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Q1) . Explain the disciplines of Management? SOL: Whenever a group of people are working together to achieve a common
goal,management becomes imperative.This is because different individuals who are working for a common goal may have different aspirations or likings. With the help of management we can bring in co-ordination and team spirit among the individuals which helps the firm to achieve the goal. Management is defined as “It is a process of achieving the goals efficiently and effectively.” It is a process consisting of sequence of inter-related functions planning,organising,staffing,directing and controlling. DISCIPLINES OF MANAGEMENT

There are basically three disciplines of management :
I. MANAGEMENT AS A SCIENCE To consider management as a science or not we need to compare the characterstics of science with management.The characterstics of science are : 1.Systematised body of knowledge Science has got its own principles and techniques which need to be learned in order to possess a complete knowledge. Like science management has the principles and techniques which are imparted to the students through college,universities etc. Eg: Principle of unity of command states that a subordinate is supposed to be made answerable to a single superior at a time, if there is dual subordination it creates chaos and confusion. 2.Experimentation and observation Like science,management principles have also got developed by the management experts through experimentation and observation.In other words

Management principles are somewhat predictable i.such principles are not developed on the whims and likings of the management expert. even management principles are applicable universally where a group of people are working together to achieve a common goal. .Effect means the resultant factor of the application.Authority>Responsibilty Misuse of authority 2.Personal skill This means performing the things by one‟s own style or approach instead of copying the predecessors way of doing things.In case of management also. Cause Effect 1.Cause-Effect relationship Cause means doing or applying something.Authority=Responsibilty Work can be completed with the given Authority 4.So for a manager to do the management. 3.Such cause and effect relationship is also present in management principles.sentiments.Responsibilty>Authority Non-completion of given task 3.manager need to handle the situation in his own way thereby his identity is notified by the organisation.e we know the results even before applying the principles. Eg: Principle of parity brtween authority and responsibility.preference etc varies from time to time and person to person.taste.intrest.need to obtain such knowledge through educational institutions.Theoritical knowledge Like art.Universal validity and predictabilty Like possess certain principles and techniques which have been developed by the management expert . 2. 3. 1. Conclusion Even though management principle possess the characterstics of science but it is considered as a soft/inexact behavioural science as it deals with human beings whose nature.Practical knowledge Like an artist. II. MANAGEMENT AS AN ART To examine whether management can be considered as art we have to compare the characterstics of art with management.even a manager need to know how to apply his theoritical knowledge into practise.Knowledge of unity of command is not sufficient unless a manager applies such principle in a practical situation.

The manager need to posses this quality to show his creativity while producing goods or services then only he can successfully approach the customers changing needs and preferences.the management acquires theoretical knowledge by knowing the principles and techniques of management and practical knowledge in the form of case study.Even in case of management. MANAGEMENT AS A PROFESSION To examine whether management can be consider as a profession.professional can start their practise only after getting the certificate.Code of conduct Every professional is expected to follow a code of conduct which is the norms to be follow by the professional.Even in case of management.Even in case of management . 3.Certificate In any profession.Governing association Each and every profession is governed by an association which prescribes the course and conducts the examination.the manager need to follow the norms like: i)not to leak out secrets to the competitors. 1. there is a presence of AIMA(All India Management Association) which governs the management. . 2. III.Perfection through practise Like an art. 4.if he performs the same functions repeatedly. Conclusion Management can be considered as complete art as it posses all the characterstics of an art.even a manager attains perfection in performing the management functions. 5. we need to campare the characerstics of profession with management.Systematised body of knowledge A professional is expected to posses a thorough knowledge both theoretically as well as practically.4.Even in case of management the manager passing out the prescribed course gets the certificate.This is because by repetition the manager learns from his mistakes how to handle the different business situations or crisis.Creativity This means performing the things in a way that has not existed earlier. ii)not to make any personal profit by running the firm into loss. role playing etc.

