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Measurement Of Areas

ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/cdrom/fao_training/FAO_Training/General/x6707e/...

**10. MEASUREMENT OF AREAS
**

10.1 Introduction 1. One of the main purposes of your topographical survey may be to determine the area of a tract of land where you want to build a fish-farm. From existing topographical maps, you may need to calculate the area of a watershed or of a future reservoir (see Water, Volume 4 in this series).

Note:

in land surveying, you should regard land areas as horizontal surfaces, not as the actual area of the ground surface. You always measure horizontal distances.

2. You will often need to know the areas of cross-section profiles to calculate the amount of earthwork you need to do.

Horizontal area Cross-section area

3. You may determine areas either directly from field measurements, or indirectly, from a plan or map. In the first case, you will find all the measurements of distances and angles you need by surveying, and you will calculate the areas from them. In the second case, you will draw a plan or map first (see Chapter 9). Then you will get the dimensions you need from the scale, and determine the area on that basis. 4. There are several simple methods available for measuring areas. Some of these are graphic methods, where you compare the plan or map of the area you need to measure to a drawn pattern of known unit sizes. Others are geometric methods, where you use simple mathematical formulas to calculate areas of regular geometrical figures, such as triangles, trapeziums*, or areas bounded by an irregular curve.

Note: a

trapezium is a four-sided polygon with two parallel sides.

5. The simple methods will be described in detail in the next sections. They are also summarized in Table 13.

Triangle Trapezium 1

Trapezium 2

Irregular area

TABLE 13 Simple area measurement methods Section Method Remarks

10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

Strips Square-grid Subdivision into regular triangles, trapeziums Trapezoidal rule geometric figures such as,

Graphic method giving rough estimate Graphic method giving good to very good estimates Geometric method giving good to very good estimates Geometric method giving good to very good estimates Suitable for curved boundary

10.2 How to use the strips method for measuring areas

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15-08-2013 09:18

fixed interval. 3. Scale 1: 50 000. Place the sheet of transparent paper over the plan or map of the area you need to measure. the more accurate your estimate of the land area will be. such as tracing paper or light-weight square-ruled millimetric paper.org/fi/cdrom/fao_training/FAO_Training/General/x6707e/. Scale: 1: 2. by drawing a series of parallel lines at a regular. according to the scale you are using. in metres.000 Example Scale 1: 2 000. 6. 1. For each strip. Note: the smaller the strip width. strip width W = 1 cm = 20 m. Example Sum of equivalent distances is 320 m.. Calculate the sum of these distances in centimetres. Its size will depend on the size of the mapped area you need to measure. draw a series of strips. Total area = 320 m x 20 m = 6400 m 2 10. 2. You can follow the scale of the plan or map to do this. and attach it securely with drawing pins or transparent tape. 5. Sum of distances = 16 cm. measure the distance AB in centimetres along a central line between the boundaries of the area shown on the map. Repeat this procedure at least once to check on your calculations.3 How to use the square-grid method for measuring areas 2 of 9 15-08-2013 09:18 ..64 ha Note: 10000 m = 1 hectare (ha) 2 2 7. 4. Equivalent ground distance: 16 x 20 m = 320 m. multiply to find the equivalent distance in the field. Example Scale is 1 :2000 and 1 cm = 20 m. Choose this strip width W to represent a certain number of metres.fao. Get a piece of transparent paper. strip width W = 1 cm = 500 m. Land area: 320 m x 20 m = 6 400 m or 0. Measurement Of Areas ftp://ftp. Strip width (1 cm) is equivalent to 20 m.10. On this paper. Multiply this sum of real distances (in metres) by the equivalent width of the strip W (in metres) to obtain a rough estimate of the total area in square metres. Then.

