the final rhetoric text: Edward Corbett‘s Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student (4th edition). (2) Call your local private or parochial school and ask whether the composition teacher would be willing to evaluate your student‘s work.‖ can be simply read for information or can be skipped. This skill is covered in the grammar programs we recommend in Chapters 17 and 25. If necessary.‖ These exercises will ask the student to put into practice all of the skills learned throughout the book.‖ Most students will need a month or more to work through this chapter. the student begins by retelling a folktale and then continues. For example. the rhetoric-stage student can return to these resources. to define it. the student should follow the same basic procedure in working through them. section by section (the sections are set off by bold-print headings). remember that writing is a subjective activity and that even expert writing teachers can differ over whether a particular assignment is well-done or incompetent. 9 For Further Study . The resources suggested earlier (see Chapter 17) can help you. the student should either give a written example or (where provided) complete the ―Practice‖ provided by Corbett. The final chapter. and so on through the final step of the progymnasmata. Note: To complete the above rhetoric study. ―how to ‘discover‘ something to say on some given subject‖). choosing a topic for writing (in Corbett‘s words. students should be skilled at outlining. offering an honorarium of $40.com) offers an online evaluation program for home-school students. arguing for or against a proverb (a ―maxim or adage‖).

as described above. The courses assume previous experience with the IEW ―Teaching Writing: Structure and Style‖ program.Students who wish to continue the study of rhetoric as a specialization— and particularly those with an interest in political rhetoric—will benefit from Martin Cothran‘s Classical Rhetoric with Aristotle: Traditional Principles of Speaking and Writing. It also includes a useful teacher‘s key. If you‘d prefer to investigate a structured curriculum. and exercises to reinforce Latin and logic skills (these are optional). theClassical Rhetoric through Structure and Style curriculum. or who have come out of a classroom situation and are not yet used to working independently. and then the College-Bound Student Package. (Students who are not yet writing on a high school level should spend at least two years in one of the curricula recommended for logic-stage writing in Chapter 17 before moving on to our rhetoricstage recommendations). we suggest two options: 1. a foundational ancient text on the subject. Students who have not used this program can begin with the first level. based on the exercises of theprogymnasmata. some parents may feel the need for a more structured curriculum—a ―writing program‖—particularly for students who continue to struggle with writing. IEW also offers an Advanced Communication Series DVD set. Cothran‘s course is a more traditional ―ancient rhetoric‖ course. this is a two. p. 2. Students and parents who have not used IEW before should complete one year of ―Teaching Writing: Structure and Style‖ before beginning the Advanced Communication Series. 358) now offers a one-year rhetoric course. Classical Writing (see Chapter 17. However. which includes a seminar on DVD plus a fourteen-week program during which students practice writing SAT-type essays as well as the dreaded ―personal experience‖ essays for college applications. Students and parents who have already completed at least one year of the IEW course could progress through the Advanced Communication Series set. the final high school year(s) could then be spent on Anthony Weston‘s text and the New Oxford Guide to Writing. and the skills covered will equip the high school student to write persuasive essays.to three-year progression. and can then move intoDiogenes: Maxim and Diogenes: Chreia. reading exercises from Mortimer Adler‘s classic How to Read a Book. the texts we recommend are based on the model of the progymnasmata. This thirty-three-week rhetoric course is based on the reading and analysis of Aristotle‘s Rhetoric. and a College-Bound Student Package. Classical Rhetoric through Structure and Style: Writing Lessons Based on the Progymnasmata.com) for more information. Aesop and Homer for Older Beginners. you can check the Classical Writing website (www. is an option for experienced home-school parents or parents who feel comfortable with the writing process. Depending on the student‘s ease with writing. 359). Although upper levels are not yet available. p. intended for high school persuasive writing. the training exercises used in classical rhetoric. Alternatives The program we‘ve outlined above walks the student through foundational training in rhetoric. The Institute for Excellence in Writing (see Chapter 17. .classicalwriting. in that it gives equal preparation for speaking and writing and also focuses on the motivations of the men (and women) who seek to persuade. The rhetoric course outlined above is focused more toward preparation for college writing.