iv)Code of conduct is loosely followed in case of management because unlike other profession.Service to society Every professional is expected to serve cross-section of society to whom their services are required.Division Of Work As per this principle each and every job need to be divided into too many activities and each work should be given to a single person in which he is specialised.Discipline is achieved. Conclusion Even though the management posses all the characterstics of profession.if superiors are disciplined at all levels. iii)Courses are not only issued by the governing institution but also by other private institutes which is not present in other profession.the person performs repeatedly the same activity by which he could able to perform efficiently and effectively.Discipline This means obeying the order of the superior. If the division of labour is violated then the workers efficiency is dropped down and there will be wastage of time and energy in shifting from one activity to another. Fayol’s Principles Of Management I.Even in the case of is only consider as an emerging profession or practise because of the following reasons:i)Course is not compulsory in case of management i.This principle is otherwise known as „specialisation‟.consumers. Q2. Henry Fayol (1841-1925) is considered the father of administrative management theory with focus on the development of broad administrative principles applicable to general and higher managerial levels. His perspective was of a macro nature.5. ii)Course is not uniform in case of management as it differs from one institute to other.a manager need to be a responsible to too many cross-section of people which does not allow him to strictly adhere to the code of conduct. covering the general administrative and managerial functions and processes at the organizational level.Fayol introduced this principle not only at the managerial level(top) but also at the technical level(lower).governments etc.e a person can become a manager even without passing a course only out of experience.By specialisation.having a clear and fair agreement and imposing judicially sanctioned punishments for any indiscipline. Explain Fayol’s Principles of Management? SOL: Principles are the general truths/guidelines which enable the manager to take balanced decisions.the manager need to serve too many crosssection of person like shareholders.obeying the rules and the regulations and following the terms and the conditions. Fayol provided a broad analytical framework of the process of administration. . II.

Basically this principle conveys avoidance of dual sub-ordiantion.Eg.If both of them keep up the promise then the organisation can ensure discipline.This principle is adopted in order to avoid duplication of activities or overlapping of activities.If the sales manager has got the order from a viable customer requesting him for 60 days credit.If the same sales manager has got the privileges of extending 100 days credit then that will affect the organisation because such liberal credit may lead to bad debt and increased working captal requirement.he coudn‟t approve immediately as he has got less authority under his disposal.Unity of direction Group of similar activities having the same objective should be having a single plan and headed by a single superior. Eg: If a sales manager is given with the responsibility to achieve a sales target for which he has be given with the authority to extend 40 days credit.If this principle is violated.a subordinate is supposed to be made answerable to a single superior at a time. IV. VI.A person can get the authority by formal way or by acceptance.Employees can be compensated either by time rate basis or by piece rate basis.the person should be given with equal authority and responsibility in order to carry out his obligations.Unity of command As per this principle. III.Remuneration This means compensation given to the employees for the services rendered by them to the organisation.This is because if a person is made answerable to more than one superior at a time then following repercussions occurs: i)chaos and confusion in carrying out the activity ii)loyalty of the workers get divided iii)undermining of superiors authority iv)workers efficiency will not be fully utilised may lead to job .If the authority exceeds the responsibility their may be misuse of authority and if responsibility exceeds authority then he may not be in a postion to carry out the given responsibility.the compensation should be fair and equitable and reasonable in nature. If the workers have agreed to put extra efforts for the next three months provided.Parity between authority and responsibility Authority means powers given to a person by taking up a formal position.if the management keeps up the promise of increasing the wages after three months period of time.Whatever be the method adopted.In other words.the organisation need to compensate the employees to the amount of work extracted from them. Eg: An automobile company producing two different type of vehicles segregate their activities by having two different departments of production which will enable the organisation to achieve its objectives.Responsibilty means the duty which is assigned to a person.As per this principle.