but the minimum size you should use is 1 mm x 1 mm = 1 mm . To avoid mistakes. for example. 2 2. then move to the next section and proceed in this way over the entire area. To do this. count and mark it as a full square. Note: towards the centre of the area. If more than one-half of any square is within the drawing. your estimate of the land area will be more accurate. Look at the squares around the edge of the drawing. using the example given on the page. mark each square you count with your pencil.. 4. Using the distance scale of the drawing. and attach it to the drawing securely with thumbtacks or tape. Then. Add the sums again at least once to check them. Add these two sums (steps 3 and 4). Example Total count of full squares T = 256 Equivalent unit area = 16m 2 2 2 Total area = 256 x 16 m = 4096 m Note: when you work with large-scale plans such as cross-sections. calculate the equivalent unit area for your grid. Example Scale 1:2000 or 1 cm = 20 m or 1 mm = 2 m Grid square size is 2 mm x 2 mm Equivalent unit area of grid = 4 m x 4 m = 16 m 2 8. If your grid is smaller than this area. Place this transparent grid over the drawing of the area you need to measure. Multiply the equivalent unit area by the total number T of full squares to obtain a fairly good estimate of the measured area. Count the number of full squares included in the area you need to measure. above. start at one edge of the drawing. Note: if you use smaller unit squares on the grid. Half or more squares 5. estimate by sight the decimal 3 of 9 15-08-2013 09:18 . look at all the squares around the edge of the drawing which are crossed by a drawing line.10. 1. This is the equivalent area of one of its small squares. to obtain the total number T of full squares. of 10 x 10 = 100 small squares.org/fi/cdrom/fao_training/FAO_Training/General/x6707e/. Get a piece of transparent square-ruled paper. 6. Ignore the rest.. Clearly mark the outline of the grid. 3. trace a grid made of 2 mm x 2 mm squares inside a 10 cm x 10 cm square. To do this.fao. you can improve the accuracy of your area estimate by modifying step 5. making a small dot. 7. This will make your work easier. Measurement Of Areas ftp://ftp. or draw a square grid on transparent tracing paper yourself. you may be able to count larger squares made.

75 m .5. part of the whole square that you need to include in the total count (the decimal part is a fraction of the square. Water for Freshwater Fish Culture.1 and 0. FAO Training Series (4).75 m x 25.25 m = 257 555 m Area = Ö(257 555 m ) = 507 m 4 2 4 2 two sides (b.75 m (54.75 m . B = 0.org/fi/cdrom/fao_training/FAO_Training/General/x6707e/.5 m.35 m) (54. such as 0. divide the tract of land into regular geometrical figures. rectangles or trapeziums. In the first manual in this series..fao. When you need to measure areas directly in the field.10. and c = 45. You can easily calculate the area of any triangle when you know the dimensions of: all three sides a.45.75 m Area = 54. and find their dimensions by using the reduction scale. Measurement Of Areas ftp://ftp. b and c Area = Ös(s . and calculate the areas according to mathematical formulas (see Annex 1). 2. In the following steps. 10.75 m x 9.5 m) ÷ 2 = 54. expressed as a decimal.9. you will learn how to apply it under more difficult circumstances.b) (s . b = 29 m. Example If a = 35 m.5 m) = 54. you can draw these geometrical figures on it. c) and the angle BAC between them (called the included angle) Area = (bc sin BAC) ÷ 2 obtaining sin BAC from Table 14. 4 of 9 15-08-2013 09:18 .c) where s = (a + b + c) ÷ 2. C = 0. Example Square A = 0.75m . Then s = (35 m + 29 m + 45. Measuring areas by triangles 3.0.1. Section 2..4 How to subdivide the area into regular geometrical figures 1.9).a) (s . you learned how to calculate the area of a pond using this method.75 m x 19.29 m)(54. If a plan or map of the area is available. such as triangles. Then take all the necessary measurements. 0.5.

