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Smithsonian Institution





1145 W. Highland Ave
Redlands. California

Bequest of

Stillman Berry




dtl.OrbfuU. — .r//frfr'y /^.S. ' o//.


s. deferve no attention. i.ovra. ut in und perfeSus diet nequeut. or is ufelefs. who has not attained to fome knowledge of ths .iih\a\i vacant Crtcci .JVbn auMendi sunt homines imperiti. Those inexperienced perfons. qui csieras non attigerit. anyone Science. that or that is it exceeds human ability. i. an impediment to tranfafting bulinefs. who make the compafs of it a charge of accufation againil variety and extenfive learning. from which the Greeks ufe the term For there is between the Sciences a degree of natural and clofe connexion.vy>. et rebus gerendis adverfam mXviJ.diiar EJl scilicet quicdam Scientiarum cognalio et conciliatio . qui humano ingenio mojorem. vel inutilem." so that no one can be perfe£t reft. in "Encyclopsdia. undo 1. criminantur. —Morhofi it c. et 'Eyx. i.



with a harbour. . to be performed in any carelels and fuperficial manner. fituated on the edge of the fea. to whom king James had srranttd a patent of incorporation. 78. built by the Spaniards. Jult Abraham. To to engage by interelt. Ferro. thele they twift with oil. till rendered fupple and pliant to command. Explain'd by unaffccjled eloquence.. Locke. Ion. when twilted. and fix very famous monalteries but the dwelling houl'es make no great appearance. They had more pofitivelv and concernedly wedded his caufe. on the fouth fide of the river Plata. . bufiuefs. to. all mankind's concern that he iliould live. Lat. a river of America. ceive . a city in Chili. &c. a feaport town of America. ad-v With affeClion . 30.— In hot climates. The native inhabitants. . and put into Hamlet's mouth when ridiculing aifc6led CONCEPTION The concernancy. to be ready to refill the attacks of the Chilefe Indians. which would break 3 halter of hemp of twice the thicknefs. adj. lirr Sihakf. and is governed by a correlndor. originally a participle. Lat. at three leagues diltance from the old city. Rogers. W. than they were before underitood to have done. — Intercourfe. S. that they are forced to thin the fruit. The foil here is fruitful. adj. Dryden. 35. and fince that rebuilt. \V. 10. CONCEP'TION DE LA (La). OF SALAVE. Carboniere and Havre de Grace. 13 Gracious things Thou haft reveal'd . a. Skakef. CONCEP'TiON (La). nor could the fruit come to maturity. Domingo. thole chiefly which concern Milton. who vifited Chili in 1781'). ij. . on which are two i'ettlements. Lat. Rofcommon.] Capable to conccive. CONCERNANCY. [a word coined by Shakefpeare. rfireftion. Myllerious And fecrets of a high concern. [coiiceptum. To intermeddle. weiglity truths. 4. 'Tj. To affeft with fome paflion to touch nearly. Oenbam. Let it no more bring out to ingrateful man. lalt. Importance momeiiti I look upon experimental truths as matters of great E. with relation to. Here the women go out in the night to the (hops. 1 fruit trees bear fo luxuriantly iiere. without forcing any air in j and in an. Concern d for each here Venus. hold a wild bull. CONCEPTION. pregnant: Apt to con- CONCERN'MENT. with the noole. . Philip. where it loves a nation. or rather fwallowcd up by the fea. interell. in the province of Veragua. by the Indians called Peiico. /. Our wars with France have atftfted us in our moll tender intercfl:s. Lat. Intereft Burnet. and his feed. S. has before a noun the force of a prepofition.' Ion. 52. — When we fpeak of the conflagrano concctK in the queitioji. a in Where regard. concemo. It is an 'Open town and the few batteries it has. Proviilence. Broi. CONCEP'TIVE. It was feveral. and be concerned^anA in lefs than an hour and a half to be fick. with interelt. Leaving our great concernment. one family can do ! the bufinefs of fifty. I The caufe were . thefe have No 'Tis plots th' alarm to his retirements give. they are very dextrous in managing the lance or noole and it is v#ry rare to fee them mils their aim. as may appear by a difcourie concerning this point in Strabo. . known to would not them it molt concerns. Paraguay. I ought not to have concerned wyjilf with fpecuiations which belong to the profeflion.] fruitful./ Bulinel's. Juno there. He jullly Of ill fears a peace with me would prove concernment to his haughty love. This noofe is made of thongs of cow hide. which they throw forty or fifty yards. it is faid. and hardy of any in South America. CONCKP'lION. are kept in very indirt'erent order. In 1751 it was dellroycd by an earthquake. abounding with coin and excellent wine. in the province of Mechoacan. under governor John Guy. Vol. affair. all this fO/vc^r/. N. — — — .. S. the doctor's fetch'd in hafte. moment. Ferro. as to that in Hifpaniola ifland. they have realon to confider as a formidable enemy. and at the bottom of a b. Ferro. It is within the audience and jurifdiif ion of S. by blalling the fpoilers of religious perfonj and places. formed by the river Veragua ninety miles well of Panama. and to a leaport of California. by the coldnefs of this fimple they may be reduced into a co?icepti've conititution. 15. affair: confidered as relating^ to Ibme. and fo halter the object of their diverfion or revenge. are the molt warii. Ion. and concerned us rao^e than. folid convincing fcnfe. /. Palhon. Locke. — CONCERN'EDLY. — Why for the no work. To concern hjmfelf. and as olten repaired. to the influence : Denham. affeilion poor. Things of lefs moment may delays endure. — The mind : is Ituniied and daz- zled amidil that variety of objctHs flie cannot apply herfelf to thofe things which are of the utniolt concern\o\\tr. W. at tlie mouth of a river. and even the women. 6+. Fr. No. They have alio given this name to feveral towns of America . a town of the : Ah. it being contrary to the cuitoni of this country for women of any charafler to go abroad in the day-time on fuch affairs. belonging to (he Spaniards. CONCEP'TiON. CONCERN'ING. town of South America. Addifon. on the Spanilh main. fick. Lat. in Mexico. engagement. Dcnham. hour the bird began to panf. difturb . to fecure the road from Mechoacan to the filver mines of Zacatea. prep. . {conceptii-n. In one comprefTIng engine I (hut a I'panow. The great concernment of men is with men. they are all trained to arms from their childhood. 36. excel in horfemanlhip . interelt — Above the reft two goddeffes appear. flate. The Spanilh inhabitants here. thole with any other nation. Ipiritual interells. Lat. CON — . they will. N. phraleolo^v-] Concernment. concernment. though at full fjSeed. W. Settkmcnts were made here in 1610. to be of importance to. South America. Greenwich. to belong to. Ion. on the ilthmus of Darien. or Conception de los Pampas. Drydeiu uneafy. to buy fuch necelfaries as they want for their families. Dryden. The ancients had nohiglier recourfp than to nature. one amongfl: another. Atterbury. by about forty planters. otherwife the branches would break. S-ujilt. 36. Drjdeu. what concerns did both your fouls divide Your honour gave us what your love deny'd. to be bufv Being a hynian. [coiscerner. Drydeiu CONCE'RN.] Relating to. Importance. [this word.. Shakefpeare.CON having numerous hays on the weft fide. and where the uterine parts exceed in lieat.N. This place concerns not at all the dominion of one brotjier over the other. times deftroyeJ by the powerful confederacy of the Indians. 39. The thing in which -^ we concerned or interelted. and lb ftrong that. South. 9. which runs into the Spanilh main. concerns iticMio own and alVeit the interelt' of religion. as well as the Itations of St. whom.. To CONCE'R. low Lat. Yet when we're Relation . Addifon. the plough has .ay of its own name. This city has a church. The tion of the world. — > VEGA ifland of St. V. Michael and St. a fmall town of North America. 55. Jago. 250.] To relate. — Our future are Common mother. Religion is no trifling concern. and the great concernments oi (hould doulitlels recur often. To to make — — — Let early care thy main concerns fecure. — CONCEP'TIOUS. according to Perouze. Enfear thy fertile and conceptions womb. bufinefs.

if ever. whofe arrangements by fucli methods are more xlifcourle. in'the department of quirers. Sivift. for the greater part. Palhon . All thole dil'contents. and may he exprelTed by the word concetto.' — . While they are dation of beauty v. Broivn. in the capacity of every one to make. a fliell. crabs. but the latter. The./ [concha. exhibit only the fliells or habitations. He married a daughter to the earl. their temples coniecrated to Venus.nge by CON'CHES. without . many performers joining kind of ftone-like calcareous covering or h. is univerfally followed for the purpofes of conCONCES'SIVELY. are methodized only.ts we can ofBiive. . that is. or or fupei'ior fjmmetry of the fpiral fnail tions commencing in a point. and keeps its plural] Falle greater number are found on fliores. infeniibly To Ibttle. made. forthemfelves. the fliells. They are alio deftifixth clafs of animals. taken as granted. which from the conchs he drew. hoofs. w-hich confequently is formed into many joints. or in a a concert. mals. Sec. Chejlc'-Jield. undergo arthe territory of Padua. heart. horns. Drjdai. the nature and properties of (liells. in the dillrift of who chieHy live in the depths of the Ufa. nor are the partiThe fliepherds have their concetti and thsjir an. ad. but have every CONCCR'TATIVE. However. the rell of the band joining occaiionally in or reptiles and therefore properly appertain to Lm nanus's concert. Hale./ [^Mcm-. infomuch [Ital. otherwife quite the mod: bjautiful. &c. or concernment in it./. and half in that of Venice. in ill the fame tune. to arrange a numerous the Correze. Clarendon. a fyfteni or arrangement. not controverting by affumption. Given by indulgence or . adi<. CON — CON regard. and are. grant. a animals.7". CONCES'SIONARY. tidies. tlilfiCON'CHOID. in. Whether the methodical fyltem or arrangement of telhiCONCES'SIVE. concej/lve. zable to any but expej't. are not with the true. The vaft number of I'peyielding. aJj. mectilling. It is now generally ufed for a piece intended All (hell animals are exanguious. Some have cies hitherto difcovered. to adjull: dilate themfelves as they advance. to difplay the powers of one particular inftrument or have no blood fimilar to that of quadrupeds. a fmall village in Maritime Auftria. few are fifticd up living. the fliells of animals the Eure. half in very fiflies. Implying conceflion. birds. till the whole aifumes From this admired ftructhe elegant taper of the cone. the thing yielded.] To fettle any thing in private by mutual communication. the fcale regularly' rhajiifeil in their concernment. the principal parts. which mathematicians pronoutice to be i'lnie affair. The crowded (lielves with rarities of fliells: Quadrupeds are methodized by their teeth. a town of France.abitation. afcendsj till it arrives at perfeftiop in the elegant naatile.] Con. in the nients are on the principles of external and obvious chafix leagues north-north-calt of Pau. CONCERTO. How is it poflible. to contrive. the infinite variety of fliells difperftd over the univerfe.oft beautiful undulating wreath. And all the fparkling llones of various hue. being exterior in thele creatures./ [conceJio.^ks./.cultly. the hand of the Supreme Artill has difplayed every grathan J'ufi'erine. by private encounters among theuifelves.that goddefs . in his working brain. performer.L?it. in their fliells . a town of France. fliells we daily difcover. by charaiSlers or pa. for we find united in this iliell all thofe ment of mealures among thoi'e who are engaged in the lines or figures. while all the other orders of CONCHO'LOGY. the CON'CHE. with difliculty.14.ous animals fliould be formed from the li''iiig animals tical. [Ital. the CONCETTO. if by them I might gain the love of my people. whereas the crullaceolis anitention. how ruinous foever. from concertare. birds by their plumage.ed or flelhy. they are endowed with Jions. Ronve./ [from xcyxi.tablcs are diltinCON'CHES. whofe parts are not furprife and curiolity./ . Fi'om the moll rude and nitfliapen oylter. lowance. Lower and chief place of the a canton. coat of mail.oyi^. in the department of guJlhcd by their flowers and fruits. and fills by obvious and external. as all bones of other I Itill counted myfelf nndiniiniihed by my largeft conccfanimals are placed. Why then (hould it be requiied to arr-. mer method feems moft fcientifical . There is a kind of counter-talle. which the whole animal.-?//!. By way of concedlon as.'ig Charles. if ever. already. which maintains a fort of rivalfliip eafily feen or obvious. This is a very plesfconcernment to mankind. then. though of a different element.lives included as in a houfe . and hides.] (lielf. ture. — —A — .. fcarcely to be lb eager to deftroy the fame of others. whofe convoluLat. the name of a curve in. ing and curious depiirtment of natural hiltory for. . and the vcg'. Communication of defigns eftablifli.] The fcienec which teaches an inveltigation of eafily attainable. aiij. be. dillrict of Paa ratlcrs. founded on Accurate defcriptions of animals. enCONCE'ZE. the animals but affuming the queftion. beKi. Adds orient pearls. To C'ONCE'RT. as the emblem of CON'CERT. or vermes. — A : conleiit . that have hardly Evreux: three leagues (buth-we!t of Evreux. thofe fulcra or props to the mufcles cr yielding. iyniphony . conditional. have arifen from the want of a due communication and Da Cofta dates the definition of a {hell as follows concert.s. and philoibphical. and not interior. a. tnterpofition . conjuntfions. or from their habitations or fliells I'eem in general to require a fubjunftive mood after them.themfelves being fcarcely known or detcribtd. orCoNCHiLES.] Strife. CONCES'SrON. rangements by their fins. Lat. CONCERTA'TION.] A piece of mufic compofed for that the whole animal feems as it were loricated.'hich can exill in a permanent I'orm-.s. and exceptive.'] The aft of granting tHie of any bones. Iramcntary way. aHiduous. conceit. him and her to come into his prefence. and ?. and claws. Lat. Boyle. reptiles and infefts by like particulars. It was much ufed by the ancients demand of fiich animals only.K-es for fome public exhibition.particular limb or part feparately cpvered with the cruft. Drydai. con. [conarter. within our reach ? Why fliould naturalills vented by Niconudes. any other approbation of her tather. and winding with the eafy perfoniinnce. \_concertati-vt'. — —A : A i . in the department of fcientifical or difliciilt charafters. as lobfters. in the far CONCH. as the mouth. are not naked. the moll difficult to attain. and chief place of a canton. arij. chology and for many realbns. and diitrift of Brive: fix leagues north-welt fet of the fliells of animals. and the numerous colleilions written rhetorically and concrjfi-velj not controverting. characters. Hypothe. the Greeks prefervfd it in one of Ke forms the wcW-concerttd Icheme of milchief. i>. lungs. a town of France. their ambition is diltinguillied from its native rock. a progrefhve motion. in the conftruition of folid problem. All thele arrange Pyrenees. See Fluxions. The concejfion of thele charters was in a parof the animal ftrufture. a fea-fliell greater number of the fpecies we coUeft or difcover ? All other ranks of animals are arranged into fyflems He furnidies her clofet firft. fides other parts fuitable to their mode of life. and with univerliil — — — . which. tentious quarrellbnie recriminative. get acquainted with. or coverings.ilIt has been a fubjeft of fome debate among naturalills. emotion of mind. and anatomical relearches. not by fcientifical. dead and empty. it is imagined. Of the vantaged the illation. from Lcicth. Fr.cular parts and their refpctlive funftions lb ealily cogniShenJIone tithefes. Lat. to prepare themit. flow of the m. Mark how. .

thick. and fmooth. it evidently follows. or the (hells Such an abllrule method. thought to be a particular charaiter of the black limpet. penetrating through thefe fpaces to the upper or external furface. and COLOURS. thin. and being of a calca- compoled of dilferent . -the winged ibells. or let with large fpikes. ni like manner. that the Ihells alter in every llage of the animal's growth. above all other iliells. yet there is a mode in whicii we may (hew. according as the animal is to be in time evolved. neverthelefs its elegant garnet-like femi-tranlparent eye or top always charaflerizes it through all its colours and forms. tuberculated. Yet even all thcle fiiells. although the beil moifture. but he. and the rings in the helices . band. as in making the fi(h only. being hardened afterwards. If lb. curled. It is probable. colour. when young. for the fliell mult always anfwer to the animal. forth. or broad. fpot. P. the ftrudture at the extremity is changed by the addition of new lobes. The garnet limpet has. tion and growth of that (liell. that w'hen young ihey have narrow. terial changes in their forms. like the other vermes. before him . this lip is greatly extended. tip. afterwards forms a prcjefting lobe. and pores.addition to which we may always fee. and almoft clofes their mouth or opening. anfwering to the pores of the animal. in order. for the new . pronged. though he has many of the fame kind. although this may appear doubtful with regard to the paper nautilus. ought to be larger than that of a little nsrite. The goat's-eye limpet wears. for the fame reafon that the egg of an oftrich differs in fize from that of . What we have liotic-ed on this head. and the opening is pretty clear or free. which it uniformly preferves through all Even the rocks or murices. or wrinkled. OF SHELLS. The largenefs of tl)e fpawn is proportioned to the natural fize of the Ihell and it is tak'en for granted that the fpawn of a hrge buccinum. thin. and.adlers. and. either in the turban. by which the lamily or genera may be dlllinguifhed fioin all others. and membranous. forms a branch of Ichthyology. horny. flattilli. and will accordingly be found under their generic names in this work. That furface being naked. as many different appearances as any fpecies of (hell. even. GROWTH. from the iituation of its eye or beak being at two-thirds ot the length of the Hiell. the methodical arrangement of the (ubjeiis in conchology (liould be made from the (liell. and its mode of life therefore. which is expelled by the parent animal. from the place being too narrow. But the fubjeft haa not yet been futiicientiy examined to make this part of conchology clear and obvious. and we yet want many experimental obfervationsoh the formation and growth of fhells. or fiih and (liell. is neverthelel's worthy of confideration and regard. continues to difcharge the fame moilture. and makes it (lippery and tenacious. as not to bear the flighteft touch of the linger.i goldfinch. as it happens in many other parts which do not grow but in a certain age as the horns. like a triple-edged fpear or fwoid. either in worh. it at length detaches itfelf entirely from the body. mufcular. which have at firlt the mouth united. and is therefore always to be dU'iinguifliedand cliaia-itcrs known by it. many infallible charailers upon fljeils. and that cannot be held in any other light. The anifnal is obvioudr fibrous. Every fliell animal. and hence it will be fmooth. and thui becomes as it were a diltinft covering. which prefently becomes exaiSfly fitted to that piece of the body. for want ot accuracy. The inveliigation of the included living . or fubJtance. rough. very thick. is very narrow and fine. and are more eafily attainable. but look only on its ridges. The conftruffion of the (hell muft necelTarily follow the natural conformation. which led fome of the early naturalills to rank a flag with horns under a diilinft fpecies. lips. wholie appearances in their feveral growths. which it retains through all its various ftages and forms. for every fpecies of (liell has one or more particular ("pecilic charafter. From thence arife the fpires in fnail fliells. According . Wolfgang Knorr. This fituation of the eye. and it is immediately recognized through all its different appearances. have conitant and fixed char. and even often greatl)' refembles others. body. the moifture difiblves in the former tubercles. it in time gets hard it is forced out fucceffively by the humid liquor. wrinkled. . mouth of the fliell neceffarily takes a different form thereby. that the animals themlelves mult undergo as maIt cannot be othervvifc. but that it contains a number of minute fpaces.CONCIIOLOGY. when they arrive at a certain age. the teeth. perhaps. we remain in equal uncertainty as to an arrangement by the fifli. it has many feparate organical refervoirs. or colour. but which atfirfl is fo fine and brittle. The animal alio is delicately fa(hioned. work. The fmalleft (nails are formed with their (hell. lb as to be taken by fome naturalifts for a different genus . Adanfon drew a he conclufion of the different (hells pj-opofes for the fpecies of the black limpet. teeth. As foon as the creature has taken fo much growth that it can no longer lodge in the fhell. in his Delices de la Nature. on the lame ground of error. refembling the honeycomb of bees. and its ftages. the increafe is faid to be made after the following manner: It thrufts from the orifice that part of the body which it can no longer contain in the fhell. has given the following account of this department of animal phyliology. The fmall blue-rayed limpet of our own coaft is. it obliged him to expole. When the animal is attached to the inner part of the fhell. and. from whence flow the matter which forms the conveying a portion of juice fucceflively to the infliell ner lurface of the ftiell. and alio a clammy I'ubllance. is the lels necellary. The bloody-tooth nerit is known through all appearances. the fpiders. the mark of . (harp. were it of teftaceous annnaU ? even attainable. or at two-thirds the length of the (lie)!. m very minute. and is found all over the lurface of the animal . taken from the Linnxan clalhfication. the conformais at firft fpawn formed . ftriated. which is depollted on the edge. confeiU. the charader of which is to be three-edged. and is called nulicera. as by the (hells. This may be obferved in fome fpecies of the buccinum. and are wry-mouthed.animals. the criBut there terion of the whole animal. This is nothing but the nioilirure that flows continually from the whole body. iins i }S by the obvious charafters of teeth. which. uniting with the edge of the orifice. fo the On the FORMATION. than as analogous to the external charafters. in proportion as reous nature. which hardens. and nusfhapen j yet its few blue ftreaks always charatterize it. to diitinguifli it from a fawn. and that hence enlues a very confiderable change in the forms and colours of the (liells.that the (hell is not folid throughout. forms a new portion of fliell. many different appearances . he. In fome of thefe animals.overlooked that the eyes or like beaks of many other fpecies of limpets are placed manner. which diilinguifti them throughout all thefe extremely different appearances. This frotli conlilfs of a great many cells or cavities. J . and makes that firm. The manner of the procefs is certainly enveloped in darknefs. are. and of very difl'erent appearances. but as tile (liells have the moll obvious and eligible cha{afters. if great changes happen to the animal as well as to the fiiell. or colour. and fprings from little eggs or in a kind of froth. humours. and very conical when old. as far as obfervation goes. Mr. but &c. perhaps from millions of pores. Every fliell-animal fcems to be the archifeft of its own habitation .. He therefore ericd as much in making that particular the criterion of the (hell. are lb extremely different. whole horns had not begun to (hoot. and thus making it both harder and firmer. becaule every accurate and judicious naturalilt may always be capable of dilHnguilhing the fpecies by the (li'ells alotie. on the contrary. when old. But it has been objeiSed. parts . by the blood-like ipots on its Each volute has Ibme particular ftreak. which covers the whole fleHi. plumage.