and ask how your ninth grader can practice debating skills. begin Corbett. Ask about the qualifications of the coach before you commit. Debate club. the lessons are complex and require the parent to be comfortable with grammar. see Sources (pages 749–776). list the rhetoric texts you‘re using. You can view sample lessons at the Classical Writing website. But these groups are often very resourceful.. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. and Robert J. RESOURCES For publisher and catalog addresses. Ask who coaches the debate team. mounting regular competitions and even statewide championships for home schoolers. Tenth grade Eleventh and twelfth grades 3 hours per week Extracurricular 3 hours per week Continue with Corbett until finished. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. Try to pursue debate throughout ninth and tenth grades. and editing skills into the daily lessons. 1998. spelling. More and more of these are popping up. Oxford: Oxford University Press. which is generally connected with the debate club because debate is a spoken performance. hands-on training in rhetoric. DEBATE Involvement in a debate club or society provides invaluable. . If at all possible. If the eleventh grader no longer wants to take part. SCHEDULES Ninth grade 3 hours per week Extracurricular A Rulebook for Arguments (9–14 weeks).com. This is available only in hardback and is rarely discounted. and writing. Order from any bookstore. Call the theater department. Your local university or college is a good starting place. Some private schools welcome home schoolers to extracurricular clubs. imitation of good writers is at the center of the method. Debate club. but you can often find used copies through www. students are encouraged to incorporate grammar learning. Connors. and enroll your ninth grader in it. Edward P. 4th ed. debate can then be dropped from the curriculum—it has served its purpose. you can call your state home-education organization (see pages 722–742) and ask about debate clubs for home schoolers. vocabulary. J. The coach may invite the student to sit in on the college sessions. where we know of a mail-order option. and other information. and explain your situation. $69. Once you‘ve found the coach. and the program develops the specific writing skills needed to tackle Great Books study.The curriculum makes very effective use of classical teaching techniques. find a local debate society. Most books can be obtained from any bookstore or library. At the very least. explain what you‘re doing. Finally. The quality of the coaching tends to be mixed— you can end up with anyone from an overworked parent who‘s never studied rhetoric to a moonlighting university professor. However. The New Oxford Guide to Writing (remainder of the year). the parent is responsible for planning the sessions and directing the integration of grammar and vocabulary learning into the lessons. You can also call a parochial school. Ask for the debate-team coach. Complete The New Oxford Guide. we have provided it Rhetoric Corbett. telephone numbers.abebooks. if you happen to have a good one nearby. he should be able to direct you to an age-appropriate debate group nearby.95. spelling.

Colorado Springs. Martin. www. $34. each level is approximately one year‘s worth of work and consists of a core book and student workbooks or guides. $39. Diogenes: Maxim. 54971. $17. $4. $119. Hicks.writingassessment.95. 12th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.: Hackett. $19. Order from any bookstore. Basic Debate.95. Weston.95. Ind. 2008. The first two levels also require the purchase of a separate instructor‘s guide. (920) 7489478.95. Diogenes: Maxim core book. support.org) was founded by the Christian homeeducation advocacy group Home School Legal Defense Association (HSLDA). and links for debaters and debate societies. Aesop core book. Visit website for pricing. Louisville. Leslie. Student Guide. Wash. P.Cothran.95 for teacher‘s key. Ky. The New Oxford Guide to Writing. If you‘re inspired to start your own debate club. Visit website for pricing. $26. Colo. scenarios. Mountlake Terrace. Cindy. Ripon. Alternative Resources Classical Writing.96. A Rulebook for Arguments. The Classical Writing website provides an Email contact and message board. 2002.O. 2005. Wisc. A standard hardcover textbook on the subject. Argumentation and Debate. Classical Rhetoric with Aristotle: Traditional Principles of Speaking and Writing.95. 2000.org) provides manuals. Homer core book. You can purchase texts from Classical Writing. Forensics: The Winner‘s Guide to Speech Contests. Indianapolis. Debate The National Forensic League (www. Aesop & Homer for Older Beginners. Writing Assessment Services. or from Rainbow Resource Center.95 for coursebook. Box 212. New York: Glencoe/McGrawHill.ncfca. with mod els. Mass. and guides for real-life situations. (425) 7763620. . Oberg. Order from Memoria Press. Student Workbook for Older Beginners. $20. 3d ed. Austin J. 1995.95. seehttp://www . Phillips. 125 Watson Street. Comprehensive survey of argumentation and debate. Thomas S. 98043. Order from any bookstore.95. Instructor‘s Guide for Older Beginners.com. through print-on-demand from Lulu.: Meriwether Publishing. $26. Kane. A guide to debate. 1994. $50. forums. William S.: Wadsworth Publishing. look for these useful titles through any bookstore: Freeley. $6. Springer.org/resources/books_and_materials.com. Brent C. specifically geared toward competition skills.nflonline. Anthony. but no physical address or phone number. 5th ed. Boston.64. NCFCA provides coaching and how-to resources for would-be debate teams.ncfca. The National Christian Forensics and Communications Association (www.: Memoria Press. and Douglas R. Marsch. The texts are listed below in order of use.

