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Spot Weld Joints

The English translation is believed to be accurate. In case of discrepancies the German version shall govern.

Strength Testing of Steel Materials

PV 6702

Konzernnorm Descriptors: spot welding, resistance spot welding, welding, strength test, wedge test, chisel test, metallography Contents
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1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 4.1 4.2 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 7 7.1 7.2 8

Scope .................................................................................................................................. 2 Requirements...................................................................................................................... 2 Process-specific parameters ............................................................................................... 2 Nugget diameter.................................................................................................................. 2 Spot diameter...................................................................................................................... 3 Particular features of three-sheet joints .............................................................................. 4 Finding ................................................................................................................................ 5 External findings.................................................................................................................. 5 Internal finding..................................................................................................................... 5 Test method ........................................................................................................................ 5 Non-destructive testing ....................................................................................................... 5 Visual test............................................................................................................................ 5 Wedge test .......................................................................................................................... 6 Ultrasonic test ..................................................................................................................... 6 Adaptive process visualization ............................................................................................ 6 Destructive testing............................................................................................................... 7 Chisel test ........................................................................................................................... 7 Peel test .............................................................................................................................. 7 Shearing test ....................................................................................................................... 7 Cross tension test ............................................................................................................... 8 Metallographic testing ......................................................................................................... 9 Evaluation of the destructive test results........................................................................... 10 Metallographic testing ....................................................................................................... 10 Chisel test (and peel test) ................................................................................................. 11 Shearing test ..................................................................................................................... 12 Overall assessment........................................................................................................... 13 Chisel test (or peel test) .................................................................................................... 13 Metallographic testing (nugget diameter, among others) .................................................. 13 Referenced standards....................................................................................................... 14

Changes The following changes have been made as compared to Test Specification PV 6702, 2004-07: Section 5.2.5, Table 1: Nos. 1 and 4 corrected Section 6.2: dpS replaced with dpF Previous issues 1975-04; 1998-06; 2000-02; 2001-05; 2003-03; 2003-06; 2004-07
Form FE 41 - 01.03

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Klass.-Nr. 04 81 5

September 2004

Number and position of weld spots according to drawing. During the course of testing. etc. The diameter depends on the thickness of the sheets to be joined. The following applies to the nugget diameter dL: dL = 3. Parts 1. 3 Process-specific parameters When sheets are joined by means of resistance spot welding. the nugget geometry (nugget height. Definition of pores and cracks according to DIN EN ISO 6520-2.) and imperfections in the area of the weld nugget (pores. Checking of individual spots according to Section 5.1 Nugget diameter The nugget diameter dL is the diameter of the melted weld nugget. When welding black-and-white joints. NOTE: White = austenitic steels. This joint is called a weld spot. segregations. Testing of resistance spot welded joints generally requires a destructive test. measured on the transverse microsection in the respective joining plane. black = all other steels. etc.Page 2 PV 6702: 2004-09 1 Scope This Test Specification describes the testing and evaluation of resistance spot welded joints on steel materials. Generally valid limit values are listed in order to ensure uniform quality of production. 2 Requirements Dimensional and geometric requirements according to Volkswagen standard VW 011 05. cracks. a punctiform joint is created in the joining plane between the sheets. 2 and 4.2 tEi Joining plane Adhesion zone Indentation diameter i Sheet-metal thicknesses Indentation depth i Figure 1 – Definition of the weld spot geometry . the nugget diameter is determined by means of a transverse microsection and/or the spot diameter is determined using a destructive test. 3.). Specimen dimensions that are already part of DIN EN ISO 14273 are not stated. such as a chisel test. it is important to note that in general the weld nugget is displaced in the “white” direction.5 t1 t1 = thickness of the thinner sheet It is critical for the strength of a welded structure and must be indicated in the drawing. penetration depth. The transverse microsection is used to determine: the nugget diameter and position of the weld nugget with respect to the joining plane. Legend: 1 2 dEi t1.