8910 0.1736 0.fao.0349 0.8829 0.737 ÷ 2 = 505.1219 0.2756 0.8290 0.9998 Two triangles 4. c = 45. you can do this in two ways.4226 0.9744 0.2250 0. The sum of the four triangular areas is the total area.2924 0. OB.8090 0.3256 0. then calculate their areas (see step 3.6947 0. You can proceed by radiating from central station 0.5000 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 0.0523 0. Measure the length of BD to find the length of the three sides of each of the two triangles. OC and OD from 0 to each corner of the site and calculate the area of each triangle (see step 3.9986 0.6691 0. Then sin BAC = 0.7431 0.5878 0.7771 0.9816 0.1908 0.3746 0.1564 0.6293 0.9877 0.9205 0.6820 0.9272 0.7880 0.3420 0. Subdivide the tract of land into triangles. You can join two opposite angles with a straight line BD.9511 0.9563 0.2079 0. The sum of the two triangular areas is the total area.8192 0. 5 of 9 15-08-2013 09:18 .7660 0.8572 0. BOC.9962 0.7547 0. and angle BAC = 50°.4848 0.. For a four-sided area.3685 m 2 TABLE 14 Sine values of angles Degree Sine Degree Sine Degree Sine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0.3907 0.4067 0.5150 0.5446 0.9659 0.7660 (Table 14) Area = (29 m x 45.9925 0.9703 0.0698 0.5736 0.9781 0.8387 0.9397 0.9848 0. Measurement Of Areas ftp://ftp.7986 0.2588 0.5 m.7193 0.8660 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 0.7314 0.9994 0.3090 0.8480 0.4695 0.5299 0.4540 0.4384 0.9976 0. Measure consecutive angles AOB.9063 0.3584 0.8746 0.0872 0. Then measure distances OA.9135 0.9336 0.1392 0.5592 0.org/fi/cdrom/fao_training/FAO_Training/General/x6707e/.7660) ÷ 2 = 1010.6157 0.9613 0.9455 0.7071 0.9903 0. COD and DOA.0175 0.9945 0.2419 0. Example If b = 29 m.10.8988 0.6018 0. above).6561 0.1045 0.6428 0. above).5 m x 0..

such as A.10. Check on your calculations. be laid out along the longest side of the land area to keep the offsets as short as possible.fao. Radiation from a central station Radiation from a lateral station 6. You will lay out offsets from the other summits of the polygon* which are perpendicular to this base line to form right triangles 1. formed by straight line AC. using the formula: Area = height x (base 1 + base 2) ÷ 2 where: Base 1 is parallel to base 2. 6 of 9 15-08-2013 09:18 ..org/fi/cdrom/fao_training/FAO_Training/General/x6707e/. and trapeziums 2. Calculate the area of each right-angled triangle*. 5 and 6. Using a base line to subdivide land areas Area = (base x height) ÷ 2 7. When the shape of the land is polygonal*. you can subdivide its area into triangles: by radiating from a central station 0 (see step 4. 8. Calculate the area of each trapezium. Repeat the measurement of the total area by using the other two triangles ABC and ACD. join two polygon summits. remember that it should: be easily accessible along its entire length. use the first procedure. When you are choosing a base line.4 and 7. provide good sights to most of the summits of the polygon. Alternatively repeat the measurements of angles and lengths from either the same station or a different one. Height is the perpendicular distance from base 1 to base 2. using the formula: Area = (base x height) ÷ 2 10. you should usually subdivide the total area you need to measure into a series of regular geometrical figures (1-7 in the example) from a common base line AD. On a land tract with more than four sides. Radiation from a central station 5. If you have proceeded by radiating. Measurement Of Areas ftp://ftp.3. or by radiating from a lateral station.. Area = Height x (base 1 + base 2) ÷ 2 9. If you have found the area by using two opposite angles. use the second. above).

2 and 5.25 2 860 980 840 1340 480 360 500 340258. Calculate the areas of triangles 1. The land boundary forms a closed polygon.66 5 660 420 360 720 60 300 360 68305.a)(s. and using the following formula: area = height x (base 1 + base 2) ÷ 2 Example Measure the heights and bases of the trapeziums. Calculate the areas of trapeziums 3 and 4.2..org/fi/cdrom/fao_training/FAO_Training/General/x6707e/. 3 4 Height (m) 560 460 (B1 + B2) / 2 (m) 790 750 Area (m ) 442400 345000 787400 2 Total area of trapeziums 15.07 14. which has been surveyed as shown. 13.47 ha 2 7 of 9 15-08-2013 09:18 .10.16 Total area of triangles 667337. and 4 with EI parallel to FH). Apply the formula area = Ös(s. using the lengths of their three sides and the following formulas: s = (a + b + c) ÷ 2 area = Ös(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) Example Take measurements of the sides of the triangles. determining their heights and base lengths. Add the total area of the triangles (step 12) to the total area of the trapeziums (step 14) to obtain total land tract area.5) and two trapeziums (3 with BE parallel to CD.fao.x) in m (s-a) (s-b) (s-c) 535 325 325 Triangle s (m) Area (m ) 2 1 1185 258773. Measurement Of Areas ftp://ftp.b)(s-c) in the following table: Length x of sides (m) a 650 b 860 c 860 (s. as necessary.. Example Total area of triangles Total land tract area = 667337 m 2 2 Total area of trapeziums = 787400 m = 1454 737 m or 145. as necessary. Example Land tract ABCDEFGHIA along a river is subdivided into five lots 1-5 representing three triangles (1. Apply the formula in the following table: Base (m) 1 980 840 2 600 660 Lot No.