and accordingly he does not attempt to delineate its organization. the produdion of which he eafily explains from the configurations of their membranes. Sec. and organical refervoirs jull as in other creatures. according to this generital formation. without counting the (pecies which muft be buried in the bottom ot the lea. left after this operation. fuppofe a fyliera of arteries. the data of which he formed from the diverfnies of the colours of ttioli fliells he had only in his own polTeffion. the (liell increafes by addition oi.. The delicate retitulated film. or let loofe by the ailion of the acid on the earthy (ubitance. He there fupports the theory «f Knorr. iftheoiganiciil refervoirs. but fiugularly frugal in the execution of them. every lyfteni of arteries. (hell pofl'cfTed nouriOiing moiHure palTes to or from the inhabitant and. and. the delicacy of thefe membranes was fo great. In general. at times. exlilbits fatisf. Sec. io without doubt fea animals are fubjeft to the fame mutabilities of nature. in a varietyof pofitious.or a fragment of one. by the petrifubjcfl' to certain difeafes. conforms to the llructure and wants of the included animal. which can change and alter the colour of their humours. in order to explain the formation and growth of fliell-tifli. the meflies formed by the reticular filaments of which this membranous luhltance is coiupofed. Belides the great variety of fixed or permanent colours with wJiicli he (bund the animal filaments of tliel'e flijlls to be adornedOt is known. and the other appeared. and difpofed. contained in a glal's veliel. on being viewed throug!* j . ~ JVI. This. the liile green. that this fubllance is produced merely by the perfpirable matter of the ani- an appendix to the body of the animal. the moifture being of another coJotii-. (hould tear the compages of its fine membranous (Iructure. for the (pace of two months . by endeavouring to fliow.aggregation but it is more conlonant to the finiple operations of nature to fuppol'e. (or the body or fibres of an animal may be badly formed. not require much time. in a (yftematlcal divifion. the fliell. &c.^ by the gentle operation of. In other fliells he employed even five or fix months in demonffrating the complicated membranous ftruiSlure of this animil iubftance by this kind of chemical anatomy. and alfo fimilar lines and decorations in a great many Ipecies of caterpillars. of all other animals of (hells. as well as to the growth of the animal. and the fmall veins. left the air generated. with and without fliells . in a mora hafty or lefs gentle diil'olution. that the fliell itfelf pre(ents to the view a fuccefhon of rich and cliangeable colours. always magnificent in her defigns. confilting of innumerable membranes of a retifonn appearance.ictory proofs of a vafcular ftrufture. the curious membranous ftruitureoblerved in the laminaj of mother-of-pearl. la(t owes its hardnefs to the earthy particles conveyed through the veffels pf the animal. that its exterior lamina:. founded oti a courii. that he was obliged to put it into fpifit of wine. confiderably diluted either with water or I'pirit of wine. or in» ftrumcnt employed for that purpofe. and all the tenuity of a I'pider's web . and as it were brought to perfeflion.. The membranous fubftance above-mentioned is plaited and rumpled. Nature. jutt as the fame nourifliing juices of the human body and fecretions. and alfo by the funffions of tiigeflion. Now. .^ugmented by continual addition through the fpaces of the fliell. which fix thenifelvesinto. the chyle white.. fecretion. This moillure being Jiardened and . perpetually made on the plates of the furface.etch or outline of the fliell will (hew the true difpofition of the fibres. which hisperformed the office of a mould to it. becaufe we fee different: ftriated and fpecklcd in it a foft Cubftance. the urine yellow. in order that fuch tilings might not contribute to increafe the genera and fpecies of (hells unncccffarily. where the blood is red. cannot piefent itfelf on the furface but in the fame colour.irtof it. are difpofcd in circles. fucceluvely in the extremities of the fmalleft veins towards the exterior furface. which may be coUefled after precipitation by a fixed or volatile alkali. though only of a hair's breadth. According to tliis opinion of Knorr. Of the many Angular configurations and appearances of the membranous pan of different flitUs. in fuch a manner. in the M-moirsoS the Academy of Sciences for 17166. can be differently coloured by the mixture? The above reafoning is no lefs applica- ble to figures and paintings. he poured a futlicient quantity of the nitrous acid. as he (uppofes. containing earthy particles united by mere juxtapufition. incrulted with their eartliy and l'emi-tran(parent matter. certainly a fyllem of aiterics. that it is by ejttenlion that the Ihell tal<es the fize adapted to the fpeThere is cies. or figures. take different colours . . form an infinite contiiiu. conjoined in the ihell. in particular. to which he had the patience to add a Angle drop of fpirit of nitre day by day. there remains floa'. to be evidently of an aniinal nature. as a ipeciuien. lines. He (hows that this membranous . however. of a confillency like foam i different. This remark I'eems the more necefl'ary. and other fliells of the fame kind. and organical fubltance is a microlcope. ivhich thus become the caufes of their great variety of colours. which conftitutes the anim. as it were. or acompofe the liand that this . he obferves. And as every animal is . Thofe who. was only the product of a vifcous tr. fo that it cannot ("ail to produce a dift'erence in the external appearance of the fliell. we Ihail meiitiun only. and. it muft be that the fl. can. who firfl difcovered the fliructure of fliells to be organical. in diffecent fliells. and which arife from the different diffolutlons of the fmaUeft particles.. or to fmall variations of ffru(5lure. and which we know nothing of but by tlic petrifications. In the {l\s\lxMed foreelain. which ramify thence near to the furface of the fliell. de Reaumur appears to have given a fatisfaftory account of the formation of the fliell of the garden fnaif. Knorr proceeds to explain them on the principles of animal He fays that a matter flows from the animal into fluids. In the numerous experiments that he made on an immenfe number. which mull not on that account be taken for a different or (ubordinate fpecies. fication that takes pl. (ay that the liquors which flow from the animal into the fliell. As to the beautiful defigns and colours of fnells. in tlie fame aniinal. It cannot appear improbable that this fliould be the true conftruttion of thefe creatures. although of one and the fame colour. diftillation. After the liquor has diifolved all the earthy part of the fliell. that the of a fnail. it may have the pores Ifraight and large. dilTolution. Thefe two (ubitances he dexteroufly feparated from each other by . very eafy chemical analyfis which they were exhibited diftincSly to view.from many experiments made upon it by burning. of very ingenious experiments. he makes it yppear that there would be two thouland different fliells. after having been expofed to the operation of the author's folvent. in (hort. by_ which the mal condenfitig and afterwards liardening on Its frnfict. On an entire fliell. it certiinly would have done. which prove to us their exiltence. Hence. From a bare calculation made by Knorr. or otherwife. with its particular organs. he coiillantly found that they were conipoled of two difliniSf (ubitances one of which is a cretaceous or earthy matter. according to the difference of the particular humours. related in the Pans Memoirs. as it has not been atfecled by the (blvent. which. produces thefe brilliant decorations at a very fmall expence. as in all folid parts and bonfs of animals.that gamenls by whicli it is fixed to its fliell 4: number . of animal (hells. and accordmgiy taking the figure of its body.iufmlation from the body of the animal. without any material alteration from the aftion of the folvent. as the colours fpring from the refleftion of the rays of p. the pioccis does. this author does not hefitate to attribute the colours of (hells to the llrufture of their organical fecretories. and a very great variety.ition of the tendinous fibres .Ifi CONCHOLOGY. retains ths exaft figure of the fliell. as it were. But it was M. h. and alfo the pores. which are defcribed in tliis memoir. and thus more ditiolved. veins.

or wreath. it litems. come from the Eaft This is in fome degree Indies and from the Red. or covered with a lid. is almolf infinite. We A their different growths or.iy be confidered. kinds of dire6lions. Some diells though of the fame age. This obfervation is always found to be conllant.) is the middle part. It is laudable to coUeft . i. The number of diltinft Ipecies we find in the cabinets of the curious is very great. but when a i the rudiments of a proper apparatus for making t!ie epi dermis. are capable of not only adding to the extent and growth of their (hells. by other fubordinate charaflers. and afterwards into (pedes.-vll 'lli. convolutions. (bajln. yet in many it is the raoft obvious part of the mouth next the lip. . in thefe VVrth refpeft to the figures and colouis of (hells. the differences of which. tiful fliells we are acquainted with. the cylindric. the (hell. and aid their growth. contain multitudes ftill unknown to us. or ends. it is common for the males to have their fpires lefs numerous more ilender and lengthened. end. . In that it does the f'sme office as the periolte or membrane which covers the bones of other animals . and hence gives them a luft'-e and brilliancy that thofe of colder climates always want and it may be. 3. Young (liells colleflor alfo makes it his (tiidy to contemplate fcientifically the natural curiofities he acquires. As thefe charafters include the principal parts of all univalves. as to be nearly on a level with the bale of the (hell. fays Mr. forall (liells thathave an epidermis have a I'cabrous furface. fpire. is the part julf over the mouth or aperture. and only on the outfide. (columella. enable us to form refpeftive families or clalfes. that when the upper or under (ide. as to clear away all impurities from their (hells. The epidermis. that river (hells have not fo agreeable or diverbut rhe vai ieiy fified a colour as the land and lea fhelis in the figures. and in fome other kinds. that the fun. though fome authors have given them quite contrary names. The mouth or aperture. it is obferved. as the ftiell itfelf. It is a rough covering or (kin. that may add to the brilliancy . and.ll formed by the fifh. or extraneous bqdies adhering to any part of them. the realbn is. which are not (ubjedf to be weakened by frc(h rivers. becaufe all turbinated or fpiral (hells take their growth from the tip or end. are as ways a lefs number than the old ones . is not all the produce of one fea. To prevent the fait water from corrodingthelhell. but can likewile. i. or other marks or particularities. it is fuppofed that the (hell lies on its mouth upon a table. witlr a fingle continued cavity. 1_ . horny. the conic. Adanlbn. it varies according to the diflerent plans they turn part ot the fliell. where there is not a power of defence. (clamicula lengiorc. and doubtlefs the deep bottoms of the lea.CONCHOLOGY. that all fiQies inhabiting naturally fraooth (liells.) denotes each (ingle or (eparate turning or circumvolution. neceflary to fix ftandiird or elTential cliaraflers to all (hells. Whether fpires. And this renders it very probable. or with many compartments or cavities. The(e are the principal difpofitions of the fpires but there are . The peculiar (hape. The body of the (liell. particular parts which enter into the conftruflion follow : i. Thefe charafters mult always be formed from the chief parts of the (hells. from the general obleivations of the curious. The bale. Even the fame Ipecies differ in foiiie degree in almoft every in dividual i (b that it is rare to find any two (liells which This wonderful variety. there is no doubt but wfrlhouldlind Vol. operculated. is not the fame in all (hells. and occupies the fpace between tlie bafe or turban. &c.No. 3.) is that part which runs from the top to the extreme limits of the aperture. the horizontal.feit acumen. exalts the colours of the (hells produced there. they of courfe conftitute the rudiments of the fyftem. prifms.nated. the different parts of the world afford us their Bonani obferves. 2. f plauatioii. or the end of the turban. The epidermis. the two following may delerve confideration: i. rounds. a. fexes. that c6vers the (liells to defend them from exterior accidents. and it feenis not improbable but among the iiveral ufes of this covering. Thus iu univalves there are five llandard or clVciitlal churaA^rs for the clalfes or families: thefe are. (apertura. in (hape.) of an univalve. or axis 11 C f 1\ t"/-lll . (claiiicula dcprelfa the produced turban. or not operculated. The epidermis feems as much a genuine covering of the (lic. Of the PARTS and fome CHARACTERS it is of SHELLS. as in the turban of the whelk. ' The itruif ure of the epidermis is very different in different genera. (hells have . is a periofte or membrane. The number and forms of the fpires vary in the fame fpecies. from time to time. turn. or tip. he then claims the'ielpefl of mankind. or helix. and produce all the (liells.attributed to difeafe. It delerves to be more minutely examined. . which rud ments ought to be well inveftigated by every col leif or of (hells. and from which all the fpires commence and turn round. or (preading on a cylinder. mouth. and though not feen in all the (lulls. (eldora find any cowries with coral. whether opake. 4. 4. And. never withinfide.) is the asjgreeate or whole fet of the whirls. 5. 3. are ftriflly alikfrin all refpefts. V. by calling the tip or turban the part over the mouth. or of one country. could we (ise the recent fifli. 250. with the head towards the right hand. and always forms the 2o%i. all tiie different forms or figures of (liells pioceed. genera and J'pecies. It always lies afide the mouth. This part is common to bivalves as well as univalves. (j'pha. that the moft beaudifferent beauties. Thus. and the end or tip towards the left. beak. flat tut bail. but not all. by the great heat that it gives to the countries near the line. and other characters. whirl. or lefs fwelled.veral ether degrees of them. either in . The difpofition of the fpires. The aperture. are. Sea. In (peaking of (hells it may be underftood. that the waters of thole valt feas. of ie. anjyatlus. countenanced by what is found to this day.-id the apex. To prevent other lliell-fifh or marine inleits from fixing their habitations on thefe (liells. or periolfeum. as well as the fiiell.) needs no ex- have al- A ) ^ 1- I 1 f'i-l. (cla-juula helix. and examine its organs. fituation. The epidermis. by which In every fylfem of conchology. or tip. The (lielly fubrtance. and indeed are. as it does the rich plumage of birds. and they can turn on four different plans. (cUfuicula longiffma . The of a (hell. or common (hail. numVr of little i. are mentioned. to the mouth or upwards. which proceed from different degrees and combinations of thefe four. colours. Turbinated and chambered. quite analogous to the bones of other animals. which are.. or clavicle. : of their (hells. The pillar. in the purpurs. add a frelli poliflied covering to the whole (hell at lead their organs (eem to extend to fuch a length. i. in others fibrous and brufh-like.) is that part of the other end oppofite to it. The number of 2. or wreaths. which raolf. Turbinated.i flseils. the ovoid plan. Simple or not turbinated. .) all which are explained br the very names they bear. foinetimes have not the fame number of fpires: this is to be . or perhaps. The turban. and to reIblve thole families into genera. as they do upon all bodies in the fea. give a nourifliment to the fifh. for the (liells of thefe filhes m. it may be an effeft of fex. 5. the buccma. however. they may be divided into families or clalfes. a. many intermediate ones. and. in addition to the praife already gained by his aHiduity. In feme it is lanr. From thefe four difpofitions of the (pires. The head. (corpus. or from top to bottom. The head.) IS fo (lightly prominent. and which forms the fupport or balis of them. placed in all which refrart tb'e rays of changes of colonr obfetvable light. The fubordinate cbarailers for genera and fpecies in univalves.) the ion" turban. There are likewii'e (i.Il ^m_ _ which runs through the ihell. . 4. ( clci'-viaila. fize. and the iliores yet unexplored. pearly. as the Qiort turban. or opening of the (hell. ». (apex. 2. and the whole (hell fraaller than in the females. to prelerve them.J X*. perhaps. and the more elegant decorations of ferpents .