e. Legend: 1 Fracture in the joining plane 2 Adhesion zone dP = d1 +d2 2 Figure 2 – Spot diameter dP. the spot diameter dP is the mean diameter of the fracture surface in the joining plane of the workpiece parts.Page 3 PV 6702: 2004-09 3. peel tests can also be used. With a mixed fracture. including the fraction portion in the joining plane. . In the case of resistance spot-welding of sheets with thicknesses from approx. the spot diameter dP is used to set the desired value of the nugget diameter.g. chisel test. see Figure 3.g.2 Spot diameter The spot diameter dP is generally determined in a destructive test. more cracks can occur in the joining plane (weld nugget). dP is the mean diameter of the base surface of the sheared button. H 400 LA) or also sheets made from hot-formed and hardened quenched and tempered steels.75 mm and/or higher-strength sheets (e. with material chips). thus preventing precise evaluation of the spot diameter. The disadvantage is that this type of test can often give rise to lugs on the sheet because the load is applied to one side of the sheet only. It must be possible here to clearly interpret the fracture surface as a break in the joining plane (weld nugget) (e..g.. In exceptional cases. excluding the adhesion zone. In production. fracture in the joining plane (weld nugget) With a shear fracture at the transition to the sheet.. see Figure 2. 1. the spot diameter dP is the mean diameter of the base surface of the sheared button. In the case of a fracture in the joining plane (weld nugget).

d 2 d3 Spot diameter Measuring points for dp not measured dP asymmetrical dP partial dP Figure 3 – Spot diameter dP.3 Particular features of three-sheet joints Two weld spot shear diameters occur for three sheet joints during destructive testing. weld with shear fracture at transition to the sheet/mixed fracture 3. the diameters are determined according to the smallest sheet thickness (see VW 011 05-4). .Page 4 PV 6702: 2004-09 symmetrical Legend: dP d 1.

electrode penetration depth and surface cracks. 4.Page 5 PV 6702: 2004-09 4 4. place and number of the weld spots as well as edge distance. the following can be checked by means of a microsection test: This Test Specification presents suitable non-destructive and destructive test methods to test the spot weld joint. non-destructive methods such as ultrasonic tests or destructive methods such as torsional testing with separation of joint (DVS1 2916).. 2 and 4. The test frequency is specified by the responsible planning department in coordination with Quality Assurance and the manufacturing department in accordance with the requirements for the weld joint. The minimum requirements are valid for the component and shall be adhered to.1 5.1 Findings External finding position. uniform.1 Non-destructive testing Visual test Number and position of weld spots according to drawing. For acceptance tests. it shall be free of spatter. macrocracks as well as oxide deposits. and shall not be tilted. ≥ 1. especially requirements according to VW 011 05-12. 5 Test method For the external finding. the following can be checked visually: For the internal finding. copper adhesions and deep craters. giving the minimum requirements for spot and nugget diameters. solidification voids and cracks. microcracks (grain boundary openings with zinc inclusions). electrode indentation. e. A number of further characteristics have to be considered. expansion of the heat-affected zone as well as pores.5 t t = smaller sheet thickness [mm] . burrs. it has to be considered that the proper outside appearance of a weld spot cannot be the sole basis for an evaluation of its quality. The electrode indentation shall be clean. nugget penetration depth.2 Internal finding nugget diameter as well as position and shape of the weld nugget with respect to the joining plane. that lead to similar or even better quality statements can be used if they have been verified. spatter. See VW 011 05-1 for the electrode penetration depth.g. as well as test procedures taken from DVS standard 2916. 1 2 DVS = German Association for Welding Technology The following applies according to VW 011 05-1: dP min.15 × 3. 5.1. Other test methods. Furthermore.

5. 5.g.1. Its sole aim is to check and monitor the welding equipment.0 mm or on sheets of a higher strength (as of tensile strength values > 400 N/mm). e. .2. Additionally. ultrasonic test).2.g.1. This visualization can be used to assure the quality of the production process. the wedge test has a relatively minimal destructive effect.3 Ultrasonic test An ultrasonic test can be used as a replacement for and as a supplement to the wedge test.2 Wedge test In the wedge test.. It is a supplementary test and is used between the intervals of the destructive test (destructive chisel test) until the use of more meaningful test methods (e.5). which involves creating a correlation between process parameters and the weld spot geometry. the wedge test shall no longer be used. the latter shall be determined by means of a chisel test (Section 5.g.1. if the manufacturing department provides proof that this test is equally suited to ensuring the quality of the production process. in thin sheet processing. ultrasonic test).4 Adaptive process visualization Adaptive process visualization is a 100% online test.1) or a metallographic test (Section 5. if the manufacturing department has provided proof that it is at least as suited to doing so as the non-destructive test methods currently used (e. Thus.. As a test method. If it proves impossible to estimate the spot diameter.Page 6 PV 6702: 2004-09 5. It is no longer possible to estimate the spot diameter for resistance weld spots on sheets > 1. it can be used to estimate the minimum required spot diameter of a spot weld joint. a flat chisel is driven in next to or between the weld spots.