4 Aristotle. Classical Rhetoric through Structure and Style: Writing Lessons Based on the Progymnasmata. 75.00.Visit the Classical Writing website for pricing information and more information on the following advanced courses: Diogenes: Chreia. 3DVD seminar and student Ebook. Student Guide. p. Advanced Communication Series $65.00.i. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. $169. 161. A Rulebook for Arguments (Indianapolis: Hackett. Human Action (New Haven: Yale University Press. Diogenes: Chreia core book. ―The Lost Tools of Learning. Herodotus Student Guide and Answer Key.00 Prerequisite to the advanced levels. Ill. Institute for Excellence in Writing series. 9 Edward Corbett and Robert J. 1963). pp.. Herodotus core book.00. text.1. 8 Anthony Weston. Rhetoric I. Susan has a completely unscientific theory about this—she believes that students who are skilled in rhetoric will never feel the need for a tongue stud. The package includes 10 DVDs and a workbook/syllabus. Teaching Writing: Structure and Style.: Crossway.: Institute for Excellence in Writing. 27–31. Calif. 3 Dorothy Sayers. I.‖ in Douglas Wilson. 6 Students who begin the classical pattern later should finish one year of logic before beginning the study of rhetoric. 35–36. 1999). Worksheets. video seminar instructs parents on how to teach writing. 2 Aristotle. Recovering the Lost Tools of Learning (Wheaton. Connors.2. 1991). 5 Ibid. Atascadero. $29. Order from IEW. p. and DVDs. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. pp. 1 . 1992). 7 L. Herodotus. 4th ed. von Mises. Student Text. CollegeBound Student Package $179. Rhetoric I.

Doctor of Medicine ou Juris Doctor [law degree]).  Postgraduate (étudiant de troisième cycle)  Cycle de 1 à 3 ans débouchant sur un master : Master of Arts (MA). un Bachelor of Science (BS) ou d‘autres diplômes comme un Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) par exemple. 8  Postgraduate dans les « universités nationales »  Cycle de 3 ans ou plus débouchant sur un doctorat : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).Le système éducatif américain   Pre-School. cycle de 2 ans débouchant sur un BA. un BS ou d‘autres diplômes comme un Bachelor of Technology (BT) par exemple.  Upper division (division supérieure). Doctor of Theology. un doctorat peut aussi être obtenu après au moins deux ans d'études suivant un master. Doctor of Arts. Nursery School ou Head Start (école maternelle) : de 3 à 5 ans Elementary School ou Grade School (école élémentaire. cycle de 2 ans débouchant sur un diplôme d‘Associate of Arts (AA). Master of Science (MS) ou sur d‘autres diplômes tels qu‘un Master of Education (MEd) ouMaster of Fine Arts (MFA).  Community college (communauté universitaire)  Lower division (division inférieure). école primaire)  Kindergarten (jardin d'enfant) : 5-6  1st Grade : 6-7  2nd Grade : 7-8  3rd Grade : 8-9  4th Grade : 9-10  5th Grade : 10-11 Middle School ou Junior High School (premier cycle du secondaire)  6th Grade : 11-12 (parfois cette classe est assurée par les écoles élémentaires)  7th Grade : 12-13  8th Grade : 13-14 High school  9th Grade (dite Freshman year (première année) : 14-15 (parfois cette classe est assurée par les middle schools)  10th Grade (dite Sophomore year (deuxième année) : 15-16  11th Grade (dite Junior year (secondaire) : 16-17  12th Grade (dite Senior year (cycle supérieur) : 17-18 7 College( ) ou University  Undergraduate (étudiant universitaire préparant une licence)  College ou University (faculté)  Cycle de 4 ans débouchant sur un Bachelor of Arts (BA).    .