turbines. yet the fit the outer mouths or apertures of the to make it fit. None but Thefe operturbinated univalves have opercula or lids. and expunged the teltacea. The operculated land univalves are very different. It is are of a calcareous nature. The paper nautilus certainly appears not to be fixed by any one part to its fnell. th. and the corals a feparate and difAnother difpute remained long unltttled ia tinfit order. viz. or very lengthened.^ic the veiiiiiculi or ferpula. one contiUs of two feparate and very unequal Ipiral. (cocklea umbilicata. (alatit. as it were. white and greafy.lls. was cf this latter kind. and This texferent fubftances. Rumphius and Se. fb as to pronounce definitively whether corals fhculd be ranked as teltaceous animals. but molt generally fcetid. haps. Of later times they have ufed indifferently the iinall round opercula of purpurae. or crulf. and their fmoke was held good for vapours and the epilepiy. In others it is The mod general ftruiture of teftaceous animals is to be attached to their fliells. are tJiole that or body whirl. or lid. davicula mlus reeonim circum'volutwnc! nulla . whether the ferpula fhould be rather ranked as corals. The echini were very indefinitely placed by naturalilts many ranking them as crultaceous. and forae The helix. The \\i->. like lubllance. as peifeaiy round. as in thefpider-fhells. Diofcorides mentions two kinds. This lid. turn from right to left. revolve withex parte fnmineanl. Linnaeus . which ill'ues from the body of the animal.. but merely covers the mouth. levels. that thefe teltaceous animals border on. or unguis aromaticus of the ancients. and make the fijrpula and dentalia teftaceous animals. So that the fhell really pieces . they form a new lid. like any thing in a However.) is that prolonged and furrowed tl. There is another oblervation to be made with regard to vermiculi. anJ tholt . . js conftantly found to iiiclofe the common They are alio of diftVrent forms. biicdna biiinguia. any other regular work. to tranfmit the proper juices for the iucreale of it. (cckhsoperculata:. which Ihuts up or covers mouth of the fhell. extended Itraight It families. or. daByh. or opercuJam. from which particular. which ture may be illulhatcd by the operculum. and generally wrought with a fpiral work. lid. between fnails.) is the hollowed or gutter. fo that only the outer whirl luch are the nautili is fetn. conchylium. . Winged ihells. (-/isit'. it is reafonable to fuppofe that thefe animals are not abfolutely Icole from their (hells. which was the luoll elteemed the pther black . &c. tia.refore. or ferpulae. This is moltly fern in cochlea. elliptical. It was called unguis. times that the animals require fo (Vietter tliemfelves fron* the injuries of the weather. it is averred. they have obtained the name of creeping The horny and leathery opercula rejet't acids. ammunits. Yet. and not and others. l"o that it retires confiderably from the fliell when the animal moves. or apfencontour of the AUcs. Yet fliut furely all the opercula. moreorlcfs in the difterent tongue or bore. The and is pretty thick. have their two flats or whirls or turnings King. however. of diftula are fmall. as the plough. The above applies only to fea univalves. &c.) are tliofe whofe lips expand greatly outwards. exhales a ftrong fniell. Linnasus has thought it right to feparate them. or horny. very lip: which is peculiar to the fj. nor is it ever wrought with a Ipiral or with concentric circles. the other large :md mer being the lid. When burnt they exhale a fmell Ibmewhat like that of caltoreum. a^ place them with the lea itars and cruftdcea.) are thole that turn or orablorhed indde. as in the fea univalves. with tiendajre. upper part of the pedeltal of the fifh. that it was long before conchologifls could fix their limits. but rather that they are very flightly connected to it . aod that is only at luch Clafles . oval. or convolutions. as fome river Aiails. though they do not feem to Ihells. they detach the mulcles of the their yearly crulls old crulls. the mere outer but tne inner. and difiblve in acids. viz. fcmicircular. ftrve as covers. they detach themfelves from the mulcles. and they have no clavicle: laxatives. are thole (hells thai. to reconcile this difi'erence. among the common people fond of curiofities. and others as animals of an order diltinft from either.18 plan. the fpiders. by the ebullition . which..itian. no ways fixed. It is c<. as fhelly.ipemire . and entirely up the filh. ' placed at the inner extremity or root. is contour of the mouth or . or oftener. The filhermen mult be very expert to catch the fifh in its fliell.) are the jjrocefTes that illue from the 1 lie beak and fcoop. claws or prongs. that the fifli of three families are not always affixed by mufcles to their (hells. becauli. or whofe whirls or turnings are hidden within the body of the Qiell. ture like a horn. becaufe imagined to refemble the talons of a bird of prey. as it were. the forpiece fiat and fmall. poft-horn lip. fimithey are lunar. or its length. and many others. the dentalia. perhaps. . therefore that. the (hells have been called. CONCHOLOGY. is always fixed on the circles. and form large flaps or wings . like a lid. (heterojlropha.) ( lower down on the cefs placed tideways of the beak. Operculated lliells. as Martini has done in fome particulars . (fmit!. or oval. cfpecially is by feme authors called the bore when fpoken of the pnrpurae. j /• j The beak. and to be always fixed in them by one or moi-e ligaments or mulcles. in companion to the fhells. loinetinies The blatta byzanagreeable. or with concentric The operculum. buccina. as the nerits. as it is imagined they this apthrough the ftiells of the fi(h they feed on. the duck's wing. had not the animal itielf a fixed and common communication with its fliell. Jlones. whofe opercula are a part of tiie animal.) are inch whole whirls. fo far as clofe exa6fly to where he retires. every year. which condenfes into a kind of toughifh coriaceous or leather- profcoon. and is always the coiumt-lla. many as teltaceous. purpura:.) are fuch as have the aperture or a loole piece. (rojlruin. or conneiil fo clol'ely to. (uni'vaMa c^i'dita. Umbilicated Ihells. The operculum exaaiy covers or doles the fliell in thofe whole mouths are round. or helices. in their Ih. and is very frequently feen without it. they move brifkly to and fro for fome time. ut turbinata. trochi. to affix them en their new ones. and the cowries. from thefe . but in thofe rtiells that have very lengthened or narrow mouths.(!nb!um. when put in vinegar or other acids. and buch &:c. it is the real Hate of the cafe. by the name of blatta bvzantia.. Revolved fhells. or in (liell deeply. in the Materia Meilica. and augment them when neceflary. and in decoflions they were reckoned ia large. regarded to the echini. but at preicnt thefe medicines are defervedly exploded. it is not eafy to conccive what uie the opercula are of. till of late. and. the corals. 'Vtl ita infe contort a. In fome at the outer end or extremity. and greatly valued. Right-handed fliells. Analogous to what loblters and other crultaLCous filh do when they calt that is. which came from Babylon. . when the flielf is complete or full grown. or co- polilhed lumella lip. or perriwinkle. which penetrates tlie liill when they are burnt. or. the latter the fhell itfelf. inAll fliell-like opercula deed. leathery. two-fold pioceffes. they quit their fliells with fuch facility. Thus Lilter and Adanion take no notice of tliem among the teltacea. or fifh retires within the fhells. They have a kind of greafmefs or unttuofit)'. for they feem not to fhut or cover much above the fifth part of the mouth. and the paper nautili.) is the Ipreacl on or (niooth part oppofite to the lip.mpoled of a vilcous matter. as the volutes. The dentalia are found floating. or contrary to the molt general manner of turbinated univalves. is never attached to the body of the animal.iders. and brought forth with it. (labium iiiterius -vel columella. perflieath.e top of the aperfrom upwards part. unguh. one from the Red Sea. and.) have a navel or hollow on the the center. but quite loole and free. . This fixation certainly aiifwers to reafon 5 for thele cieatures can never be imagined to form their fhells.

and not from feveral parts. or cones". but greatly refembling the porcelains 5 cypres. which are a fpecies of buccinnni fevenrh. or SINGLE SHELLS. families. called admirals. charafters for fuch families. and conftitnte the fourth and bd general divifion of the firft order of ilie'is. SERPULA. through which the motion of the inteltiiics is plainly (ten by the naked eye. method. on which cuftom and philolbphy have ftampt an authority. by Da Colla. flexile. thicknefs or thinnefs of the Ihell. to preferve a perfeft Thus all bodies which agree in one fixed regularity. They inhabit various parts of the European fea . and SABELLA. firft genera of thefe cruftaceous worms produce their (hells in very great variety. &c. thofe are the eii'enfliell as its ell'ential chara(Ster. tial vifions of or opake.Daviia. Thefe families are iubdivided into many genera. and it is to avoid the cft'ccts of this creature that ved'els require dieathing. is fimply tubular. the following charailers are z. others grey. and American l(. the argonaut. varioudy coloured. Neither. i j moft fimple (hells are certainly thofe that envelope the vermiculi or lea-wonns. or paper n. and of different fizes. «Ia(res th?m under mollufca. create the fubordinate genera and fpecies. and then the aure^-maril1a3. them as multivalves. &c.. or leaThel'e conltitute four families. or helmets. The molt general m inner of the old authors-has been to divide all Ihclls into fimple. in. The figure or (hape. though they define the is certainly very erroneous i dilliniSf families. and furnifiicd with a mouth like by which it pierces wood. viz. the orthoceratites . . or worm-diclls.iuiilus. the na'valis. or double (liells and multivalves. and the latent which Ihells. becaufe it excluded the multiSucceeding natuialifts. hinges .. in many refpedls. . Gmelin divides them into the three following genera : : The . the porcelain .i. There are only three fpecies known. yet they cannot in anywife be reckoned as fuel). . - 19 univalves. but are mere joinings of (everal pieces. fourth. and divided into fix genera. The dielt is tapering. which is called concamtrated univalves. The turban or clalufncient: i. the chambered Itru^Uire. not ail echini. as only Ibnie genera. eighth. theaures-cochles. OfVmVALVES. and form the firft ears. and in their windings and convolutions are fbmetimes fo regularly fpiral. or dippers fcmiporcellana. and the nautilus. and thofe defcribed by Davila are natives The For the bivalves. place them as univalves and Wood. and fpecies. of the Mediterranean and the Venetian gulf. and they The are. called pewit's eggs. cothlea. always permanent and fixed. we fhall adhere to it in this treatife. or cowries. on the on the number of valves. and from thence it was firft imported into Europe. in their generic charaffer. could the futures be termed valves. univalves. and by means of the microitope ieveral other very remarkable particulars become valis It is is . the volutae. or whelks and. often in mall'es together. ell'ential charaifer of this family is thus defined by Da Cofta tubular cylindric (hells. for all the turbinated univalves. The fliclls of the next fimplell configuration are clalTed. the reil of the body is only covered by a very tliin and traiiiparenv (kin. We ' OF SIMPLE UNIVALVES. now proceed to explain thefe divifions in their natural order. ammonia. the turbines polythalmi. the diip-worm an inhabitant of the Indian teas . In this arrangement he places firft. which. Afiatic. perhaps. the dentalia. and the fubftance. to that of a iwan-quili and ibmetimes as large as a man's finger. called cylindars. . attached to other bodies in a ipiral form. viz. buccina. They are found on the coalls of C'oromandel and Malabar. varioudy finuous. ment. 4. ulriculus. haiiotis. or globofe. The other lefs eftential particularities. There are thirty-eight fpecies of them. as almofl to emulate the moll perfetl turbinated lliells . As they are often found in Urge lumps. fuch as the tuns. or they are rather of divers (li. or rock-lice ihells. the piercer or borer. . 4- \ilible . quite accidental. filth. are compofed of fuch futures. conThis being now the generally-refifting of muiy parts. called turbiiitited or fpiral univalves. form the next general divifion. Next follows the fi. Dr. as valves. The Teredo is that pernicious animal i'o deftruiSlive to the bottoms of (hips. inurices. as. the olives. horny. and capable of penetrating wood.. cMcA fmple univalves. . This latter diADolition for. that there ought to be certain principles or char. Thefe being all of them chambered (liells. whether pearly. which indicate tliejr progredive ttate of growth. and brown. bullx. he has fixed on the aperture or mouth of the : univalves. ammonia. in various contortions whence they are'of no determinate or regular fhape. which include the then ferp'ida. or tu(k-l)ke ihells or or tops. would the name of multivalves ani'wer to all echini. but this is. . or eared fnails third. by winding or twilling to and fro. (ingle. Peifian crowns. are the only remainwhirls of the revolved ing univalves not charailerized by the mouth. or ear. which are alio the bul. Argenville.ind.and Mciifchen. caflides. It was a long time before any regular or (yftcmatic arrangement of (hells took piace. toredo. which is divided into three genera. making in the Dx Coda farms into ten whole fixteen families of many futures feen in echini as lb many valves. yellowiih. fnells. It penetrates eafily into the ilonteft oak-planks. Some are of a dull white. indeed. In the fubordinate digenera or i'pecies. viz.Ibrnicd fnails ninth. being coated With a Itrong armour. general divifion. diftinft from flulls on tlie other li. under one famiiy. globofa. Buoiunni and Grew.a kind. undoubtedly Itand firlt . Writers on conchology have laid down one natural method for the arrangement of univalve (liells. the Indian ocean. and cowries. but it is evident that this diviturbinated. The moil: general form in which theie (hells are found. and for the multivalves. and clanjaThe naalio next follows the patella. calltd rfi'DZ-i^fi/ The next arrangement of ward.cpes and forms. and bivalve iion was very erroneous. fuch as the limpets. The fimple figure. inltead of this arrangevalves. On this maxim Da Colla has founded his fylteni . trochi. This charaiier (hould alfo be the conilant one through the whole fyftem. whence it takes its fpecific name. genera. lecond. the epicLermis. melons. and proceed upwards to According to this thofe which are the moft complex. that is. and in the African.ifters in every fvrtem or methodiwhichprinnplesorcharaiievslhould always be taken from the chief part of the objeiils. 3. wliile. to begin with the limplell forms. and in cluilers. being i'urni(hed with feveial ftrong mui'cies . The head is well prepared by nature for the hard offices which it has to undergo. fubltituted three other divifions. as that anithat of the leech mal does the dcin. rank. which ought to be adhered to as fcrupuloufly as poOible. vicle. or adhering to othtv extianeous bodies .ith family of fiiells. and fabella. the lituitae. charafler form the clafs. This family conftitutes the third gene- ral divifion.Breynnius. amnionoids. They are found from the fize of a ftalk of grafs. they were long millaken by the earlier naturalifts for a i'pecies of coral. tenth. or nautile. and other (hells as frequently attached to them. the vermiculi. Tournefort obferves. who lajik tlierii with the teftace. very deftruflive creatures. TOREDO.CONCHOLOGY. in which they comprehend both the non-turbinated and turbinated bivalves. Each of the above three general divifions contains many Mr. The work on the (hell. fliells of a top-like or pyramidal (hape. fixth.Gualtieri. (liells (hells. a little above this it has two horns which feeni a kind of continuation of the fiiell j the neck is as ftrongly provided for the fervice of the crcaiure as the head. and the affinities or differences of thofe bodies to each other in the lels principal parts. and produces dreadful dediips ftruftion to the by the holes it makes in their (ides. are called lerebella. for they have no play or motion whatever. a fpecies of volutes. ceived divifion. or croziers.

or approaching tnereto.) or that are not perforated or open at the This family derives luonllrate tliat infinitely wife and gracious Power which formed. The finelt and largelt are from the Eaft Indies and Africa. and is therewood much more way moft quickly fore fuppofed to propagate by itfelf. tropical rivers. The iecond. confifting of no lefs than 238 fpecies. and fometimcs more. The limpets are very numerous. on the coalls of America. which are natives of the Indian ocean. Europe. Pierced or perforated limpets or mafks. if it was not for the rapacity of thefe and fuch animals. volutes. which Da Cofta divides into three genera of (hells. affords butveryfew. or chambered liin pi: t. cameralions do not feein conlfant to any particular fpecies. it has been matter of furprifc how they fhould increafe tofo vafl a multitude. the limpets arc for the moft part round.) 3. indeed. CONCHOLOGY. giving any reafbn for fo doing. in general. and appear rather the clofing up. thcfe condiffer from the concamerateJ (liells. but wiiat is known in a living (tate recent from the lea. or crenated.) that have* their tops perforated with a hois pierced quite through the Ihc-ll. and formed of grains of fand cemented together and hardened invo a cruftaceous covering. and plealingly de- A The patella. fb as to peiinit the fifli to penetrate more than one chamber or inclolure at a time. and molt of the lea coafts in different parts of the world. is inhabited by thefe worms. up as it grows bigger. running through the middle of the (hell its whoie length. and to all the violences that render dead fhells unacceptable to the curious. exhibits different figures of clufterof the the vermiculi. by this means each cafe or ihell is preferved entire . and is feldom placed exacSly in the middle of tlie (hell. olives. concamerstions. though the •woody matter between them often is not thicker than a piece of writing-paper. there never is feen a palVage or communication between any two of the (hells. and often finely waflied with colours. Tha Imooth yellowilh dentale of the Englilh fea. as many of them would lad for ages. or ftairhe gives for reaibn. and has noaccef's to thofe of its own fpecies.y They will ters. determinate. bythe mucous matter which ifiues from the included inhabitant. (patella. it has no contour. and their ihells are much difcoloured. would be choked with the bodies of trees whicli are annually carried down by the rapid torrents. but is (eparated from the preceding genera. and ftill preferves. and.-as. or anyway connefled or fupported by. is very numerous. where the fun. is either whole or perforated. Chambered limpets. and appear fmall and feeble. or TUSK-LIKE SHELLS. and in the South Sea. freqi.^ ivertice pcrfarato. which the termites have on the land. tlie Mediterranean fea. Since each of thefe animals is lodged in a folitary cell. and are confequenlly more readily and more effedually thrown on lliore.ilarges The v r.i. the coalts of Norway and Greenland. curved. or whole liiiii st. of the larger fize. tubular. fpatelt. is a fimilar creature. which forms its bafe. the whole in fuch wonderful Older and beauty.arc divided into chambers by a few or many tranfverie plates running acrols the tiibe.w?. of which. The efTeutial charatter of this (hell is.adhering to the rocks. Tliere is an evident care in thcfe creatures never to injuie one another's habitations . from Knorr. are found in the Indian ocean. a pillar or columella. Ibmetimes without any proujinencies or fmootb. fpcedily promote their entire difTolution. its generic name from its refemblance to a little plate. for. The fliell is more or lefs conical.icuii ar. has many fpecies : but the third genus. and furrounding it with water. Upon diffeiiling them. or fet at equidillant intervals and are not pierced by a pipe or liphunculus. with vermiculi of this (hell are mere loofe ones.c-jncanurata. Their external furface is often rough and fcabrous. wind. it appears that every individual has the parts of both fexes. efpecially from the Cape of Good Hope. without fliells. It is true there are confiderahle numbers that have very lively colours. Fig. or mafks. into fir and alder. juft like the . and in (iicb pieces of wood as have been found eaten by them into a fort of honeycomb. the Englifh channel. beine. the foUil (tite.worms appear to have the fame office allotted them in the w. and in the fait lakes of Thuringia. when it augments its top. yet. taking it in its longeft dimenfions. they abound with lefs variety than moft otiicr (liells. for. Whole or entire limpets. whereas now.i. on account of the difference in its conformation. that it is iiuiple. and the Cape of Good Hope others. from half Some of them inhabit the an' inch to nine inches long. Britith f. happily. conl'umed by tliele animals. has but few fpecies.worm (hells. they are much expofed to the fun during ebb. : that conmninicates from chamber to chambtr. On this account Aldrovandus and Rondeletius claffcd the limpets among the bivalves. Fig. or LIMPET. of various fizes. lerves as a kind of fecund or under (hell. Gualtieri ranks the famous (hcU the wentleirap. In fome parts of England the limpets have obtained the name oi nipple-fhelts . (hell. the (hell of which tubulous. and the fragments which are not devoured become fpecifically lighter. or any piece of wood which is conftantly underwater. to preferve it from injury. There ai-e twenty-one Ipecies. yet this tribe feems an exception. or oval. moft of this family . appear. the ocean itfelf.J':-ve cnvitate fiylo interna doiiaia. and their apices often impcrieff.'JO vifib'e there. and there grew to the greateft fize. Thefe are all the notices that occur relative to the recent limpets. or lea. There are alio vermiculi which hav/. This family of fimple They make their eafilv than others. conical. that the fpires cafe. however. as is the conltant and true (hufiure of all turbinated Davila places it among his vermiculares. 2. as the nerits. the part that contains the fifh is concave.-»i>y (ollil (liells which are not yet diicovered ot known in . or thofe known from fe. i.y tlun their (lielly habitations come into view in which there is a large fpace for inclofing the animal. The Concliology-Plate I. or perforated limpet.i \a it liabita on. &c. we cannot in the prefent harmonious ftate of things form any idea. In the oak they make lefs progrels. viz. fills DENTALIA. (hells is likewife of the terebellj or piercer fpecies. Thefe lea. They penetrate fome kinds of : bottotn fpire* of a turbinated (hell. Though it commonly happens. becaufe its convexity terminates in a kind of papilla near the center. and e. and probably be proihiflive of evils. it is full of fmall holes . 2. The rim of the (hell. (patella •vertice inlegro. 3. I. or eye ot the limpet. and various other inftruments. but we do not recoUeil any Ipecics. is likewile various. and delerting the old phice of habitation of the iidi. The apex. But there are m. The large ferpula contO'tupUcata. on a very little confideration. This creature h wonderfully minute when newly excluded from the egg but it grows to the length of four or fix inches. notwithftanding they are fo pernicious tofliipping. but they arc feldoni regular. The firft genus. The Sabella is . that the fhells molt remarkable for the brilliancy of their colours are of the fimpleft form. like this utenfii. to be -molt important beings in the great chain of creation. but the'rock or other hard body to which it adheres. or .:entiy foan. but in this error they have not been followed by any other writer. (li. that is. green-furrowed dentale of the Eaft Indies. they arc more eafily broken in pieces by the waves. and fbmetimes with (lits only. but molt commonly inclines towards one end . not produced from. This (hell is found from one to four or five inches long. Wlien the bottom of a I'cifel. America has many of the chambered and fmaller kinds : and late ditcoveries have brought Ibme large and fine limpets from the Streights of Magellan and the South Sea.spej and open at both ends. infers. fometimes \xjlth large ones or jagged. There are twenty-five fpecies. Fig. fmooth. of a regular. which the anima. in which particulars they eilentially Belides. but no damage appears till the ouier parts are cut a.