labour turnover and the organisation may loose the competent and qualified gives job satisfaction increased efficiency and assured wages.Basically. employees should be treated fair and just. IX.Fayol insists that the organisation need to adhere this structure on all formal organisation. clearly says individual interest is always subordinated to the organisational interest.This is because it supports and stabilizes superior-subordinate relationship and also helps to fix up the responsibility.By having social order.There should not be any favouritism or napotism.If any such discrimination occurs it creates dissatisfaction to the employees. VII.Order This means getting the things performed in an orderly pattern of working may get disturbed.e material and social order.race etc.efficiency and ability but if they are pais unequally then it clearly state there is a violation of principle of equality.General interest means the interest of the organisation as a whole which includes the interest of all stakeholders.dissatisfaction absenteeism.Social order means every human has a right place where his ability matches and it is expected that he occupy such position.responsibility and formal communication gets passed on. the wastage of time and energy in searching the right material do get minimized. Eg: If a superior has two subordinates A and B who posses equal qualification. VIII.According to fayol.a prudent management should know how to bring in co-ordiantion between the organisational and individual goals.By ensuring material organisation need to have two types of order i.Scalar chain IT is the chain of superior subordinate relationship present between the different positions ranging from top level management to the lower level management through which authority.Such violation may lead to job dissatisfaction.knowledge.Subordination of individual interest to general interest Individual interest means the interest of the employees who are working in the organisation.skill.At any given time whatever decision is taken by the organisation should be in the interest of the organisation no matter individual interest are affected.No employee should ne discriminated on the basis of caste.So.labour turnover and the organisation loses the competent employees. Eg: If the company has taken a decision to change their working hours from normal working hours to shift system which will in-turn help them to achieve the production target should be given due importance no matter individual interest i.Material order means everything is in the right place where it is expected to be kept.creed.As per fayol.religion.Basically this means right person for the right job. .Equity This means a superior is expected to treat all his sub-ordinates in an equitable manner.

Whether to adopt centralisation or decentralisation and the extent of decentralisation or centralisation is purely at the discretion of organisation.e if the power t take decision is vested to only to top level management then it becomes centralisation.Inititative This is the first step of self motivation.This does not mean a subordinate deviates from the order or instruction given by the superior. Eg:Whenever a subordinate comes out with a valuable suggestion which either maximizes the output or minimises the cost/wastage then such suggestions need to be appreciated and approved by the superior.Centralisation/Decentralisation Centralisation means concentration of decision making powers i.In decentralisation.This means the organisation once again need to spend money in selecting the employees to fill up the vacant post.Once the job is given they should be allowed to perform the job continuously for a period of time by which they can show their efficiency if the employees job gets changed frequently then that violates the principle of stability of tenure as such frequent changes bring in security.XI.This only means finding out the best way of performing the activity at the minimum cost.Fayol has developed this principle because he expected the top level management capable of taking logical and rational decisions as they are highly qualified and competent. XII.fayol encourages to use „we‟ in place of „I‟ thereby supremacy or dominance on the part of superior can be minimised.the superior should create such an atmosphere where such co-operative work can take place towards the achievement of goals.Such condusive working conditions encourage the human resources to work loyally and dedicatedly towards the organisation.For achieving the team work.Stabilty of tenure This means once the employees are selected for the organisation. . whenever a superior gives a responsibility to a subordinate he should allow the subordinate to show their personal skills or calibre in completing the task. XIII.This resulted in the alternative principle known as decentralisation.leads to absenteeism and labour turnover.Espirit de corps This means encouraging the co-operation or teamwork among the people who are working in the organisation.the decision making powers is distributed to other level who can take up decisions which are within the level of authority.In this.Such dispersal of decision making powers encouraged the other level to show their calibre in taking practical decision.through the selection process then they need to be assigned with that position which suit their capability. XIV.lack of efficiency. When the organisation size increases and when organisation hires qualified employees it becomes compulsory for the management to disperse some decision making power to other level also.