Topics . we see the sun moving across the sky (geocentric) while in reality it is the earth which is spinning on the solar (heliocentric)). judgement (tasdîq) once you have understood the concepts. Object ??? 3. 4. you need to understand something before you can define it. Reasonning (burhan) demonstration is the most powerful form of argument If you get those three. and the one who has not mastered it cannot be relied upon for his knowledge at all. Definition ??? 2. it helps us define things) 5.The Ten Foundations of Logic 1. As people dedicated to epistemological realism. Indeed. we believe that we can actually understand the world and that our experience of reality is true (even though we can be fooled : ex. conceptualization conceptualization (or understanding) is the grasping of concepts which involves definition. logic is a propedutic science: Logic is ―an introduction to all knowledge. (for ex. It involves propositions. Subject The subject of Logic covers the three operations of the mind:  conceptualization  judgment  reasoning through argumentation or demonstration 1. Benefit the fruit of logic: According to Ghazali.‖ (mustashfa) Its greatest benefit derives from the clarity of thought and sound reasoning skills it engenders in one trained in its art coupled with more effective oral and written communication . 3. you can put them together either by affirming or negating through a subject (mawdu’) and a predicate (maHmûl ?). Geometry is to mathematics what logic is to language 2. then you’ve grasped what logic is about.

the only thing is that the concept of the glass is called ―verre‖ in my mind. For instance « government » is a genes which has different species « democracy ». The Five Predicables (al-fadhl khamsa) : genus (jins). and Topics. species (nu‘). Its sources and foundations. quantity. oligarchy. Reasoning. time. . ―while in my mind it is called ―badak‖. place. you can bring any type of glass if I ask you to bring me a glass bc you got the universal concept of glass. . Concepts. which is essentially an analytical inquiry into these ―acts of the mind. 6. A topic can be a subject and vice versa. It is the singular introductory science. etc. Concepts involve the mind‘s abstraction of universals from particulars. the universal concept is the s imple apprehension. Propositions. The Five Arts (sina’at al-khams) : the ways that we argue. Definitions. ex. Sources Logic does not derive its sources from any other science. the Syllogism and its Divisions. Once you grasp what a glass is as a universal concept. Categories : they are ten (essence. any truth the opposite of which is impossible to conceive. No matter what the languages. Categorical. and finally Induction. Propositions involve composing or separating concepts in a subject/predicate form upon which judgment is based. Logical Fallacies. Terms. Material or Major Logic deals with the contents of Syllogisms and involves : Categories. quality(size). subject can be looked as the overarching rubric and topics are the things that fall under. compare. tyranny. shi‘r. Affirmative and Negative. These three mental operations are the sources of Logic . such as the Laws of Identity. These two operations of the mind are how we reason deductively or inductively in the third act of the mind: argument or demonstration. or an accident and a different. difference (fasl). In sum. Which is not always easy to differentiate between a property. etc. and its sources are observation and intuition. the Five Arts. the concept does not change. (cf. contrast. Opposition and Conversion. which enables definition. accident (‗arad). cup. These are the categories in which every existent thing fall under except God. mujarrabat. and Modal. and their varieties. such as Simple and Compound. list below) The topics of Minor or Formal Logic consist of : Simple Apprehensions. etc etc. Logical Fallacies Topics : things that we use in the arguments. qawl ash-shariH): knowing what the genes and the difference is.Topics and subjects our almost considered in our culture synonyms. burhan. wine glass is a type of division. of topucs of formal/minor/petite logic:  simple apprehension: this is the foundation of a concept: you grasp something. It is related to rhetoric. and the Excluded Middle are rooted in self-evident truths – that is. Logic‘s basic tools are intuited concepts and the concomitant propositions that stem from them. Divisions. Hypothetical. etc.‖ which enable us to reason soundly and avoid the pitfalls common to an untrained mind. property (khâsa). Judgments.these all share the same genes « government » but they are different :   divisions : how you divide. the term is whats called wujud al-lafdhi  definition (had. Non-Contradiction. the Five Predicables. position. That is how we define things.

A is A and A is not not A. 7. They are intuitive.Law of Identity Non-Contradiction Law of the Excluded Middle things are what they are. It has to be one or the other. non-contradiction and excluded middle) are the axioms of logic. One cannot understand logic without them. Amjad cannot be Amjad and As‘ad at the same time. These three laws (laws of identity. The Founder 1 :04 :00 . there is no middle position such as « it is either A or it‘s not A ». sthg cannot be and not be at the same time.