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are feldom lei's than an inch long. /ingle fpecies of foiTil il. Cnce there are only two genera out of the fix. in Italy. with very high irregular ridges. The fpiral iiead of the haliotis has induced many authors not only to feparate them from the limpets. chamber to chamber. ranked by Ibme as a haliotis. inftead of being fulcated lengthwife. Thus. and. fo as to be imagined young ones of the lame fpecies. The Ihells of this conformation conltitute the fifth family of univalves. or coped. and therefore thele Ihells feem conftantly to remain uhdillurbed in thofe imraenfe deeps. The infideis quite fmooth. or in a tranfverfe manner. into a broad flat ledge. and comm.K themlelves to rocks. This is another there are two kinds. as exteriorily to refemble a trochus or a (hail . as the lituits. from chamber to chamber. AURES MARIN^'E. are often fo greatly fpiral. Thefe nated . Vol. all along one fide. as to demand the microkope to examine them . Da Colta and LinniEusfeparate from them. . and not thicker than a pin. impoflible to fix them by human definitions. is of a fimple figure . runs its length. polythalami.iy3 of the fineft or moft orient pearl. they ftretch out. like a ftraight horn. (till exill in the Teas. makes it difhcult to determine whether it be a natural jierforation. in like manner.te. which is an eflential charafter. Thus Lifl:er places them in his Hiftoria Cmichyliorum among the turbinated Ihells. reafon and. and are more irregular than that different . that we have heard of only four. under the beak. why the Venus ear belongs not to this family. whether fonie of thole propofed by dilferent authors. in their ufual and cuflromary kind. one genus whereof. which are found foflil in fuch amazing abundance all over the globe. there are generally fix or feven quite perforated. that have many regular and nearly equidillant cells or chambers. from the apex or head. Gualtieri ranks them among the fnails with deprefi'ed or flatted clavicles. like the hinge of a multarticulate bivalve. Breynius. which. the lituitrs and the nautilus. and preceding the trochi. are moftly very large. viz. we are obliged to have recourfe to the foffil kingdom. lefs than one quarter of an inch. de Animalibus Anglis. But there isalfo another ch. and a curved row of holes. fiiell . for. In the row of holes which confl:itute thefe perforationr. as nature in her works has made fuch flight tranfilions from one link to another. It is therefore impuliible to regulate natural objefts to a perfeftprecifion. For no{ only their infide is alw. or SEA EARS. G . approach very nearly to the limpets. by the moft elaborate and minute definitions. Planchus. however. it lias only a broad ledge or margin. but even quite fimple. fccond divifion of univalves. and a quarter of an inch over : and befides their great difference in.a bivalve. V. in his order of fliell-fifli. They ai-e chambered fr^om bottom to top. figure of the haliotis is given ia the engraving. and form numerous families. towards the fame fide. are fimple ftraight conical fliells. The apex has alfo a fingle perfeft whirl . The HALIOTIS. the foflil ones. in his book de Conchis minus notis littoris Ariminenfis. The effential charafler of this family is as follows: fhells of an ear-like form. and is divided by Da Cofta into fix genera. and the other genus. and other violent ragings of that immenfe mafs of waters. as thofe fituations arc not fubjeft to the agitations of the great tempefts. and Adanfon arid Meufchen take them from the fimple fliells. that opens into. ranks them as the nautilus orthocera. the perpendicular lide of which is curiouOy worked with itraight and parallel furrows. but approaches it This is not unfrequently found in the calcanearly. and the uerits. This liruflure forms the elTcntial and fpecific charaftcr of the fliells of this divifion . but gcntra. Linnaeus.CONCHOLOGY. for there occur among them not only revolved and turbinated fliells. after the nautiii. that they demanded the aid of the microfcope to afccrtain their ftrufture. wide. (et. or fliells that inhabit the very deepelt recefles of the fea. a fmall I'pecies called the fool's cap. called by foflilogifts tiichites. which feems to belong to this family that is. the fnails. even the fmalleft kinds. is extremely ftriking . and gradually tapering from a no-wife turbibroad end to a. :uk1 nearly refemble a fmgle fliell of. afK. and above an inch and a half over. and even whole tainilies. from the head to the oppofite =cnd. However. by its regular edge. Yet it is furprizing. >!) 21 a living ftate. Figures of tlie limpet are exhibited in the engraving. Ginelin enumerates nineteen fpecies. othervwle than in the (oikl ftp. at Rimini. and the trocho patella. without having the row of perforations. and by thele holes he calls forth his excrements. are found in great abundance in the Engiiih chalk-pits ytt the Ihells are fo rarely to be met with entire. How difterent thefe living fpecies are from thofe found foflil. n t thickly. On the top or beak it has a large. fize.clls yet remain undifcovered in their living Itate . or croziers. is revolved. The orthoceroles he difcovered were fpecies fo very minute. or Iliells that are no way fpiralj becaufe at their head they have as perfeft and fine a whirl as any turbinated fliell but. Linnaeus allows no fliell to he of the haliotis family. Befides other reafons that have been given. as the alveoli. Graclin has placed them the iaft of the fpiral fliells. but alfo to rejeft them from the fimple Iliells. that aie known recent from the fej. which are not yet known to ns. for it is laid the fifli alw-ays clofes one towards the end. roundifh opening. and being quite alike in all the four fpecimens.iraiter. the other is broad or flattiHi. or nautilus. in appearance and nature. There is no inllance on record of a haliotis being found foffil. almoft wide open. and appear rather like tubercles than holes . they are circularly wrought. Thefe flieils are very thick. feems one principal caufe. or very open . contains the concamerated or chambered fliells. their being pelagian Ihells. one would incline in favour of the former. Iliarp-pointed top. frequently above a foot in length. Dr. One fort is high. j There are but few fpecies of this family. yet they are true limpets. Foffil limpets are very rarely met with . or iioUow. or perforations. they no wife correfpond in other particulars with the larger. or that part which anfWers to the hinge in bivalves. as weTl as the perforations. defcribes fome recent minute kinds of this genus. jenus foils of France. from its remarkable thinncfs. viz. they cannot truly be called limple. it is almoft : For the arrangement of thefe chambered Ihells. and a pipe or fiphunculus. and have a fiphunculus. and. flattifh. are not rather varieties: but they are found ia great abundance in moilpaits of the world. and the fragments of it. which were found ill the cliffs near Dcfver. A OF CONCAMERATED VNll'ALrES. the edges turn outwards. and even pearls are often bred in them.onoides. or an accidental fraiSIure though.niicatcs from. The lecond is a very curious and remarkable Ihell. that thefe genera. Thele limpets are very large. for it vijnts the pearly infide. It (eenis The iirll is from the Weft Indian kind. and therefore by fome is wrongly placed among the fimple Ihells. on the contrary. and cochlea patella. it is fpiral at the fame manner as other turbinated fliells. No. wherein he fays. or no-wife turbinated ones. whence their name. the reft are clofed. the orthoceratites. and place thcra as the firlt family of the fpiral fliells: Dr. They feem to be of two kinds. 150. Thefe Ihells. feveral of the chambered limpets have only fuch fingle whirls. but rather thinly. which delerve particular notice. araall turbinated. have to this hour efcaped the endeavours of mankind to obtain them living. which he found in great quantities in the fea lediment. or pipe of communication. as he increales in fize. He does the fame in his work •clavicle in the The ORTHOCEROS. turbines ammonia and amir. It is even doubted. the recent fpecies are fo very minute. Thus the Venus ear. four genera.

5. and in Swilferland. all the living fpecies of them Hill remain to be difcovered. It is proper to oblcrve. tiie iame work. the fpires The fpires are ufually lying between two flats or levels. cowries. or We : bered Itruilure.fragment belongs to a very large fpecies. with a prominent ridge. 6. conltant. but is cor. Dorletfhirc. reckoned pelagian (hells. except one very minute kind. and the diaphragms or partitions are cut and jagged. fo that the agitation of the waves. and all the other fpires are very (mail. Fig. or partitions of the cells or cliambers. Ammonia that have a plain prominent ridge along the back : ammonia limbo prominulo per totum dorlum duiito. in general the mott common folTil fliells are the Icarcelt in the recent ftate. volutes. (ulcato. The definition of this genus it fpe6ls except (liape. not plain. &c. but 5. as thofe of the orthoceros and nautilus. It not only differs in particular circumltances. It is however. or preceding genus. and connefted to each other. through all the gradations of fizes. dePolythapropolis nine kinds. to be taken from the work on the back of their Ipires as being the molt obvious. for the turbines concamcrati. lb that by the gradual tapering of the fpires to the center. as found at DiayFig. i reprefer. in moll parts of the world . and certain dillinilion. in its entire foHil (late. They gradually cylindric. which. but are flalhed. of the lize ufually found in i 0orl'et(hire. is. that thefe fofTils are almolt always calts of ftonc. eafily breaks o(f this Item or cylindric part.its fiphunculus or pipe of communication. Ammonia whole This genus was founded by Da Cofta. have . * matter of allonilhment. Breynius defcribes and figures a But fnigle fpecies. ammonia into eight claiTes. CORNUA AMMONIS. the flats or furfaces of the whole ammonis are embelliftied with a beautiful leaved work. the fpiral end of this recent Ihell in our colleiHons. or ribbed: ammonia dorib Itriato. backs are deeply notched or toothed like a faw ammonia dorlb dentato. the engraving. Fig. commonly called the ram's nautilus Ipirula of Linnreus. LITUUS. have it. or ammonit:£. Ammonia whofe backs are lludded or fpiked ammonia 8. . It is only found and even in that (tate but one fpecies is known. Da Colta has fixed the fpecific iharafters of the foffi! ammonitse. or ammonitx. or in th« but. as hardly to exceed the bignefs of a turnip feed. found in great abundance both in the Halt and Welt Indies. fulcated. that this recent fpecies is a diliin£l kind fronv any of the folhl ones known. However. diminilh or taper. cut open to cot. but even in an efltmtial chara6ter ^ which is. (liews the entire fliell . flats are concaves. vel collato. which in both thefe figures is in the center. folTd or CHAMBERED The fiphunculus. fo that the center is deeply hollowed or umbilicated. 7.both The inner (lru6ture is chambered . and 2diy. into procelfes or appendages. and fig. The (hells or AMMONIA. and of many fpecies. Ammonia with a plain furrow or channel along the back: ammonia fulco unico per dorfum dufto. .ts the recent Ihell. or jagged. fee the Conchology-Plate II. tili. laiiiiis. when joined. exai^ily fimilarto that on the fcuils of animals and this by fodilo: backs are quite fmooth and plain ammonia doi fo Uevi. viz. and greatly recede from each other. whofe fpires never iq>pea[ .innEEUs ranks it among the nautili. 3. and not near the edges. The nautili are defined to be (hells. is the fame fliell.CONCHOLOGY. from the circumference to the center. and is only fee the identical fpecies with the follll kind. 4. It could be readily explained. 6. 1'he outer fpire alone makes above one half of the body . Ammonia whofe dorfo tuberculato vel aculeato. 7. one end wliereof turns in a ipiral manner. though it is here (hewn on a linall fcale. and proportionably thick. we mult yet remain uncertain in regard to ioine of their particular charadters. 3. with many other parallel inltances. 4. recent (hell. The foifil ammonia. It was found by Plancus with the recent orthocerofes above-mentioned in the fea-fedinient at Rimini he has defcribed and figured it in his work. Ammonia with a plain prominent ridge between two furrows ammonia limbo prominulo inter duos fulcos eredto. but the fpires are few. and never with its Item. on both levels equally alike. as the ammonia certainly are: but then what reafon can be given for the limpets. in the copper-plate. inhere fig.. are very rarely found fofiil. Ammonia whofe backs are llriated. thofc that liave the iiphiuiculus placed on or near the edge . On this charafter be divides the . is the fame cut open. leems to be placed oa the back of the fpires. as this conclulion is drawn from center of them fo(ril rtiells. This. in at Draycot In Wiltfliire. This living fpecies of ammonis is (o very minute. It is a turbinated or fpiral (hell. Ihew its chambered ftrufture. but never in any Fig. that. tjr near the center. l. This (hell much refembles a bi(hop's crozier in (liapei having a long cylindric item. like the foliaceous futures of Calts of llone of this kind are found in the ammonia. are found in great abundance. 8. for as the fpires are few. Fig. of this genus are perfeit helices.that have it central. which laid together tally and ciofe into one another lb itrongly and cunoufly. which is raniced by mO(t authors as a nautilus or ammonis. reprefents the cornu ammonis. or replacements of fparry matter. exai5tly like a buccinum in appeaiance. neverthelefs. the centers of. Liniijeus dalles thefe among his nauThefe elegant fuflils are found with the preceding. fo that it is an extremely rare foffil.1 concave center. ill Wiltfhire. Thefe are not objefts that efcape the eye by their minutenels yet. to (hew the concamerations or chambers this (liell is greatly magnified . Ammonia wreathed or twilled like a rope: ammonia limbo taeniolatu. : : : AMMONOIDES. . to fliew its chamthere is a fniull torn. Fig. probably. to above a yard in diameter. and Swilferland. foliaceous futures ot the ammonites. it mult follow that the outer fpire will at ialt infenfibly fall into a ftraight line or a ftem and the reafon we never find it with the fteni. tholl. the view alone of it evinces its analogy. But this (oliaceous work does not (eem to be a particular cliarafter of the ammonia. and taper into a concavity. For a view of the orthoceros. not known recent. regular. in the engraving. is an exacl delineation of this curious fliell. this recent kind has a very prominent or projefting one. and does not weigh the hundredth part of a grain therefore demands the aid of the microfcope to examine it. which are very rarely (o perfeel as to (hew the pipe diftinflly. but the diaphragms. from the (Vnall fize of a pea. 2. cut open. 2. were all the iolTil kinds. Thei'e include all the lofllil kinds hithertsx difcovered. for it is only found cafr up on the Ihores. TURBINE. that as all the folfii ones. in the engraving great degree of perfeiiiion. or pipe of communication from chamber to cliamber in the ammonia. that. are not roundiOi and with an even edge. ni'us. thatin this and other families of teltacea. and recede from each other. It is very remarkable. THE CROZIER. : i. feparated. France. fea ears. and not fl it like amnionitx. of a produced or lengthened fliape. viz. and vic-e werfa. and there are fpecies of Of* thocerutitic utid foilll nautili witli. . gilts is called tlic The nautilus. . a fragment of a fo(Hl orthoceros. in all other retor thefe relembles the ammonitse bodies are quite globofe like nautili. though in extreme plenty recent.'wRo firft formed this genus in his work. fliews a turbo polytlialamus. (hewing. thefe are divided into two leflions. ift. but a figure nearly of its natural fize is placed by its fide.camerated or chambered. TURBO POLYTHALAMUS. is owing to the thinnefs and brittlenefs of the fliell .

iA ifi.CONCHOLOGV r/„f> la '%M: f iJ..-t Jlr. I /tj/fi'/ian jr.ri . HiUhli. J4.A.<-: ht J.l .Wi!/.n Jmi.1.i.



C/t^fintitTl icttff. M.C'ONC'llOLOGY F7„i>ir Al/„rl„. T. / -//it . ^^ i/i//r/.I I f/i/ /)/' /ii/i////i- i///f rti'/ ////. Sr/.. '!> '/fr- '/ 1</ /'> /\i •'////////: ./ //// /////< fi'/// .i//ti//:/ t'/ /fu/ //'.>. /!/ ^ ii// I// //if '///'//.

common names : fuperb cordated ftru6f ure of the interior part. Argenville. It inhabits the Indian ocean. 2. and ail the partitions. the upper part ot the mouth. When from the diminution of the body. turnips. viz. or well as the dippers. its The A of pewit's eggs. nuces or buUje. and Meufchen. on which a pale delicate red exjiands iifelf. but at the approach of danger. becaule their fpirts lie within their bodies . One about the fize of a but. Gualtieri makes it a genus preceding the cowries. that the pipe. which Da Cofta forms into but curved. it renWhen it is contrafted. genus. volulse apice non emithe fliell The nautiii aie of iiente. are really turbinated fliells. the cowries. . as for the beautiful mother of pearl V'bich it produces. Tlie fiphnnculus is a great part of tlie animal's interior fubftaiice on thefe occafions. found in the liineftone of Derbyfliire. foliage. like a gnt or firing. as not being of a chambered ftiutlure. It is deeply umbilicated. except There may be fome doubt uhether the tendon ftiell. with undulating waves. fince they have a very diifrrent efl'ential character. BULLA.a-niits. appear externally. and at every movement changes to a ditTerent colour. though claiVtd by moft aiithors as a nautilus. or hidoccafions of the animal require. has induced us to give the Conchology-Piate HI. Though there is a valt difference oi colourinsf in the dippers. Formerly artills fpent much time in woiking tliefe fliells. umbilicata. Fig. arms. is of a different genus.' is filled with an appendage or tail which palfes thrpugh the partitions. TJie paper nautile. Li:iiia:us. they are feen to fwim about in conliderable numbers. produced. &c. crefts. i. and have a very fair and Hrong external clavicle . mal. and is thickly and finely ridged acrofs from fide to fide .IS the bacchanals. it is arthe natural fliell. Hence we often find thel'e Ihells ornamented with emblematical figures. prefents an infide view of the fanie fliell. parent in the fame place near the center of the firff Fig. Of KEVOLVED VNIVALVES. in a liphon.. and extremely erroneous. or fiphnnculus. rewhirl. It is' to that only This tendon that the animal is faflentd by a tendon. the partitions uf the cells or chambers being coiicave-tronvex roundifli plates. a i'mail kind. tures. The mouth is veiy patulous. or without any border or other work. which it is neceflary to explain. thole this account. ." like the fwimming-bladder of a fiih. o^ bullae. or ftiells nearly relembling the porcellains .den within the body. does not receive a of the animal. give them as cochle<e globoCa. but the nautile has the (hell clofed. and thole with jagged or finuated diaphragms. and lies hid below the larger than the reft. exhibits Knorr's correijt drawing of this fliell. and converted into drinking In the fivelfels. for it has never been found in any of ufe to the fifti called nautilus Gracoriim: whereas the nautilus of the them. have no clavicle or turban. though all have p. . Linnsus's genus of bulla includes the figs. or bullae.itulous or very large mouths. whereas the conchje globcfe. fymbols. to increale their beauty. fifli and fliell fmk. that all the fpecies have-not body of : fuch . and calls it concka 'veneris haft Grew and Buoiianni place it with the fnails. and. tuns. dilatable tube under the command of the animal. and places them both under the fpecific name of which is the largelf. to ftiew the beautiful pearl of which the interior fubllance is compofed. The arrangement that Rumphius. rtprefents the fliell with its exterior lamina or covering taken off. efpecially at tlie top. or the mouth. quite pyritical. nrverthclefs. and jull to fuch a degree as the prefent Revolved fliells are thofe whofe fpires are latent. by their Iceining connexion with the two following genera of femiporcellanje and cypreas. it is dilated. appioaching. Davila. as the partridges. vel clavicula intus rei. which is nuich tracts itfelf into a very fmall fold. and properly the animars abode. which communicates from chamber to chamber. do the fame . without the flighted veiliges of nautilus pompilius is alfo a revolved Ihell more remarkable for its chambered ftru6ture. . Davila. Thtieare two remarkable foifil kinds of nautili yet un. for tiiey will hold more than a quart. The infide is lined with moft beautiful pearl. and following the paper nautilus. and is of the thicknefsofa half-crown piece. or not mucii. Conchology-Plate IV. The bottom of the fliell is rounded in a beautiful foim. the deis the nautilus buoyant. exhibits IpeLimens of thcfe dipping-fiiells. and other decorations. and with a finall facing or colamella lip on. in the fecond plate of conchology. 9. the umbilicated and the iionlimbilicated but Gmelin confiders them as the hme ani.dipping fnails. feniiporcellana. hunting. with undulated fu. 4 . whereby the cordated work. For the nuces. fallrened in a charafter. fills up Greeks was the paper nautilus. viz..the middle of the partitions. The anangement of this genus is much coni'ufed in authors. viz. Sometimes they are mounted with gold or filver. The difcovered in a living ftate. pafl'. This is by feveral authors erroneoully The other partitions do not appear to be of much real ftiiuttlas ponipilius. and is occafiotied by a mucous matter which the animal throws out. The others remain empty. befides their PEWIT'S EGG. or tuns. quickly after a ilorm. and Meufchen. fimilar to tlie cuttle-fifti. The animal belonging to this fliell is laid to inhabit all the interior of the largeft chamber. This divifion contains the ceous futures in feveral parts. or when it perceives an enemy. which circuiirftance ieems necefiaiily to follow. or'body of the animal. which is in tlie center. filvery luftre. the curvature tending downwards.'s through all the divifions. divides the nautili into two orders with concave-convex femilunar diaphragms. it cononly the uppermolt or open chamber.-for it narrows greatly downwards. and in Ger- on by which the nautile is diitinguiflied froin In all the latter. The lip is thin. and are then taken only by the molt expert fifliermen. and that this genus is not numerous. and is found on the iliores of Africa. there are foflll kinds with foliaceoiis futures like the ammonitse. Breynius. The firft or. fiflling. The_ they are moltly of definition of this genus is as follows an oval fliape. . or from three genera. The other. The flefliy pait. with materials of orient pearl. which implies. even to the fmallelt. Rumphius. like the cowries. but it is generally flattilh. The ground-colour is a yellowifli-white.ith his cochlea: glohofie Argenville. or by fimply^engraving lines. either by decorations in bafs-relief. being pippin. as well for the elegance of its Iheil. gure there is a large biown fpot in the middle of the fliell. from Seba.. which they rubbed over with various tints.'>ure . and naked. is very furpriling. the pewit's eggs. quite to the principal one. at the extremities to a light orange. or pewit's eggs. fixth family of the univalves. becaufe it lurijilhes fucn regularly round partitions : and. for the more perfeit illuftration of this celebrated fliell. are alfo c:\\\iiAfe. particularly near the Cape of Good Hope. fliarp. THE DIPPER. but tlie lie latent or quite hidden within Turbinata. and do not in any manner appear externally . The black which rifes over the fpiral concamerations is perfeftly natural. The nautilus has been always efteemed. indeed. indeed. that they are only Tive varieties. However. Fig. &c. where. the ridges not Itraight. may be feen. a ch inibered ftiu<.. v. and dippers. Lilter makes them a genus of cowry. and mealiires about a foot and a half in diameter. and umbilicated at the bottom. it feems. gives this fliell a magnificent appearance. In the center it is radiated with flame-colour. many. fo that they have no clavicle or turban. from whence proceed ftriated irregular bands of deep red in all directions. has fine foliaranged in the preceding clafs. the circles are apthe cornu amnaonia. in its natural Itate. Authors make two varieties of the Eall Indian or pearly kind.CONCH OLOGY. cyprese or poroellan<e.ondita.