respectively. Note: the shorter these intervals are.07 percent) to be permissible.2. to calculate each triangle area as: area = (height x base) ÷ 2 Enter all the data in a single table. Set out straight line AB joining the sides of the tract of land and running as closely as possible to the curved boundary. 8 of 9 15-08-2013 09:18 . Height (m) Area (m ) 2 1 600 258000 2 810 840 - 420 340200 3 560 980 600 790 2400 4 460 840 660 750 345000 5 206 660 - 330 67980 Total area of land tract 1453580 The total area of the land tract is 145.5 m long. This was caused by scaling errors when measuring from the plan. and 5. Another way of making the calculations easier is to measure from a plan the height of each triangle along the perpendicular laid out from one angle summit to the opposite side (called the base). Enter all the data in the following table: Base (m) 1 860 2 (B1 + B2) / 2 (m) 430 Lot No. You can use a similar procedure to determine the area of a land tract bounded by a regular curve. In Volume 4 of this series.fao. the more accurate your area estimate will be. proceed as follows.5 How to measure areas bounded by a curve 1. by trying to balance the partial areas. To determine the irregular area ABCDA. 22.10. you can find its area by using the trapezoidal rule as explained in this section.. which in this case are small enough (0. for example. Example From a plan. 16. 10. above. you learned how to calculate the area of a pond that has one curving side. Water for Freshwater Fish Culture (see Section 2. Measure distance AB and subdivide it into a number of regular intervals. 3. BK and LG for triangles 1.org/fi/cdrom/fao_training/FAO_Training/General/x6707e/. Then. such as a road or river. If part of the land tract is bounded on one side by an irregular curve. Mark each of the intervals on AB with ranging poles. measure heights BJ.36 ha. 2. 11 ha or 0.0). 4. as explained in step 11. which is slightly different from the previous estimate (see step 15). Measurement Of Areas ftp://ftp. each..

9 of 9 15-08-2013 09:18 . h and h o n are both equal to zero. AD. 7. 6. 5.org/fi/cdrom/fao_training/FAO_Training/General/x6707e/.. At each of these marked points. your calculations will be much simpler. o n i h is the length of the last offset.fao. and h is the sum of the lengths of all the intermediate offsets.5 m ÷ 5 = 22.3 m x 101 m = 2 656. BC.3 m 2 Note: remember that you must still calculate the area of AXYBA and add it to the area of the curved section to get the total area. Measure each of these offsets..5 m x (20 m + 10 m + 158 m) ÷ 2 = (22. Example Interval = 158 m ÷ 6 = 26.10.3 m h = 25 m + 27 m + 2 m + 23 m + 24 m = 101 m i Area= 26. Calculate area ABCDA using the following formula: Area = interval x (h + h + 2h ) ÷ 2 o n i where: h is the length of the first offset.5 m h = 20 m and h = 10 m o i n h = 27 m + 6 m + 14 m + 32 m = 79 m Area ABCDA = 22.5 m x 188 m) ÷ 2 = 2115 m 2 Note: remember that you must still calculate the area of AXYBA and add it to the area of ABCDA to get the total area DAXYBCD. set out a perpendicular line joining AB to the curved boundary. and the formula becomes: Area = interval x h i where hi is the sum of the lengths of all the intermediate offsets. Measurement Of Areas ftp://ftp. Example Interval = 112. In this case. If you can lay out line AB so that it touches the two ends of the curved boundary.

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