a simple reproducible stress according to Figure 4 or Section 5. 5.2. is a destructive test. The test shall simulate the real stress direction. button diameters d1 and d2 are determined using a caliper gauge (2nd measurement offset by 90° ) and the mean value is determined from the two measurements. During the peel test. A precise evaluation of the spot diameter is extremely difficult if not impossible in this case. 5. When testing several closely spaced weld spots in a row. the weld spots shall be separated by means of sawing. 5. according to DVS 2916. In this case. transverse microsections shall be taken as an alternative and the nugget diameter determined from these.g. the weld spot can shear out or the fracture can occur in the joining plane. the smaller diameter is to be used as dP. Figure 5 can be chosen. If such stress cannot be simulated. Specimen dimensions and procedure according to DIN EN ISO 14273.. In this process. the spot weld joint is destroyed using a peel mandrel.2. If the testing effort is too high.2.3 Shearing test The shearing test belongs to the destructive testing category. This applies in particular to sheet thicknesses > 2. it is recommended that the weld spots be tested individually. Hardening of the material during welding can cause buttons with diameters larger than the weld nugget to form when the weld spots shear at the transition to the sheet during workshop tests. the shearing test shall be performed for all spot weld joints. An individual weld spot is tested in a tensile test machine until the weld spot or the component fails.1 for evaluation. If possible.1 Chisel test The chisel test.2. to peel back the two sheets. according to DVS 2916.0 mm as well as to high-strength or formed and hardened quenched and tempered steels. e. During determination of the spot diameter. an appropriately shaped chisel is driven between the welded sheets until the spot weld joint is destroyed. See Section 6. .4..g. In the chisel test. If a precise measurement in two directions is not possible. for example. e.2 Destructive testing Both the nugget diameter dL and the spot diameter dP can be determined in a destructive test. In the case of a tear in the sheet. Combinations of both these fracture types (mixed fractures) are also possible. Auxiliary equipment might be needed for this purpose. Both the weld connection and the component can tear.2 Peel test The peel test belongs to the destructive testing category. The tear force required to do this is measured.Page 7 PV 6702: 2004-09 5. a “one-sided” sheet-metal lug is generally formed due to the load being exerted on one side.

5. this test is conducted in a tensile test machine. Figure 5 – Cross tension . but the load is applied to the weld spot vertically to the sheet plane. The test can be performed according to Figure 5 in exceptional cases. rs is used as shown in Figure 4.4 Cross tension test The cross tension test belongs to the destructive testing category. according to VW 011 05-1. This applies accordingly to staggered rows of weld spots.Page 8 PV 6702: 2004-09 outer notch Figure 4 – Shear tension For a single-shear joint. Like the shear tension test. Minimum shear tension forces Fmin. per weld spot in the free shearing test according to VW 011 05-1. For determining the minimum shear tension forces Fmin. the minimum shearing force Fmin. In the cross tension test. (see also VW 011 05-1) should be reached as per the respective deformation capability.2. In the case of two consecutive spots in the direction of force. generates a bending moment of Mb = F·rs which grows with increasing stress (up to Fmax. 1. Table 2). the lowest value in each case shall be applicable to sheets of varying thicknesses and strengths. The thinnest sheet of a single-shear joint or the thinnest outside sheet of a two-shear joint applies as the reference dimension for the joint. 25 to 40% of the minimum shear tension force Fmin.) and also produces a portion of cross tensile force FK.8 Fmin can be taken as the standard value for the load carrying capacity (VW 011 05-1.

both the weld nugget diameter and the imperfections (e. NOTE: Microcracks can occur in the area of the weld spot (heat-affected zone) in high-strength steel when black-and-white joints (austenitic high-strength stainless steel with zinc-coated steel) are resistance spot welded.g. pores. The transverse microsection is evaluated at a magnification of 50 :1 (or greater). 2% alcoholic nitric acid). These can be identified in the flat microsection (microsection parallel with the sheet surface) by the fact that they run radially with respect to the weld nugget.Page 9 PV 6702: 2004-09 5..g. grain boundary openings with zinc inclusions as well as surface cracks or microcracks) can be determined. the weld spots under test are cut in the center and a microsection is produced. on the unetched microsection (for cracks) or on the etched microsection (for the microstructure). aluminum inclusions. On this transverse microsection. For this test. oxide deposits. The metal microstructure is made visible using an appropriate caustic agent (e.. Microcracks Pores and solidification cracks Oxide deposits h = d Pore+ Σ bR Surface cracks bR = width of a crack l = length of a crack projected vertically to the joining plane ll l Aluminum inclusions Figure 6 – Weld nugget geometries and imperfections . It can be performed on all load bearing spot weld joints where a quasi-static tensile test is not possible.5 Metallographic testing Metallographic testing belongs to the destructive testing category.2.