s not open. China. the (hell being quite open. or vent. forms a horizontal aperThe ture. Thefe (hells are found in many parts of the Mediterranean. and others. and lies lower than the ftern or fpiral end. denlald. 10. or turn within the body of the (hell. or rock-like flicUs . . the volures and cones. Specimens of this Ihell are exhibited in the Conchology-PLate IV. or helmets . which turns in one fpire only. but make their revolutions The aper•quite latent. No wonder. and others. The definition of the argonaut. for the are found at the Moluccas. It is this fifti that is the true (ailor. on account of their failing . and were they not common (liells. At one extreme it has a wry gutter. fays he. neither are the lips toothcil or dentated . but befides the characthem are fraught v*i thin numerable diiiicul ties. Lifter. Conchologifts have nioftly formed their methods from one (ingle. CYPRE^ffi. is ftated thus: they are (hells. or mouth of the (lieil. the length of the iliell. Madagafcar. fpires. and on the (hores of South America. Rnmphius. they would.uian. it would come imder the clafs of revolved univalves. nor indeed is it. Of -TURBINArED or SPIRAL VNirALVES. Argenville.ppearance. or (hung as beads. till. or vafcular. &. gives a recital of the l. the trochi. 4. for it is evident. and in Africa. divides the cowries into two genera. (hells. but it is evident. or from a combination. in his Zoomorphofe. was cloftd or (luit up. the cylindars. the kinds found foflil near Turin. have confounded them all together. the murices. and therefore authors. PORCELLAN. Linna:us ranks them under bulla. are ufed only as fubordinate charaflers. . 7.liell w. but Grew. but Da Colla has fixed on the aperture. in their diiierent fyftems. a turbinated (hell. as tiiey lo(e their colours when in the foflil ftate. porcellain or cowry (hells are generally femi-oval. the Maldives. Thefe turbinated univalves arethe mofl: difficult to arrange. the reft of it widens turns Ipirally. under the name of cymbium. However. is not lb narrow. body. becaule the Ipires. on the contrary. he choofes to fink himfelf to the bottom. . extending a membrane of an admirable thlnnefs. or China (hells. and thin almoft as paper. and. in his arrangement of turbinated univalves. and chitfiy inhabit the feas greateft number of them 1 the cowries are found in immenfe abundaiice in the living Hate. or within the body of the ftiell. or PAPER NAUTILUS. and alio in the Eaft-Iiidian feas. contrary to the preceding divilion. flatted like oars. r. turning inwards. entirely without the aid of art. 8. and high in polifh. fome of which are delineated in not toothed in like . or whelks. or fnails. arms.iteft oblt?rvations lelative to the animal and its failing. or pearly nautilus. that in ftruflure they have not the leaft affinity to one another. is quite hollow. the aures-cochlcas. except at the vej-y head. whofe upper part or head is narrow. they are very rarely feen foflil . and Africa. the caflides. perhaps. and LinnjEus alio makes it a diftinct genus. and diverfity of gloiying colours. and calls it argonauta. or tops. They appear to be litoral fide it. and works. the two genera. or olives. or extremes on thc\ipper part. the Eaft and Weft-India iflands. The turbinated (hells. the two ends. it is impoflible to determine whether any of them are fpecies yet undifcovered alive. and molt of the fpecies very beautiful in colour. and toothed . which diliinguifiies it from the foregoing genus of femiporcellans. The families which fonftitute this divifion of univalves. Afia. Argenville. greatly releiubiing the cyprere or cowries in their Their aperture. 9. but their beautiful polifh. the globofae. by the name i>f lemiporcellaniE. of toothed and lliclls The fpecies. 3. of Perfia. manner. Thcfe fliells being found fo plentifully on all the coafl:s of the Indian countries. fcem to be well known in the liv- Though ing ftate. fpecies of this family amount only to iive. The fpecies of this genus are not very numerous. whence they got the name of porcellain. ture is on the flat (ide. colours. but. They have this elegant polilh naturally from the fea. in their external fhape refembling a boat. and v. but. it much agrees with that genus of fliells. of a brownifli or whitilh (lone-colour. i. The cowries are extremely numerous. or opening. or navigates his (Irell. and is like the ftern to the other end. with thenuces or dippers above dtfcribed. they are not only ufed as a circulating medium . The ARGONAUT. The fpires of the cowries in no wife appear externally. But though it is lb unlike the nautilus in not being chambered. like the mouth of a foal or other flat tifli . but more open. and in France. became very early a fubftitute for inoney j and are Itill uled in traffic among tlie people of Ilindo. ever fails. They are of a filvery colour. makes them a divifion of cowries. (lace they only contain myriads of fpecies more 'than all the We ters of which latter is this kind and Meufchen. properly fo called. in foim and other particulars. if the . the engraving. there is another protuberance like rude clavicle or turban.'hich our celebrated Englifli poet refers to when he fays. Gualtieri.Cpofed fo view. Thefe (hells are by moit authors ranked with the common nautilusfi(h. " Learn of the little nautilus to fail :" for it does not appear in any Ibtisfaiitory manner. it is a narrow opening. Davila. The fi(h is of the fepia kind its head is pretty big. and are conneited or webbed together by a flight membrane. with two large eyes it has eight arms or tentacula. Ihort. refining on Argenville. This family has no external fome kinds. the nautilus of the Greeks and Latins. Gualtieri. . which lerve him to fwim and with thete he fecms to row and fteer his velfel. and which (hew thcmfelves on the outer part of the (hell.. be as highly valued as the volutes.C O N C H O L O G Y or feconJ genus in this family is the femiporcella:i:c. . after having difcharged or pumped out the water from its (hell.-C. or COWRY SHELLS. Argenville. chit fly owing to the ccntradiftory opinions -of (o many different writers. broad. It fails. by the name of nautili nfacui. variety in fize.. or rounded (lielis . that the other kind. are very bumped and prominent. . The particular charafter of this genus is_ the deep toothing on the inner edges of the lips. they are thicker towards the body. have induced the natives to ule them as ornaments. yet. of the (lie'ls.-. or others of the curious or fcarcer kind. The lix foremoft arj ftriflly . The lips are near together. and be- The other three divifions put together. the argonauts (hails. of a loft (lefliy (ublfance. for the efleutial charafter. 6. tha cochlea:. not regarding it. in a linall round iflands. fpeaking. appended either to the nofe or ears. ancl worn round the neck. Gualtieri firft made them a feparate genus. . according to the feveral genera or . 2. the buccina. or ear-form are.^. In South America. Linnaeus has adopted this charafter. Pliny gives a concife and elegant recital of its mode of navigation. in what is called the clavicle or^turban which is either produced (hort oi flat. the weaver's flnittle. of chai afters . Stba. all of which we (hall explain in their j . order. fet with dickers or knobs on the fides. and cafting backwards two of his tentacula or arms for he rows with the others he fteers his courfe. or cymbium family. this fpire is e. but among them Da Colfa reckons the poached egg. whence they obtained the name of paper nautili. which are the differential chara6ters ertibliflied between have (ben that Grew. 5. whofe flat part is the mouth. refilling his (hell with water. but it i^ rtraight or peipendicular . and a few other rare and curious ftells. The aperture or mouth is thereand the fore the dittinguilliing mark of the families (hapes. and legs. have ranked them Lilter calls them concha 'Vtnerts apertitra non as cowiics. clavicles. however. would be latent.. like as in the common or pearly nautilus. have difplayed different methods. aloft on the fea. are thofe whofe fpires are external. the other extreme has alfo a gutter.

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a combination of two names. which projedts over the cavity. which. and pointed at the lower end . and turbinates into one (ingle flat fpire. is it poflible to conceive. h. The far greater number of cones always bear 3 . fee the Conchology -Plate V. There is no foundation to fuppofe that the polype. 751. and fniks. wiien feait'ul of danger. the mouth is long. by the formation of the fliell. the fliell becomes thicker by the vifcous matter. and Linnsus places them in his genus helix. The fpecies of this family are numerous. 2. he plunges in the iea. by ilie name of cylindroidere. yet there are not many diflerent fpecies of them. Their ftiape fo much rcfembles the fea ears.alis or aurelia. Frequently he turns himfelf and Ihcll topfy-turvy. they are truly a kind of cochlea or fnails. and taking the form of a butterfly. with the whirls or fpires nearly level. a filk-worni is changed into the trvf. art as fuckers. For it is well known. How ell'e are we to explain the increafe of its elevated fides the growth of the blunt teeth fymmetrically ranged and theorganicalftrui'turedjlcovered by Mr. at the fame rendered the manner in which it conftiufts its abode very queltionatle. fo regular in every refpeft. which is the argo of Linnasus. formed of the ear fnails. ten pumps the water out. very pointed. though 4S yet undilcovered. This family. Hu:tfiant. as that fiom which it uniformly extends kfelf for the formation of its fliell if this were not the cale. might not the paper nautilus conftruft abb a covering round its body from its own vifcons moifture. it conftruCls its fliell from its external Jkin . he navigates in cala weather. It is very numerous in its fpecies. that a fliell fo delicate. and are very beautiful fticlls. which. or fuch ivhofe edge is quit* even and fliarp. and is greatly wrinkled or plaited . it would contradl the growth of that part of the fliell which adheres to the animal: yet they cannot explain how the part which is free from the fliell can increaJe itfelf. for there are fome naturalilts who icarcely conceive. like the mouth of a flat fifti. and has coniaft by fome effeLtual means.. and unafcertained by man. They are of a cylindric form. which he ules for a lail to catch the wind. becaufe we know not of any animals that have proper domicilia. efpecially fince the animal has a form I'o totally different from that of its abode ? For a corredl view of this fliell. he retires within the He of(hell. and thele uphold the ikin. who quit them voluntarily. however flight. and leave him a free This might really be the ca/e. is carried by the waves. Now. As when. by fuppoflng that the tentacula or arms of thefe animals. Argenville makes them his eleventh family. and. or OLIVES. ibmetimes taken in ihis fliell. and fets fail. alio calls them cylindri five daCtili. Cylindri marginati. afterwards growing hard. and of the fnails. The fi(h can quit the fliell at pleafure. and the fidiermen niuft be extremely exThis account. a fuppofition of there being a fyftem of veins or arteries within the fliell. Vo. and as the third genus or dentated volutes or olives and Meulchen.offered as a mere fuggellion. fetms pert to catch them in it. engaged. Belidcs. or auriscochlea. or paper nautilus. is large and fomewhat awry. Though there are great numbers of thefe fliells. if two linooth adhefive bodies touch one another in many places. is clalTed nearly in the fame manner. C O N C H O L O G and he balances liimfelf and extends them as he Iwims. would come off from the minimal entirely. which turns over into a very prominent ledge on the back like the helmets. or the refined definitions of the molt accurate naturalifts. without being attached.without . while. and afterwards freely comes out at its own pleafure. however. man abilities to limit. this creature is faftened lefs firmly to its fliell than other tellaceous animals. like others of the teftaceous kind. however. And. which exprefles is The eighth family the affinity thele ftiells have to the fea ears. as this animal may be fuppofed to frame its own habitation. for he appears not to be attached to it by any part of its bod)'. . and is the family wjiich. though theie are fimilar procefles obferved in nature. This family admits of being divided into two genera. The CYLINDRI. V. that in this manner. when he has gained the furfice of the water. but has a very thicjt border. but are not perforated or fet with a row of holes. and Linnseus ranks them in his genus of voluta. Thus equipped. that a cohefion of any part of the animal's body therewith can be at all neceflarj' . The VOLUTES and CONES... furpafi'es alraoft all the other univalves. cylindrus. the turban is generally fliort. Ibmewliat doubtful. a combination of thole two families. he fltort. empties tlie water. the pillar is faced halfway down. and rifes with his head downwards from tl. or membrane. as it were. which progrelTions baffle hu. and the turban itlelf is divided from the body by only a mere prominent line. as alio one of the innumerable inftances of the infenfible progieflions nature takes from one family to another . and alio quits the fliell. or olea. as the fize of the fifli increafes. in moft authors. and call them non-perforated fea ears.e bottom of the fea . 0a Coita defines the auris -cochleae as follows fliells (b wide and open as to refemble fea ears. and is reckoned the great ornament or capital obieft of collections. or which it receives from the orifice of the new additions or folds. argonauta AURIS COCHLEAE. Davila places them as two genera of volutes. though it is habitation ? The animal being now dif. Lifter calls them. Rumphius forms a genus of them which he calls cylindri.i. to . and places them the next genus after the volutes. They have a broad ledge along one fide. : Thefe fliells . rhombi five ftrombi cylindracei. Lifter and Gualtieri rank them as coUileae. yet we cannot but fuppofe that it is united. or merely prominent one fi'om the other . longer than the others. or EAR-SKAPED SNAILSHELLS. Y. of them are given ill the copper-plate. : turns his fliell very nimbly. and either thrown on (lioi e. narrow. and notched on the top. and names them rhombus. or luch whofe edge is not fliarp and fmooth. quite even or level with the bottom of the fliell. I. of the mode of contaft between this animal and its fliell. it ieems necefTary to have ah attachment. for richneis and beauty of colouring. they make a cohefion nearly as ftrong as though they were united together and who can decide whether tlie inhabitant of this fliell does not ftick by fibres infinitely fmall in the cavities of the ferratures which are found on the keel ? and whether thefe fibres do not confdt of a vifcous liquor. and is. that molt authors have ranked them in that family. : fome one point. for inftance. out their ihells . Gualtieri names them cochleae cylindroidese. Fear or necefiity may polTibly caufe this feparation fometimes. The two hinder ones. and that they thus keep therafelves attached to their fliell. or dalhed to pieces on the rocks. are a fpecies of voluta. whofe feventeenth genus they are. fay they. floating cmptj'. for in that cafe. . To this clafs belongs the Venus ear. Specimens riz. it keeps itl'elf during the lail period in this fliell. H value. which prel'ently diflTolves and for that reafon cannot fo readily be observed ? The uncertainty. The tenth family of this divifion of univalves is the volutes and cones. and even their fibres. viz. Cylindri emarginati. This fpire is alio very wide and extends to near the middle of the bottom or under part fo that this family abfokitely participates of the charafters and fliapts of the fea ears. extends They are frequently taken withhis arms. is And although we all agree that its natural inhabitant. No. could be fabricated ? Knorr endeavours to account for this phenomenon. as the iecond genus or cylindrical volutes or rouleaux. and conftitute Da Cofta's ninth family. which runs through the pores of the animal. the notch turning backwards. to ferve as a rudder. by which action it gains water. They are figured in the engraving as the next in order to the argonaut.






fome kinds,

as the admir.ils,

&c. have borne aftoiniUi

iiilhing prices

when perfect; and Hie cedo

lb ex-

tremely rare and beautiful, that this (hell alone has been See rated at the prodigious Cum of one hundred guineas Conchology-I'late VI. for this great curiofity. The volutes are fliells of a pyramidal or conic fliape the bafe is fiat and wide, and the body rifes gradually into a fliarp point at the top. The turban is tiie bale, and all the whirls are dilfinguiflicd by flight linear prominences fome kinds have this bafe quite flat, or a perfefl helix; in others it prolongs into a (harp clavicle, as in the imperial crown, and many other fimilar fpecies. However, theii; differences of the turban, or clavicle, are not effential enough to caufe a fubdivifion into different genera though Davila's fecond genus of vo! :

and call them callidcs. Such are Rumphius, Meufche.i,, and Gualtieri. Linnaeus ranks tliem as buccina; Arand Liller among hiii genville and Davila as murices buccina, by the name of bellied or fwelled whelks, with, a wry mouth. This genus is not numerous; but IbmR

of the fpecies are extremely large annexed engraving.



See the





lutes which he calls I'oulraux, is formed on thefe differences. The aperture of the volutes runs the whole length of the flieil ; it is fo extremely narrow as to he linear, be-

ing all slong of an equal breadth. The volutes have no inner lip. Dr. Litter calls the volutes rhonibi, or ftrombi cylindro-jiyramidales. Linnieus makes the volutes and cones two diltinfl: genera. In the genus conus he places the ino(f convoluted and turbinated of thefe (liells ; and adapts the name of voluta to the mitres, cylindars, and other fpirai univalves, that have their pillar plaited or wrinkled. Gualtieri calls them cochleae conoidere, or cochleje loii^ ga?j and moft other authors, as Rumphius, Argenville, &c. make a diltind: genus of them, by the e(tab!i(hed name of voluta. Correft figures of tbefe (hells are exhibited in the annexed engravings.

thirteenth family is the tiochi or tops. Thefe are (heiis of a conic or pyramidal (hape, the top being broad and fl.ittilh, and gradually tapering thence to a very (harp point. The aperture, or mouth, is nioft geneIt is remarkable, that rally angular, low, and narrow. all the authors who have written on conchology agree in lb that few trochi are this genus, and in its charadfers found milphiced. It is a very numerous family, and., abounds with curJiTus and elegant (litlh. There is a folfil fpecies of trochus, which feems yet undifcovered in a recent Itate. It is a large kind, flattifh, and like a cochlea helix, generally about two inches in diameter, and (trougly and thickly wrinkled, with (harp prominent ridges like plates, which are fp ked at regular diftances; thefe run acrofs the I'pires; but the

whole (hell is likewife llightlv Itriated. This trochus is found in the limellone of Co.albrookdale, in Shropfliire ; and Dudley, in Staffordfliire. Figures of ditferent fpecies. of the trochus are delineated in the annexed engraving.

fourteerrth family confifts of the cochlese, or fnails ; the character of which is a round mouth, or approachingtheixto, perfectly bordered, circumfcribed, or defined,





eleventh family conlifts of (liells of a fomewhat globofe iTiape; the bcdy being greatly fvveiled, or rounded, from whence they acquire the name of globofe, or tuns. They )iave fliort turbans ; the mouth is extremely patulous or wiile, and very large; the upper part of it «nds in a wry channel, like a foal's mouth, which is very fiiort, and turns backwards. None have a pillar or columella lip though in fome, as the Perfian crowns and melons, the columella or pillar itfelf is wrinkled or


This family is divided into five genera;. (ore itilegro.) viz. I. Nerits, or fnails with femicircular mouths. 2. Helices, or fnails that are flattifli, and whofe fpires lie, as it were, between two plains or levels. 3. Snails with a fliort
or flat turban. 4.. Turbo, or fnails with a produced or hence called tarbiiies. 5. Cochlese lengthened turban ftrombiformes, or fnails whofe turbans are extremely long and fleuder. All thefe we (hall (cparately- defcribe.




the tuns, Jmrtridge?, ligs, harps, Peilian crowns, and melons. The rank of this family, in fyWematical authors, is, that Li(fer J>laces thofe with a wrinkled or plaited pi'dar, as the Periian crowns, &r.. among his whelks of the fanieltrufture; the tuns and figs aTicag his buccina ampuUaccre; and the partridges, in a leparate clafs. Linuasus likewile places thole with a wrinkled or plaited pillar, on account of that (trufture, in the genus voluta and the partridges, Inns, harps, &c. among his buccina. Ruuiphius calls ?:hem cochlese globoliej as does Arf;enville, who makes them his fourteenth family -Davila his ninth family, and divides them into three genera Gualtieri has placed the figs as cochlese pyriformes ; and the tuns he calls coch.'pecies
; ; ;


which comprife

this family,


cafTidiformes, and caflida. This family is not very numerous; but contains many extremely beautiful and curious (liells; fome of which are correctly figured in 'the


CASSIDES, OR HELMET-FORMED SHELLS. The twelfth family is the cafiidcs, or helmets. Thefe
are ihells femi-giobo(e, the

round, the under, or mouth part,

back being very convex or flat. They have either flat

or very (liort clavicles or turbans. The mouth is long, rather narrow, and ends at the top in a gutter, which turns very large, Itrong, and wry on the back; the lip is always ftnongl.y and thickly toothed, and rifes into a high thick border, or ledge, on the upper part oi back and the pillar is moll .geueraliy Itrongly toothed, ridged, or let with fuiall humps or afperities. Some fyitematical authors have agreed with Da Ccfta in making a dilbnit or particular family of thtlc Ihelh,

mouths are a half circle,, the columella or inner lip running diametrically acrofs This lip is very broad or faced, and it in a ftr?.ight line. extends greatly on the columella. They are very fullbodied (hells, nearly globofe; and the turban is never much produced, but lies flat or level with the bottom. The nerits are generally toothed on both lips. The a.Tangetncnt of this genus iu all authors is near to or with the fnails and they are muft generally called neRumpliius calls them cochlere valvals, and by many rits. they are called fcmilunares. The fpecies of this genusare very numerous, admit of great v.ariety, and are generally beautiful (hells. There is found, in a calcareous fnbftance in France, a It is a large kind of folTil nerit, called limpet-Iike neriis. very thick (hell, flze of an apricot, and rather flattifh. The upper fide is a fine chefnut brown, fomewhat convex, and tAi to a knob or point which is not central, but placed fideways. It is this upper fide that refembles a limpet. The under part is milk white, fiatlifh, and round ; the mouth femicircular, the inner lip rifes or fwells, expands or faces quite to the upper fide, and is armed with two ftrong teeth. It is a very curious fpecies, and is fiill undilcovered in a recent Hate from the Several fcarce and beautiful fpecies of the nerit are fea. given in the annexed copper-plate, from Albertus Seba.
nerits are (hells wTicfe


character of this genus is, that they are molt generally round-mouthed fnails, whofe fpirts lie hoIVIoll of them, being rizontal, or between two levels. land or frelh-water (hells, are placed by Lifter among, the




I'/a/r 17/.

.iit,ri,„ .<;/,„




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/f ////_ ''ti/f/r/


''/<'////. J.

l,;,./,-n J-tihh^/.'.r ,f

./„.;/* .i„,ll,ir





H ,/A:j


J c (>-\ t'lio i.t'-/j(t fM ^ CTte^fnan .^ e*.'^'f Jeff'i. /t / ({itfc^ji i'ct'. f ^ ^ ^— Londf'ii /'ti b //'/" .i'^' >7JI?lAt.^ Fhtt^ I in.v f/if .(>(. JilnftlM .v ..9ctt^.

Seba divides them into two beautiful dalles. but fuddenly or difpropoitionately. as (hewn in the annexed engraving. with a produced or lengthened clavicle or turban. though in fliape and appearance refembiing buccina. Buccina recuri'irqfira f.\ flromb^Jcrmes. but the -mouths of the ttrombi are long. and many others. Da Colta places i!ie Itrombi amongft the buccina. are not buccina. This genus is very fertile in fpecies. or llri- genus of fnails is called cochlea ftromThey are very long and (lender. like the mouth of a (baj. and jnollly very fine (liells.l kind is found in t!ie fand-pits at Woolwich. to be the only authors who have arranged this family with any : Gmtiin has arranged them in a dillinil genus. Gualtieri calls them cochleae niarinse terreltrifonnes Rumphius. ated the whole run of the fpii-es . . a fea j the fea fnails. and devoid of glitter or beak. STROMBIFORMES. which he calls buccina whofe mouths terminate in'ajiiort tail. fome of which are exhibited in the annMed engniving. though erroneous in (bme particulars. 1 he other authors. or inner iip. but range fliells asfuch. or troclii . or round-mouthed thails and Linnxus places them under a dillinft genus of llitll-filh he : . or guttered whelks. of his fourth book. is a jumble of feveral families phctd confufediy together and Lilter. Lifter and Davila have made a feparate gciius of thefe whelks. yet their mouth being perfedlly circumfcrilied or bordered.t beak all other chara6ters are fubordinate. or body-whirl or fpire. There is a vaft number of fpecies of this genus. clavata. rojfro •vel canaliciilo part'ulo recmva. and made theiv. the upper part whereof is produced or lengthened into a gutter or fiigi-. Gualtieri places thofe with (hort clavicles or turbans. Gualtieri. : . or needles. from Seba and Knorr. is not much faced outwards. or but little produced. round mouth. The immenie quantity of fpecies it contains. four wentletraps were fold for fevenvy-five pounds Among And twelve ftiiilings. and Meufcheii. ia J7j3. form the fourth genus. efi'ential'inftead of fuborclinate. fo called. give no charafter for buccina. among what he calls cochleae pyriformes and thofe with produced turbans l>e calls buccina. has produced all the perplexity and confufion we meet with relative to this family. Lifter calls them wlielks whofe tops are ftiorr. which leems to be a ipecies yet Uhdlicovered in a living or recent (late from the iea. arranged this genus as fnails with a very long and (lender turban.k the(e guttered buccina hold in fyliematical authors. but his lelettions of them are rather perplexed. buccina extremely fmooth. and have a very thick columella belide them. or do not extend beyond the mouth. BUCCINUM. in immenie quantities. and many kinds are prolonged into a wry gutter. as Buonanni. and others . & exlrorjio/i forreSlo: the mc uth ot this waid. There are many curious ipecies of them. wlio (ollows and corrects his method. as they agree in the mouth and other particulars uith the rclt. biformcs. or needles j whence thty :i\tiyAVC\tt. cochleae lunares. fo that the turban is not infenfibly. Argenville.. Buccina canaliculata. and Davila. tlie filver mouth.C'1ions'. lb that the whole fr. Linnaeus intermixes them among his feveral ti. tapering to a laft and propriety or order. by the names of polt-horns and lamps.. well defined or bordered. and the m-iny fubordin::re charadters of them . and divides them into four genera but the firlt genus which he calls whole-mouthed. as it fliews the value of particular fpecies at times. THE WHELK. turning backwards. Linna. after criticifing Lifter.lone they are immediately dillingiiilhed frorn the iirombi. . their fancy furmifes. The top of genus is not (>ro!onged or extended fornotch or crocked gutter. The arrangement and names this genus bears fnails Ths ivith lyftematifti are as follow Lifter places them as a fection of the fnails . that valuable ihcll the wentletrap is ranked by Linnsus in this genus. for their mouth is perfectly circunifcribed or bordered fuch are the Midas's ear. count of its having any ellential diltimit ciiarafter. tliau on ac. and Linnjeus ranks them in his genus turbo. Thefe fnails have a perfcft. by ranging many kinds not truly buccina. in Kent. He therefore divides them into fix genera. Meufchen intermixes them . Davila makes thc-m hii . them is the gold mouth. like and Lifter. Davila makes them tiie third genus of buccina. THE WRE. and only as buccina. viz. feeras. calls turbo. The fifteenth family of univalves is the b.plates. v»ith iiiails. as in the buccina. 2. &c. The error of authors in fetting afide the figure of the mouth.-ve plaglofiama. the ferpents llcin. It is chiefly this family that has created fo many diil'tiences among writers on conchology. like the t:iaik» &f heads of nails. inftead of being (iiuilar mout'ied (lisHs. Rumphius. turbau and that is their only charadler. The fifth or NEEDLEFORM SHELLS. TURBO. who call them turbo or iliombus. than in this. hh afice qtiiifi abfcijfo. as it comprehends the land fnails. For the (hells called buccina by th^ feveral conchologifts.-. for thefe (liells. Sec.. numerous. the Midas ear. Argcnville and Davil. : : The fpecies of this genus are very Tlie varieties of work and (hape. Davila. Gualtieri. wriivkled. ha<. and the defines the buccina extremely well by an oval aperture ending in a gutter. (oiely on account of this charaiSier. of this genus. and in nurt authors they are indjfcriminateiy intermixed with all the fiiail kind. is as follows Lifter's (edlion xiv. fi(h The firlt. under the name turbo fcalar'is. produced froin it. which are only fubordinate characters. and the inner or columella lip is always . Elegant fpecimens of the turbinated (hells are given in the copper. without a tail or gutter.. and therefore it becomes a fcene of confufion. are amazing. and the other authors rank them indifcriminately Dr. which fubcrdinate chnraclers nioft authors having attended to. and framing their genera from fuhordinate charajSers. makes the elTential character of buccina to be a broad and very lengthened mouth but he nowhere dirtinguiflies the feveral genera. which turns A outwards on the back. foff. as does Argenville. Davila. fharp point. refembiing the ftrombi. called turbo. the columella. places the land and river fliells the lea fpecies he ranks as cochleae deprella:. is not more than proportionably fuelled. only as.ccina otvvhelks. but has a Wry-inouthed whelks. The third genus of fnails has a very fliort. The ran. from one inch and a half to two inches long. and the body-ipire is very rotund. Lifter. and ferve only to conftitute the different tribes cf the fame family. and exa6tly lelirmbles the mouth of a fole or other flat fi(h. Thefe have generally a perfect round mouth . ere£t. i. Argenville. for the greater part.' and the other authors place them inditrcrently. that. cr other flat.THED or TURBINATED SHELLS. by which particular . at the fale of commodore Lille's (liells at Langfoid's. and each fnij'e is^ aiCo circularly let with a row of deprelfions. It is an anecdote oi the wentletrap worthy to be tranfmitted. . is. with Davila. who is critically nietiiodical.ell gradually tapers to a iharp point. »«Te(lrial fluviatil fnails and he has placed among many among . Rumphius intermixes them. and the varieties of their fhapes and works art vaftly diverfified.4. which is a Ipecies (till more (lender and dellcatt . Da Cofta defines ail buccina to be (hells vphbfe mouths are an oblong or very lengthened oval. and fomewliat twirled .CONCHOLOGY. defines them to have a large oblong aperture. ftrongly feparates them. kiiiil. Indeed this genus was formed by Da Cofta more for regularity and clearnels in the method.i place them with the cochlex ore depreflb. i)a Colta calls it cochleas llrombiformis. The fpecies of this genus are very numerous .!? not more vifible in any family of the teitaceous animals. becaufe the top of t'>e mouth prolongs itfelf into a nearly flrait cylindric gutter.

but hitherto unknown recent. it is very proper to obferve. and efcape the piercer (o likewife in the chamae and other (IkUs there is not the leaft reafon to apprehend a menftruum. It is in Brander's Foif Hanton. II is fuflicient that it And. guttered. or alatse. the tongue of the purpura is a finger's length. as the Perlian crowns. by the name of cochlea flrombiformes. This fliores (hell is common in India. tower of Babel. and Plinii hijh nat. There feems to be a wife ciioice in It is in fuch a part of the fcrew that part fixed upon.t only buccina are included. or with 4 wrinkled or plaited pillar. Kumphius and Linna:us place them among the murices. . Argenville makes his thirteenth family purpurie. bony. which have a. or needles. becaule the whirls and mouth lie to the right-hand inftead of the left. : Buccina jam very prifcos cogebat ad arma Siuirites. Lifter calls them whelks with an extreme lengthened and tapering turban : however. hitherto undifcovered in their living ftate. or to kill it. are examined with a glals. if the turns brilkly backwards and foi wards. and there are of all kinds with this charafter. that it is impoflible to conceive any menftruum (hould art upon it in fo regular a manner. but thefe : only the whelks whofe pillars are plaited. but Linnaeus hat changed the old name of ftrombus. in the counties of Efli^x and Suftiolk. The latter fays. It is Lifter's buccina columella dentata but he has not only arranged the buccina therein. thorny woodcock. to others of a quite difterent form his ftrombi. Guaitieri calls thempurpuis. and not here. How^ever. or cochlea. Lifter has feveral (hells he calls purpurx. all thofe that have a perfeft round mouth. always ufed for thefe taper fliells. Africa. However. The annexed engravings exhibit an alVemblage of difterent fpecies of buccina. for all whelks. or thofe that have a perpendicular hollow or navel alide the columella or pillar-lip. that it may devour it at leifure. being winged (hells. rank under it. fuch as the purpura. it does not feem conclufive that the purpura extracts its food by this hole. THE ROCK-SHELL. the buccinum heteroftrophum. which is the moft ufual manner of turbinated fliells. Buccina columella dtntata vel plicata .us. and he makes tliem his fourth genus. but alio olives. in which n(. and from this (ingle charaflerof columella plicata. and that be forms two genera of them. and all this without any verfatile or other Others contend. Thtpuipura: prey on other (hell. 6. which are moll commonly found in fome fpecies of the chamae. who agrees with him in this genus. on the firft or body whirl. but gives no definition for them and Davila follows him. to illuminate their pagodas. is a fpecies of the fifth genus. as to be like a fpur. or that. whether beaked. Sec. This is the ^jofitive charafter of the gejius. and is found in great plenty. Da Cofta fays he does not riieet with any author except Davila. Lifter and Linnseus are the only authors who have agreed with Da Cofta in ranging (iiells by this fubordinate charailer. that it more : tends or turns fo far on the back. it is of I'uch hardnels. which fometimes ex: efpecially are his buccina ampuUacea. by virtue of fome menftruum it emits through the tongue. Strombi. All (liells lb prodigioufly tapering and long have been generally held as a pai ticular family. through the hole it bores. which are made ufe of in drawing the bows. 4. lioles. for there are other families of (liells. They have a wry-mouth exaftly the fame as the lecond genus. This genus of buccina longiroftra contains many fpecies very rare and curious. otfcre'wj. The fliells of this gejius have the inneror pillar-lip wrought with one or more bigh or prominent tranfverfe ridges or plaits. turboand ftrombus (la -vis. and giving fignals. Da Colta has only placed thofe fliells here. They are called fiiankos. Further. and the fcrew Oiells particularly. and then digs out the corroded fubftance with the beak.28 his fe:ond genus. long. and'other pnrts of Afia. The French authors Argenville and Davila call them all. Da Cofta forms difterent genera of them J but the iiied or efleiiUai charatter is an oblong The and . It is rather done with a view. Thefe tranfverltr prominent ridges on the inner or pillar-lip. according to Da Cofta's claflification. &c. As they conlilt of many (hells that have very different fubordinate charatltrs. and without regard to the contour of their mouth. has clalled it under niurex.) and Rumphius likewife calls them ftrombus. ungrateful (bund. whi^h he calls buccina whole mouths are furniflied with a very long tail or beak. The purpurse are properly to be placed with thcfe buccina longiroltra. folely on that account. wry-mouthed. he has ranked among the liiails. whelks 5. There are fome folhl kinds of the buccina. by palTmg their tongue. This praftice of the animal was obferved by the antient naturalifts . if the pillar is thus plaited. either to force the animal out of its (liell. Ijke a wheel. deep. The purpuras obtained tlveir name I'rom the purple juice or dye the fifli yields. Lifter has called the olives rhombi or ftrombi. and remarkable lengthened or taper body. umbilicatcd whelks. fome murices or rocks. becauf'e it is imagined that a (Iiell of this kind was firll dii'covered to aftordit: but indeed moft turbinated (liells yield a purple liquor. wry-mouth like the fecond genus . and not form a dillinft genus. fo much revered in Hindooltan. which have their inner or pillar-lip wrinkled or plaited in the lame manner. or oblation fliells and are in great requeft with the Mahometans. the murices or rocks. Buccina longiroltra. that are to be arranged in this genus . or tritonis of Rumphius. and on the of the Mediterranean fea . or buccina with an exceeding long and very taper clavicle or turban. for making bracelets and thumb-rings. 3.h(h. and others having a very long and extended beak. except that it is his eighth family. but likewife all other (hells whofe pillars are plaited. range herein. they will be found to be lb finely circular. The elder conchologifts ranked in this genus the chank fliells. Another foftil buccinum from France.. with a fniall mouth. by the name of the tyrian purple. he has erroneoully placed them among the whelks with a plaited pillar. and other (hellfifti of diftisrent families. where it is ftiil ufed as a trumpet for founding alarms. and Hampfnire. CONCHOLOGY. Linnasus has done the fame. whether guttered. It fends forth a hullow. (liell that the animal cannot crowd itlelf below the perforation. the tongue (liould always move circularly the fame way. in his fliell-(i(h. This fpecies belongs to the firft genus. it is not necelfary that the fifli (hould have a rotatory mortonj. which is hard. by the name of ftrombi. Midas's ear. which is lb famous in hillory. or other handed whelk. Some authors conchide that it performs this aifion of perforating other (liells. except fome iaw. The Hindoos employ them to hold oil.. murices conftitute the (ixteenth andJaft family of univalves. that to make this hole Itrong motion. Thofe are to be placed in their refpeitive families. No author belides Da Cofta has formed a genus from this lecond charadler. and for that purpofe bore a round hole in the (hells of the (ilh they feed upon. only on account of their taper ftiape. he has fonned his genus voluta. and calls them turbo. It was ulcd by the Romans in their earlier days. for the diftinttions between them are not built on real or decilive charaflers. Firft. crane. in the foftil ftate. the Perfian crowns. by which it preys in boring or perforating other (liells. and (liarp. Ariftotle Je part mtimal. and all buccina or whelks tliat have a hollow or navel. or beaked. MUREX. which he calls whelks with a notched is mouth without any beak. Buccina umbilicata . (b that the (I'ells herein ranked are generally difperled among the other buccina. whereby it foftens or corrodes the other (hell. Sec. Linna. are the ftandard charaiSer of this genus . Guaitieri and Seba have arranged all the taper (hells together. with a wrinkled or jilaited pillar. as a trumpet of war .