Designation OK Grade 1 1 Indentation depth tE Limit values/specifications Conditionally OK Grade 3 Not OK Grade 6 depending on the required surface quality (OG).25 dL 2 Nugget diameter dL dLmin.Page 10 PV 6702: 2004-09 6 Evaluation of the destructive test results Grade 1 = OK Grade 3 = can still be used.25 dL h 0.10 t OG2: tE > 0.1 Metallographic testing Table 1 No. “Ring nugget” not permitted dpore 0. “Ring nugget” not permitted 0.10 t 0.2 dL 0. see VW 011 05-1 dL > dLmin. check the process Grade 6 = rework (if permitted) or scrap 6.25 dL 5 6 Permitted in the area of the adhesion zone Permissible: Course – in the weld nugget center – in the area of the adhesion zone – at the edge of the nugget and vertically to the joining plane l < 150 µm (measured vertically to the joining plane) l < 500 µm 500 µm l 800 µm l 150 µm1) 7a Surface cracks in the edge area of the electrode indentation Surface cracks in the center of the electrode indentation (center: ∅ 0.15 t OG3: tE > 0.20 t dL = dLmin.2 dL) 7b l > 800 µm1) .2 dL < h < 0.20 t dL < dLmin.2 dL 3 Pore diameter dpore within the weld nugget 4 Solidification crack (size) within the weld nugget h = dpore + Σ bR Aluminum inclusion Oxide deposit h 0.15 t 0.25 dL and chisel or shearing test OK -OG1: tE > 0.2 dL < dpore < 0. see also VW 011 05-1 OG1: tE OG2: tE OG3: tE 0. “Ring nugget” dpore 0.

1) dpmin. The weld spot shears out of the component and the minimum spot diameter dpmin.. The connection in the core is missing so the result of the transverse-microsection examination is not OK.1) is not achieved2) (separation in the joining plane with low fracture surface share (“adhesion welding“)): dpF dpmin.75 mm or sheets of higher strengths (e. Weld OK (Grade 1) Weld conditionally OK (Grade 3) • Weld not OK (Grade 6) • • • • 1) 2) 3) The following applies according to VW 011 05-1: dpmin.1) dpmin. In the case of fractures in the joining plane/weld nugget. . the ring nugget has come away from the opposite sheet on one side and is only then recognizable as a ring weld.1) is not achieved: dpM dpmin.1) is achieved: dpM dpmin. 1. Furthermore. 6. fractures in the joining plane/weld nugget must be reckoned with at the lower end of the “parameter setting range”.Page 11 PV 6702: 2004-09 8 Microcracks (see DIN EN ISO 5817 for definition) Not permissible: 1) - Microcracks that run parallel to the joining plane and project into the weld nugget. . H 4220 LA or hot-formed and hardened quenched and tempered steels) are resistance spot welded. 1. or is achieved: dpA The weld spot shears out and breaks as a mixed fracture2) and the minimum spot diameter dpmin.. more fractures in the joining plane or mixed fractures can occur. Proof of the weld quality shall be provided by a supplemental determination of the shear tension strength or by means of a transverse microsection. or The weld spot shears out of the component and the minimum spot diameter dpmin.g. The designations have the following meanings: dpA dpM dpF dpAR spot diameter for a shear fracture at transition to the sheet spot diameter for a mixed fracture spot diameter for a fracture in the joining plane spot diameter for a shear fracture at transition to the sheet with a ring nugget • • The weld spot shears out of the component and the minimum spot diameter dpmin. Furthermore. Often. the fracture surface must be clearly identifiable as a “material fracture”.15 x √t with t = smaller sheet thickness in mm NOTE: When sheets with thicknesses greater than approx. quality improvement measures must be taken. If the evaluation yields grades 3 and 6. is achieved: dpF Proof of the weld quality shall be provided by a supplemental determination of the shear tension strength or by means of a transverse microsection. or 3) The weld spot shears out with a “ring nugget” : dpAR dpmin. The weld spot fractures in the joining plane or in the weld nugget2) (separation in the joining plane with a “material fracture”) and the minimum spot diameter dpmin.. The new limit value shall be stipulated in a work instruction..1) is not achieved: dpA dpmin. a check must be run as to whether changing the welding parameters would mean that shear-out of the weld spot can be achieved in order to thus increase the process assurance.2 Chisel test (and peel test) The Quality Assurance department of the manufacturing department is responsible for testing. 1) Deviations are permitted but must be verified in tests.Microcracks that run at the edge of the weld nugget and vertically to the joining plane. or The weld spot shears out of the component as a mixed fracture and the minimum spot diameter dpmin.