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as mulcles. or bears paws. rhombi.Liller calls the volutes and olives.CONCHOLOGY. fnells. rnufclcs. not yet difcovered living. plates. There is an elegant fodil fpecies of rhombus. called the/rrc/. and his third clafs is ol (hells with unequal valves.. vhich not only Ognifies a lozenge or rhombic figure. i. 151. Thefe three arrangements are alio. which he divides into two parts. The nnirices are divided into four genera. The method of Mr.after of the hinge. in defamilies and genera are very arbitrary. the cockle. This divifion. and Linnaeus ranks all the winged (liells together in bis genus Urombus. not yet difcovered in a living Rate. viz. Mu-rex. gives. or any of their parts. has fuperceded all thele far-fetched encomiums. and pinnae"'. In tliis afi'emblage of univalves the (tupendous works of the creation are fingularly manltelted. and. fcribing the included animals or filh. which in reality have no pofitive character to diltinguifli them. No. livefhells. but which appears to be a mere name without meaning or application. by the name of fimple v/inged Ihells. telllna.n can be compared with this. Some few kinds have the wing quite fimple. and other fimilar works. . and figured in Brander's FolTilia Hantouienfia. and trochus. from which appendage Lifter names them purpura feu buccbia bit:nguij. fourth genus of murices is the aporrhais. and. and into twelve (amilies. efcallops. which is his firft clals . donax. though good. or rock-fliells. This genus is very numerous. have aUb near the top of the mouth a broad hollowed finus. folely on account of their fimilar or di(iiniil. as it carries an idea of the fubjeiSs propofed. fo named by moll authors from their lip being greatly extended. which he charailerifes by tiieir hinges in a very accurate manner. This genus is very numerous. mattra. but contains many beautiful Ihelis and ionie very large and heavy.An elegant and large folfd kind of this (hell. but are arlways open or gaping in fome part. fpondylus. V. but in the modern authors. fuch as are alwa) s open or gaping in (onie part. This genus is not fo numerous as the preceding. and ends in a gutter at the top the clavicle or turban being generally fhort or nearly flat. either as to lultre. Venus. though he does not entirely build upon it. Sec. mufcles. is incomplete. prongs. truncated or (intfided cockle. and Ibme of the fpecies are vaftly large and heavy. or llrombi . and equally narrow mouth lengthways. . oylters. fubordinatc charaffer is to have always a rhombic fliape or contour. which runs into a Molt authors have added anoftiort gutter at the top. laUly. from which it ohtained the Latin name of miirex. general ones. This author s method is entirely arbitrary. or margaritifera. . hence they are called fpider-lhells. His arrangement is as foilows: Mya. or other rolling inftrument. fecond. which is faid to produce a purple colour fuperior to the famed Tyrian dye. Thus Columna makes rhombus. the pearl-oytter j folen. His method. . from being wrought fcith humps. the Englifh one oi rocks.ip or wing. orotherwife rough all over the I'urface. fo named from their refemblance to the pudenda of women. dnomise. . oyfters. narrow. Rhombi. The (pecies are few. and the pillar wrinkled or plaited. and (hells with valves that ne'ver Jhut clofe. all fynonymous. bumped. in his fevenih family. a whirl. In relation to tlie filhes which inhabit them. as the tridacna. his two chief divifions ot bivalves are into inarticulate. and (hut clofe as the efcallops. and mixes all the families together. foliations. and lolens. This divifion of bivalves may be arranged under three general heads. by means of a connexion by hinges. from which particular alone. however. (hells that have unequal valves. &c. and not the animals. play on each other. or fpiderwhofe edges are fet with ftrong and large prongs or fingers . divides all bivalves into fourteen genera. O/BirAirES. of always being thorny or I'piked. they have the name of rhombi. but they are elegant See fpecimens of them in the annexed copperIhells. by the elder authors. hinges. thechamw.vs. wants correflion in his third family. or winged rocks. the pellucid oyller. By this ariangeinent he rejefts the hinges as characters. . fo as to open or (hut. as his feventh Icheme of (hells. Tae abb^Raynal fays of it. as ibme have erroneoufiy imagined. or concha-venerea. his fecond clafs coiifills of thofe whole valves are equal. Brander's Folfilia Hantonienlia. 2. which. They are certainly the by the cardo or hinge. as the cockles. In the elder authors we find (liells called rhombi.guilhed. in his Mufeum Regalis Societatis. eg moft numerous of the tedaceous animals. or parts. lb that it is impo(rible to collate his method in fuch a manner as to be of much utility to the learner of conchology. Ihells of the fingle family and : t cockle . the thorny oyfter j chaiiia. found in France. that of the bivalves and multivalves but it is (b confided as to be_ ufelefs as a fyftematic work however. but this charaii^er does not hold throughout the genus. Breynius's Icheme of bivalves is very jejune and ufelels. or (hells wJiofe Thefe are compofed of two pieces. in Hampfliire. and the French n:\me of rochers. a fpinning-whecl. we feldom fee the name of rhombus ufed. the knife-handle. his placing the Noah's arks or boats. bafon-lhells. which he calls winged murices with prongs or fingers but all the other authors have intermixed them with the alatse. ftrombus. tuibo. Lifter begins his hiftory of Ihells with the bivalves. tellens. The third genus is the alatse. Rumphius and Meufchen make a diftinc't genus of them. by the immenfity of beauties in their colours and ftructuies. . telIcns. and greatly exceed the two general divifions of bivalves and niultivalves joined together. In his arrangement he has great regard to the char. rices. and Sibbald. whofe mouth is oblong. &c. On this account it is that univalves are in general the choiceft objeits of colleftors. and not from a lozenge or rhombic figure. in his ninth family of tellens. or expanded outwards. however. or duration. or cockles. fioni the lylfeniof Linnaeus it being the bufinefs of conchology to defcrtbe the (hells. Woodward. viz. This confufion apparently arifcs fror. but the chief or effential and therecharafler of bivalves is their cardo. Grew. the tellen . do the fame. and their fides unequal or diflimilar. Dr. cardium. is alfo found in Hordell clifts in H. nor does he charaAerize a . Thefe terminate all the families and gcr. viz. and his Linnseus.cra of univalve Vol. and in Hordell clitfs near It is curioufly figured in Chiirtchurch. which they call alatje. and bear more value than bivalves or niultivalves. .impfliire. chamje . and his method feeir. in the art of dying. Tournefort divides all bivalves into two parts firit. and perform all other f unftions nt cefl'ary to the economy or way of life of the animal mcluded in them. that is. ther charafter. which is not truly defined. or DOUBLE SHELLS. or with the edges even but the greater part of thefe. like the ipikes or aCperities of rugged rocks. They are molt commonly very thick (liells. fuch as fliut dole all round . they are defcribed under their generic names. A fpecies of raurex has been found on the coafts of Guayaquil and Guatimala in South America.s to be the moft perfeft of any yet publithed. aevil'sDavila makes thele his fourth genus of mucla. as alfo of the pporrhais. &c. &c. Davila ranks tiiefe by themfelves in the third genus of his murices. and contains many beautiful and coftly (hells. and articulate. and it is from tiiis lalt funilitude the olives and fuch like fliells have been called rhombi. Gualtieii forms his. fhells that have egual valves and (hut clofe. .method from thofe whofe valves fides are equal or fimilar. The progrefs cl modern cliemiltry. Under thele thiee arrangements all the bivalves yet known may be ranked.) the double meaning of the Latin word rhombus.*r fides. but alfoa reel. in his making two families of the chama and chama pliolas. gaping ihtils.. pinna-. coidiformes. Argenviile divides all his bivalves into fix families. (blenes. and extremely rugged on the outfid-. or hinge fore by that charaifter alone the families are diftir. that no colour yet knov. . The — Jinefs. . like a fl.

Thele are found very frequently in the quarries at Thame in Oxfordlhire. &.and curious economy of many of thefe (hcll-tilli. &c. the infide. Gualtieri. (cardo. The hinge. or have equal efcallops.a 30 CONCHOLOGY. and a very large thick and prominent tooth or joint lies on each fide of the cavity. multThe articulate. the other valve inilk white. but Rumphius. and. and without ears. or oyfter. the com pals or fole. and call them pefte'ns. ders. being fubje6led to the microfcope. and is covered and filled with a llrong cartil. foine whereof are very curious. which dope or from the beak down the and . The cartilage. Wiltlhire. and one eye in front of the head. The margins.) are the peaked ends of the (hell. OYSTER. The fecond family in this divifion is the fpondyli. that is extended. though without any itate. a fliining matter or bluifti light like phofphorus. The fpecies are very numerous. and extends from the hinge outwards into a broad triangular flope or flat. which has one valve of a chefnut brown. or boror that part which anfwers to it. The foflil oylters yet undilcovercd in a recejit or living . though not beautiful. The fecond Ibrt is red. -vice The other ijer/a. is by forcing their under valve againlt the body wdiereon cotkle form. The fpecies are numerous. bears paws. partaking of the ruggednefs of the oyfi. refembling the common glow-worm.s. and bear a large price. (/ulcus canaliculus.) is the opening of the (hells on the flopes. or runs along paral- A lel to the hinge. The oyfters have unequal valves. on the charafler of the hinges. the beaked cockle. that efcallops will move fo ftrongly as fometimes to leap out of the balket wherein they are placed when taken: their mode of leaping. by the name of fpondylus . as the compafs or (ble. The flant (lopes. while Lilter ranks the hammer oyflier. &c. Argenville. on each fide of wdiich is a large deep cavity. complanatum. there may be efcallops without tars. they are ranged under this genera! head. or properly the hinges. if unequal or rnore extended on one fide than on the other. indeed mofl: authors have injudicioufiy made it the chief tharaiiter. The margins or borders are faid to he Jmilar. furrow. The (limmit and beak of the under valve is alfo extremely thick and (frong. and Ibmetimes in the chalk-pits of Kent and Surrey.) r-. in both fliells alike. joints. The third family in this divifion is the oftreum. : The . of. (iiuii-giiies. as the fpondyles. A — — : . the eicallop. as the ducal mantle. like the efcallop. BIVALVES WITH UNEQUAL VALVES. has given a very good method of bivalves. the cockfcombs. It is worthy of remark. lops with unequal or (ingle cars. and continues fliining and giving light far a confiderable time. The fpondyles are mofl: generally eared (hells with unequal valves. and of great beauty. the back like an eel with its (kin (tripped oft'. The beaks. and legs like the former. fliells formed Jike an ark. and the elcal- This (billing matter fenfible heat. This family is not very numerous in its fpecies. are as follow The (ummit. Some kinds of fpondyles are thickly and curioufly fet with long thorns or (pikes. is found to confilt of three kinds of animalcules the firft whitifh. The hinge of this family has not any teeth. the mufcle . forked. (ctecU'vitas. The Uugtb of a bivalve is from the beak or hinge to the very oppofite & extreme. the latter concha peiSlinata. the fea-wiiig or ham. articulate.) are the places fides. an<l thofe with unequal. Woodward. or concave. wdiereas there are other eared fliells befides efcallops. fliallow. (ri»ia. the fpondyles. latus the furrow and at the (lopes. viz. (cartilago. that are very prominent or high. that the colours of the under fliells of efcallops are always fainter than the colouis of the upper fliells. and thence gradually widen to a round bottom. and peftens. with fomewhat of the efcallop form. but confiifs of one large inarticulate gutter running the length of the top of the fliell. as the flats of the heart cockles. valves the former a trigonal finu. with folds on its back. and alio on the form but his fyftem of univalves The technical terms comis very faulty and imperfefl. with a head like a (ble. but im'menfely large. with large but unequal which (ticks to the fingers when touched. and itijjimilar. Lilter. Moll authors rank thefe fliells as apaiticular makes them a genus of oyllers. pinna. ami the concave. However. (bme of which are curious. the other exceedingly concave. The third kind is fpeckled. a nofe like a dog. It is thickly ridged lengthways.) are the edges or contour of the ihell. Dr. The efl'ential charadler is the hinge. greater number have unequal valves. and Davila. He alfo very accurately delcribcs the Angular habits.) is the part that connefts the two valves together. with many common ridges and intermediate ones. which nioft generally ftand behind the fummit. the convex exprtffes the exteiior-or convex liile of the (hells.e calls peclen. and having twenty-four or twenty-five legs on a fide. This family is ranked as a diilindl one by all authors. they vered lie. is ellential and ovlters. the valves unequal. like plates. as efcallops. and the furrows are broad and deep. or a large number. when not fet with any vifible joints or teeth . yet. (b as to produce a medium between the two families. (Kate. as the hammer oyfter. wlien fet with many. and has accordingly arranged them under the generic name Ostrea. (umbones. as the far.) is the gutter or furrow. a flat and a concave fide. The fubcrdinate charafters of efcallops are their being eared .) joins the valves together at The flat. rank them very erroneoufly as oyfters. &c.age. wliich are requifite for making their defcriptions intelligible. Linnaeus ranks the efcallops with them. It is found in the quarries of Dorfetfliire. the duck's foot or coral-efcallop. . are greatly valued. hinge in the chief kinds of folTiI efcallops yet in an undifcoThe firli is about the fize of are as follow the common oylter. but with many additions or omiflions as for example. The : convexitas conchalurfaces. common oyfter. &. if equally juoduced or extended from the fumniit. with many tufts of whitifli hairs on the fides of it.— The family. or raifmg themfelves up. valves. The firft family confifts of the Though fome fpecies of them in the families of the fpondyles ESCALLOP. have (bme fpecies with equal valves. It is faid. and (bme others.) is that fide of thofe (hells that is flat. is (aid to be inarticulate. • fliut have irregular valves. but none are eared. rude or uncouth in fliape. one being quite flat.'c. aiiomia. or of equal length . that is to fay. J'. charaiUr of the efcallop and an claftic cartilage for its very center of the top of the (liell. area. SPONDYLE. raargaritiferse. fecond kind. very elegant. are placed. and Meufchen. ollrea. and fometinies the valves are diflerently coloured. (pleiiiities. in the very center. he calls pefluncuH. wdien perfeft.) concavitas rum . the part whereon the teeth. The valves are equal. when in a dark place. whicli iee under their refpeiftivc names in this work. produced from the beak or hinge on either fide. which in the upper fiiell confills of a triangular hollow and cartilage. and the adjacent counties. Jubordinate character is to have the top run into a perfeel (trait line. mytilus. The generally are fiightly flatted. (fuperficks. when fet with fome few. is about double the fize of a cockle. all rank them as a particular genus. and Argenville and others the fpondyles. Woodward. and a black I'peck on the head. Liiina. in his catalogue of foffils.'C. perfei^^ly round contour the furface tranfverfely thick let with prominent fliarp thin ridges. monly ufed for defcribing the parts of bivalves. thefe are generally called thorny oyjlers. and. vent. when the (hells are^ doled. (apex. and . The fame particular likewife occurs Thefe confift of fliells that clofe. Linnaeus. like the efcallops. Gualteri makes dlflisrent genera of thofe with equal. The breadth is from fide to fide. thejoints on wdiich hinge they play in the aiilions of opening and (liutting. It is not uncommon to fee on oyfter-fhells. though there are fome fpecies that have equal valves.

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Ch<tJ>'H.ui ^c ^lertiij -S'tia •fri. .COXCHOLO&Y riatc xa .A.

Dr. He then arranged them into fmooth. They lie therein lifted upon their flat furfaces horizontally. fome of the foflil kinds have an evident multarticulate or many-toothed hinge. whereby the rilh adheres firmly to any . from which particu lar they have all'o obtained the name of terebroiulce. found in Shotover and Heddington quarries. i. that it is now become the univerfal and eflablillied name of the family. improperly fo called. Columna defcribed and figured fome foffil kinds. They extend over no Jefs than iix acres of ground . and above it ftratum of a itiff red clay. llrong ligament. j : . and fulcated. He defines them. to eftabiilh his uf'ual precihon.) has an interior appeiid. of which theie are feveral fpecies a very large flat kind with equal valves. The hinge is inarticulate or toothlef*. However. the indentings. who figures three recent kinds. and others a green fand. is a true oylter. and that (hut clofe.1 . rocks. which is perforated or tubular quite within. that the valves of the anomia.. for inliead of a beak it has a perforation. and above it is a ttratum of fuller's earth. Buonanni. except where the ihells are found. and as a gciius of his firll family of oylters. in Oxfordfliire. He kept the eltablifhed name. This faihily has long been known follil. or their hinge : his definition. Linnasus.. remain yet undifcovered in a living (late and even the few known are difcoveries made within the recent with the foflil kinds._ ^u_. by what obfei vations can be made. confequently lie lall forty cies.-^. flriated. and over tliis there is a much thicker ftratum of a bluilh and very brittle clay J but neither lias this ever been dug through. it is extremely good. Gualtieri. which extend themfelves to the middle of it. Over this there lies a ftratum of a fine white land. Woodward was the firll who arranged the anoniice from the foftil fhells. of which tiles are made.. to take their food but noiirilh thenifelves tiirough the tube or perforated beak only. ANOMIA. and haV'e the fame fubllance with the recent oyfter-thells. the beak peiforated. though he gives an excellent figure of the inner ftructure. And a third fort._• 1 f'lercj-clay. : . and alio has a very fingular articulation or conne6lion within-fide. which fome writers call It is conipofed a green earth. from the infide ofthe fhells. about two feet and a half deep . (which is that of Gualtieri. or opening of the larger or under valve. there is gene in fingle (hells. and they have always a remarkable interior llruiluie. unmixed either with the clay or this is near feven feet deep. It feems therefore.. but are upheld or fuftained only by a llrong atlhefion of their tubes or perforated beaks to the fides of the caviand this pofition is ties. the beak of the largtft or under valve is greatly produced. however. that the hole in the beak of the conchas anomise is for the purpofe of tranlmitting a llrong ligament or grillly fuhfiance. where they are bound or flopped by two fni^U ligaments. indead of being only inarticulate. of this llratum of tile-clay cannot be afcertained. and other dillortions. a. Yet. bival"es with unequal valves and never eared. fince the oldell hiitories that rnention the place. and running down to the middle of the : fuller's earth is a : upper valve. is that near Reading. of a peculiar flrudlure. This is vulgarly denominated ftate. the hinge was nearly the fame._ . but the fjnaller or upper valve is always indented intj a wide finus. viz. is the reafon that neither he. and the pellucid or glafs Chinefe oyfter. in Berkdiire. as moft others do. or cavities of . and juft above them is a lar'je ifratum of a greenifh loam. the other convex. dilcovered fo early. of a crumbly marie. Tliey all lie in a level bed . i. and the Itrata above the fiiells are natural. it would appear that thele animals feldom open their fliells. which word anomia has fince been fo generally ufed for them. and rifes or curves over the beak of the fmaller or upper valve.C O N C H O L O G the chief of them are the gryphytae and jOl" the foflilogills. together ib that. and ranked them with fliells of unequal valves. are Y. cor il &c. and . or the multarticulate cockles. for he propofed the gryphites. and riles curved up on the upper valve. and not eared.. _:. the undulated margins. which are taken in or hinged into the linufes or cavities of the upper valve . Rumphius.i. and defines them to be fliells with unequal valves. and then return again towards the top. Da Cofta defines the anomise as follows. Ke defcribes them in the following manner: the hinge of the under valve is compoled of two liiiall hooks. are conneiled together in two ways. By an inarticulate hinge . rally fome of the green fand found within them they feldom flick very faft. fixed at the top. The fecond fet have a vilible and regular multarticulate hinge exaflly like thatof the Noah's arks. in the fame manner as that clafs of fliells commonly at leaft fome fpecies of them have an called bears paws opening between the two valves on one fide the hinge. one valve being flattilh. without any prop or folid body to reft on. He has mixed the contiguous body. except that he makes both fliells convex. through which pafles.. On a due confideration of the deep grooves. and calls it terehraiula. and appear never to have been dug through till the time of finding the fliells. In another fpecies. They are entirely fhaped. which. but moil frequently When they are in pairs. or fpoils of animals. each of which articles has feveral neceflary fubdivifions. and a large portion of fand. — . however. is very jiiil. He does not. . is the anomias. as fliells with equal valves. but had two long and narrow fide appendages proceeding from the lop of the upper valve. which is nut ib in feveral fpecies. it is not eafy to preisrve them in pairs.:. and tlie hinge inarticuhitc or toothlets. he miltook fome fpecies . has made a particular genus for them.. and. particularize any charadters of the hinge. Under them is a thick (tratwm of chalk. Columna firll mentioned fome foilil fpeyears. The fourth and lafl family in the divilion of fhells with unequal valves. of thefe fliells. and one of them beaked. and he being convinced that all folfil (hells were real exuvia. except three or four. and made them his genus 314 anomia. by which they adhere firmly to the rocks. Lifter lias alfD figured feveral in his Appendix de Conchitis to but no recent kind being Jiis Hilloria Conchyliorum . and is ufed by the clothiers. by all its charaflers. This clay-bed is about a yard deep. and diffimiiar fules. By obfeivadons made on the few livifig fpecies lately difcovered. time. as fpecies of anomia. Thefe oylters are occafionally found whole. when the exigencies of the animal require opening or fliutting. in a very remarkable and curious manner.ave taken any notice ot them. and is elteemed ufelefs. living kinds feeins The alio interior llrucHure of one of the t«' not at all particularly adapted .iture he obferved ip two fpecies. we mull fuppoi'e they have lain there in the iame liate for a long. this opinion Hands in fome meafure confirmed. and not finding thefe defcribed or noticed by conchologilts as fliells. and it has two interior appendages fixed towards the top of the upper valve this ltru. poffefied fbnie of the living ihells. . however. called them conclias rariores anomia. as it in tne a£lion of lucking It appears likewife the general one of the recent kinds. could not accurately define their peculiar interior ftructure. unlefs very carefully taken up.x. He detines them as fliells whole beak or top of the under valve is perforated. and is perforated or pierced through li-ke a tube. very erroneoully. But the largefl: bed that is known of fofli! oylters. lomewhat like a perpendicular gutter or pipe. _) et. as the living anomix have all been found lurking in the nonks between the branchings of corals. and fuither defined them to have both valves conve. give an account of them'. \\\ which it plays like a joint. nor other early authors. The oyfterfhells and green earth united make a Itratum of about two feet thick . on account of the unevennefs of the hill.ige. h. By a multarticulate hinge. This is again covered with a little vegetable mould the depth. more than in any other genera. Davila treats this clafs fyftematically. and contains a great number of fpecies. all oi which. ij. or appendices. Woodward had only fothl fliells to infpefl:. n very many . The firll fet have no teeth or joints on the hinge .1 i_-. and by the beak.