3 Shearing test Weld OK (Grade 1) • • • • • • The minimum shear tension force Fmin. Weld not OK (Grade 6): 1) 2) The following applies according to VW 011 05-1: dpmin.. Furthermore.1) is achieved. H 4220 LA or hot-formed and hardened quenched and tempered steels) are resistance spot welded. 1. is achieved and The weld spot shears out of the component and the minimum spot diameter dpmin. Furthermore.g. more fractures in the joining plane or mixed fractures can occur. and The fracture surface is free of visually perceptible pores (share < 10%). a check must be run as to whether changing the welding parameters would mean that shear-out of the weld spot can be achieved in order to thus increase the process assurance.75 mm or sheets of higher strengths (e. is not achieved or The minimum spot diameter dpmin. 1. The minimum shear tension force Fmin. dp dpmin.Page 12 PV 6702: 2004-09 6. fractures in the joining plane/weld nugget must be reckoned with at the lower end of the “parameter setting range”. dp dpmin.15 x √t with t = smaller sheet thickness in mm NOTE: When sheets with thicknesses greater than approx. the fracture surface must be clearly identifiable as a “material fracture”. is achieved. or The weld spot shears out of the component2) and the minimum spot diameter dpmin.1) is not achieved: dp < dpmin. In the case of fractures in the joining plane/weld nugget. .

are to be evaluated using a destructive test such as the chisel test. To this end. This is especially important when setting welding parameters when preparing a machine for delivery. 7. both the nugget diameter dL in the microsection (formation of the weld nugget according to VW 011 05-1. Criteria for usability such as trials dynamic and quasi-static tests can be utilized.5% Proof of usability: Where the portion of spots that are not OK is higher. Metallographic testing (nugget diameter. the componentspecific usability must be proven. dynamic and quasi-static tests can be utilized. coordination with Quality Assurance. Design Engineering and Prototype Shop is required. with a frequency of the number of loose spots is < 0. In an overall evaluation. among others.2 Usable: Nugget diameter dL OK or max. coordination with Quality Assurance.1 Usable: Spot diameter dPmin.) 5% and Chisel test (or peel test) . no “ring nugget”) and the spot diameter dP.5% Proof of usability: Where the portion of weld spots that are conditionally OK or not OK is higher. Criteria for usability such as trials. 7. OK or spot diameter up to 15% < dPmin. The appropriate test procedures are listed in this Test Specification. To this end. 5% of spots up to 15% < dL min and number of loose spots is max. etc. The minimum requirements with respect to the nugget diameter dL and the spot diameter dP must also be fulfilled. Design Engineering and Prototype Shop is required. the component-specific usability must be proven. the shearing force can be determined. In addition to this. when performing first sampling of components and when implementing parameter changes that are expected to result in a considerable change in the overall evaluation.Page 13 PV 6702: 2004-09 7 Overall evaluation It must be ensured – by means of an overall evaluation – that the quality of a spot weld joint remains constant over the entire manufacturing period. 0.

Seam and Embossed Projection Welds Testing of Weld Spots VW 011 05-1 VW 011 05-2 VW 011 05-4 DIN EN ISO 6520-2 DIN EN ISO 14273 DVS 2916 Other standards DIN EN ISO 5817 Welding – Fusion-Welded Joints in Steel. Process Assurance. Three-Sheet Joints Welding and Allied Processes – Classification of Geometric Imperfections in Metallic Materials – Part 2: Welding with Pressure Specimen Dimensions and Procedure for Shear Testing Resistance Spot. Titanium and Their Alloys (Beam Welding Excluded) – Quality Levels for Imperfections 4) In this section. .Page 14 PV 6702: 2004-09 8 Referenced standards4) Resistance Spot Welding. Uncoated and Coated Sheet Steels Resistance Spot Welding. Design. Nickel. Aluminum Materials Resistance Spot Welding. Calculation. terminological inconsistencies may occur as the original titles are used.