or have one fide flat. nineteen (pecies. and Meufchen. i. The fliells are equally railed. but is let with feveral parallel and ttraight ridges and intermediate furrows. Lifter intermixes them with the two following genera.) among his arcs. which in thefe is multarticulate. have all a genus they call tellina. Woodward ranks them among his polyginglymi forma. viz. griiily or bony thin Itring. among his peclunculi leptopolyginglymi figura oblonga. i.L OvsTER. whofebeaks are not very peaked or prominent. There are feveral kinds of foflil cunei. fquare cockle. viz. defcribes fixty-feven I'pecies. &c. Lifter ranks the two kinds he figures by the name of peclines margaritifcias polyginglymi. Dr. relative to the fofii! and recent teftaceous animals. teliens. but he defines them very inaccurately.irgarititer. are very curious and valuable (hells. Concha veneris. and with fimilar and diflimilar fides. 2. or quite at one end but thefe genera are by mcjit authors promifcuoufly mingled togetlier. arks Da Cofta imagines the foflil hippocephaloidas belongs.S2 C O N C H O L O G Y. Woodward places them in his clafs 3. Argeuville places them in his fourth family of heart-fliaped cocklejj but Davila makes them a diltintf genus of his broad than long. Argenville ranks them among the muicles. The fliells are moftly of a cordiform or oblong fliape. fixed perpenditiilariy on the upper valve. and this family of anomia. or with a great number of teeth or articulations on the and. Lifter places them after the pinna. teeth on their hinge . viz. I. as the m. Thefe (hells rank in raoft authors with the cockles in general. already noted. Inarbinges. DONAX. and includes the folens as a fpecies of them. the hinge lies on a (fraight line like the efcailop. or teliens. and is fet with many teeth. fome of which To this family of are very curious and valuable (hells. Articulate. particularly the ftudded kind. all by the name of peftiinculi. Thefe again admit of three divifions. which are fuch fliells as have their hinges on a perfect Itraight line. This is inftanced in the ammonia. with a cut cr vent half-way down it. fo called. and are oblong (hells. and Seba figures and calls it concha longa brachiata f^me among the pinnae. or Vcnus-fliell . call them canies and Davila divides them into four genera. whofe hinge or cardo lies. is a guttered triangular appendage. It confilh or a to the efpecial ufe of opening the tliells. and calls them volfella but they are not methodized in any other writer on conchology. or common cockle. is peftuncuU leptopolyginglymi margine rotunda. having diflimilar or unequal fides.The peiSlunculus. Gmelin. VENUS. as the Noah's aik. Dr. is. have made a diftiniil genus of them. and refemblance of the fexual parts of females. i. whole beak and hinge are placed near to. or oblong . one of which is found in the river Tees. Linnxus. or with few teeth The multarticulate (hells ticulate. . and defines them to be fliells fhapcd like weilges. )ike the twillings of This is tlie ribbantis. The next in order are thofe bivalves that are inarticulate. The donax. and the hinge has two teeth let clofe together. and tbeir hing* . p. curved or (emilunar hinge. 741. or palhicid oyfter. The truncati. Thefe are (hells with equal valves. This family is divided into two genera. Rumphius. Davila alfo.— Thefe are fliells with equal valves. whofe beak and hinge are central. and calls them atks. and Meufchen. . according t<J Gmelin. Multarticulate. Dione. peftunculus. Woodward makes a genus of them. Da Co(h* divides this family of aiiomiae into two genera. 3. vulgarly called true lovers kmts. and are of a fomewhat fquarifli figure. and by two fmall hollows. that it is COCKLE — genera. and. or Venus-(hell. or thofe in which the liinge of the under valve is of a large finus or cavity. Inarticulate anomiac. nuilcles. Gualtieri. Lifter puts forae of this kind among the multarticuhate cocklesand the Noah's arks he places among the mufcles. Linnaeus ranks them (figura fubrolunJa. as the Venus. has very few living fpecies yet diicovered. cockle. and the other valve has tv^o correfpondent iurrows.e. his teliens. and 'vtce verfa. —The teliinre. i. There are. which are found in incredible quantities fodil all over the world. fet with from two to four ftrong teeth. on account of their being of a roundirti fliape. the eorners whereof form two prominencies or joints. There are ninety fpecies of them defcribed by Gmelin. from the top or beak. is. and fays thty have few teeth on the hinge. PECTINOID^. are eared a. mufcles. very furprifmg and unaccountable circumftance. The CARDIUM. fourth family. whicli twilts in and out to above h. — The common Thele are as follow -. and on one valve tonfifts two ftraif linear ridges. in his new edition of the Syftema N iturse. rather flat. viz. Of — . though alfo found foflil in an allonilhing abundance. This genus is — BIVALVES WITH EQUAL VALVES. and has befides fuch ftriking or remarkable lubordinate chawith great propriety divided into three cardiimi. vol. — pearl oyfters. or have no. &c.ilf-ivay within the fliells. and (hut fuch as the cockles. the PEAR. cordiform~ cockle. Argenville. A The elTential charafler of thefe fliells is.. The rank theie (hells hold in Lifter. by the name of many-toothed mufcles. this — TELLENS. quite within the iliell. or wedge-fliaped fliells. Davila. fiw:lls with equal valves. : the memoirs of the Bononian Inltlfute. See figures of this divifion of bivalves. or truncated raflers. or flat-fidcd cockles. to the middle of the fhell. and he has alfo placed feveral among. which is fully del'cribed and figured in The'e . &c. Woodward. Sec. Ginelin enumerates forty-three fpecies. and the fides are diflimilar. 3. or MACTRA.—The fliells of this family refemble the cockle in all refpeifs except the hinge . There are but few fpecies of them. FECrUNCULI POLYGINGLYMI. being found on the loofe iiindy coalh of molt countries. and Ibme are extremely haudfome. which remain yet undifcovered in a recent or living ftate . 2. Thefe are fuch as are tiuncated. oblonga. 2. Gualtieri figurts a kind. though none are yet dilcovtred recent or living. There are twenty-feven fpecies now known. the Angular conformation of its aperture. I'o as to meet at one end in a very acute angle. fecond fort mentioned by Davila. The other ftniiilurc. TelliuES with fimilar fides. or without any teeth. This family contains Linnasus's genera of arks 01 boats. AKCA. that they appear to be multarticulate a fliells. are fliells more . or furnirtied with a great number of teeth. or with lengthened fides. and laid obliquely to each other. Hud fome are very elegant and curious. in England. are hardly known recent . dentated. and that they aie a fpecies of it yet undilcovered his reafon for ranking them with the 1 ving from the (ea: at ks. Gualtieri forms a genus of them by the name of concha rhomboi'dalis and Meulchen alio ranks them as a dillinft genus of arks. clofe every where known. The niargaritifera'. that all thofe found in iniiiienfe quantities in the foflll Itate. in the annexed engravings. but in the cockles there are only a few. cockle. and the upper valve is indented into it by a corre<pondent prominency to the cavity. i. and efteemed as food. found foflil at Eononia in Italy. exadUy like the Noah's aiks. Cunei. and 'confift of the three following families. pretty prominent. anfwerable to the two prominencies or joints. •which is Davila's third fort. confift of (hells that have equal fides. genus there are one hundred and fifty-four Ipecies. There is a very large and extremely thick fpecies of this family not yet known in a living (late. generally very flat. and not the cunei. or thofe whofe hinge lies on a long Itraiglit line. Ibme of which.. The placenta. and concave. are called leptopolyginglymi. Multarticulate anomia. This family is fo extremely numerous. from. : — . asit were. See the article Anomia. cut off.— MYA. Davila and Linn-ceus only. and the other authors have mixed them iudikriminately with the common articulate cockles.

COATCHOLOGY Tlatf Xni I. i^Jut/in l->nd.itn*:t£ OetT ^o. fSoi. .2'ulfiihe^l oji tlt^ Acr .hv LJnUics..ii\.



Flafesnr.Setif/>.COKCHOLOGX. ^/ier/ut Sfia •T.r/t/ym^t/i . . Jrf.

The Irt in Cumberland was alfo prodoitive of them. or " deluge fliells. prefented her niajefty with a pearl (taken in this river) which is to this day honoured with a placein the regal crown. From obfervations on the growth of their (hells. Chamae. : the operation. Several of them are remarkable for the beauty of their internal (lieil. and the number of their annular laminse or (calcs. and often cad it fpontaneoully in the land of the liream. in Ireland. on the fhores of thole dry and thirlty regions. the beft of which are thole called hookers. This fpecies is alfo found in all the European and Indian feas. that a retf (mall kind was found about to. and weigh from three hundred and a half to i\-:i or feven hundred weight. No. but on the longeft fide. where they grow very fat and delicious. The gaper. the bafe tranfverfe. (b as to counteraft the impuife of the waves. Other fingle pearls vere fold for ten pounds each. merelj' a gutter or flight furrow without a fingle tooth. that Casfar was induced to undertake his Britifh expedition for the 1-ike of our pcarh . others are of an oblong form. 151. but Lifter calls them pearly eCcallops. will be again renewed. an imputation that in general they are (till liable Pliny (. viz. or eatable mulcle. but are open or gaping in (ome part. The edulis. and placed in the river Were. The mya raargaritifera is the filh that produces the Britilh pearls. — BIVALVES WITH GAPING VALVES. It has a very thick. Anotion a!fo prevails. Thefe are of equal valves and diHimilar fides. it is fuppofed the fi(h will attain a very great age fifty or fixty years are imagined to be a moderate computation." as if left there by the flood. yet they report them to have been (mall and ill-coloured. the Knife-handle. There are rwenlyfix fpecies. opaque (hell. and flattered himklf with being enriched by procuring them within his own illand. exactly oppofite to perforations and injuries made from without. loft much of its worth. who put it into a necklace. the barbator is beautifully (friated and fringed. The Ipecies of this family are. the beak is hooded. oblong. Tlveir capacity renders them extremely valuable to the Afiatics. The moft valuable of thefe fl-. the flieaths or knife-handles. They are called by the Welfli crcgin dilunv. often much decorticated. Mr. This hiatus. had a patent for filhing in that river. is ufed by the animal to put forth or protrude its tentacuise or feelers. that in (ive or for feveral years. comprelTed. raivk them as common oyfters. feveral of great fize were got in the rivers of the counties of Tyrone and Donegal. Linnaus made a remarkable difcovery relating to the generation of pearls in this fidi. fome of which are nearly in the (hape of efcailops. the mother of pearl (hells or pearl oyfters. The chama gigas. MYTILUS. and immenfeiy hrge. very thick and rotund. i. One that weighed thirty-fix carats was valued at forty pounds. in. and eaJily form. but a little waydown one of the fides. i. Da Cofta and Linna?js make a diftinft genus of them . cor is a rare and curious (heli . . found in immenfe beds on the coaft of Cumberland.ed into capacious batons. or mother-of-pearl fhell. and refufed eighty pounds for it from the duchel's of Ormond. the two (hells do not clofe. he calls conchae aliformes.CONCHOLOGY. or balbn-(hell.iys. finner. ixy. and defines it as eared (hells with a fmooth Jiiiige j and Gualtieri defines them by placing the pearl (hells in one genus. Pinna:. that it was nccellary to u(e the hand to try the weight of a fingle one. the lips whereof are very broad. or bivalves whofe (hells never (hut quite i. the Muscle ^This conftitutes the laft family of bivalves with equal valves . but leave an oval opening or gap. They are taken out of the of Afia. Suetonius reports. black on tlie outfide ufnal breadth fiom five to fix inches length two and a quarter. the (hells form large capacious bafons. the Thracian Bofphorus. in a (hell called mya-y but does not give it any mark to alcert. of putting thefe (hell-filh into a l\ate of producing pearls at pleafure. a proper offering to the goddefs of beauty. and is noted for producing quantities of pearl. We believe that C3?Iar was difappointed of his hope: yet he carried home a buckler made with Britiflr pearls. iir John Ha«kins. The chama trapezia is alfo a verv large and curious (hell. Tbt(e are alfo called flieaths and razor-handles. within reach of the tide. It is nearly orbicular. in (tjarch of food and alfo to faften itfelf upon any piece of rock or (olid body. It is faid that the method confilled in injuring the (hell externally by a perforation and it has been obferved. All conchologifts agree in the clafli/ication of this family of (hells . and curvated like the bill of a parrot. &c. It will bear removal remarkably wcil and it is faid. are capable of pinching off a (hip's cable as large as a man's arm. the gapers or bafon-( open at both — K «r. chamberlain to Catharine queen to Charles II. who (prang from the fea. and they almolt lupply the place of tanks. that fir Richard Wynne of Gwydir. is plentiful in England. and turn up on the edges. One was fold to lady Gienlealy. The difcovery turned on a method which Linnsus found. The river Conway was noted for them in thedays of Cambden. . or gap. The lazarus is rocky and full of prickles . are unacquainted with tiie means by which he accomplillicd this extraordinary orfieration . He (ays. and Dr. Thele flielis a.^nd narrow (hape. in hinge and appearance like the cordiform cockles. that in fome places they form refervoirs for the piirpole of keeping it. He had obferved pearls plentiful in the Straits of Magellan. are more than four (ect over. and (ixteen have been found within one (hell. and hung up in. . and taking out the pearl. It may •not be inTj^roper to mention. they will ejeft the pearl. in a certain period of time. years after ufe them as watering-troughs for their cattle. and of the wliitenels and water of pearl itfclf. and of a (tone-like confilteiice.ells is Xht mater perlarutn. and that they were fo large. and for the pearls which are fometimes found in them. they are not eared . We . On being fqucezed. and fl^t. are mo(f generally very convex. Thele (hell-fifli. The chama. Gmelin enumerates twentv-four fpecies of mya. and ti. — . by ferpulK and other animals. or arcuated. Woodward forms a genus he calls margaritifsrse.d3: . wha CHAMA. and the hinge is a mere (light furrow witliout any tooth. This family confifts of three genera. V. but it was probably publiflied at the time. of a long . The famous circumnavigator. 3. Vol. found in the fe. Thefe are termed conchx hianfes. to imprel's the minds of the Roman citizens wish the importance of his conquefts in Britain. that thtle concretions in (liell-filh are found on the infide. They are the difcale of the fifli.lar only heard this by report . after the external laminae have been taken o(f by aquafortis and the Lapidary's mill. Others reiemhle the rocky murices. but being foul. that notwithftanding the clafTiC authors honour our Britilh pearls with their notice. and imbricated with dentated coats. Davila. the fwallow. wlien arrived at mature age. In the feventeenth cen^ tury. the fea-wings or hams. and confidered as important. and is fituated not at the top of the (hell. Pennant imagines thatCa. defcribed by Rumphius. which. of great weight. Solens. were miftaken for them. the temple of Venus Genetrix . by the name of conchs insequilaters j and the fwallow in another genus. Gmelin enumerates fifty-eight fpecies.. though the final e(fe<5t would not take place . from the beak to near the extreme mar. coarfe. SOLEN.3t the cryllalline balls called mineral pearl. bending inward on one fide. fince it is certain that the author was rewarded with a munificent premium from the ftates of Sweden on this account. There have been regular fi(heries for the lake of this precious article. It inhabits feveral of the principal rivers of Great Britain. It has alfo the lame luftre on the outfide. analogous to the (tone in the human body. or thorny oyfters only that the fpiracles or fangs are much harder.loie. fo that. Rumphius. This is fuppofed to have been rather a contrivance. when opeMe<l.iin the ipecies. and iiuige IS Meufchen. On the infide it is ex(juifitely poliflied. the pearl will have acquired the fize of a vetch. which he dedicated to.

M. I he holes in which the pholades lodge. became more luminous. and — . rock cryftal. and is confiderably large in proportion to the fize of the auiiual . That the fifli is luminous. and fignifies fomething which lies This name they dtnve from their property of hid. a folution of li. . was noticed by Pliny. The arti.a-falt increafed the light of the luminous water . In the middle of their bodies they have a fmall green veficle. Italy. are as yet entirely unknown. Of this genus there are twenty-three fpecies.ated by a membrane. to take in lea-water by one tube. are ufually twice as deep as the fhells are long. in reality. The pholas fliell. tlieliuigehns a tooth {hnped like an awl. This (liell is of a light violet ground. Thofe moft prizeci by conchologifts are the pinna muricata. as it only finks itfelf deeper in the ftone as it increafes in btilk. iiobilis. till the heat arrived to forty-five degrees. this is more luminous in proportion to its being freih that when they are dried. This trunk. . efpecially Beccarius. there. when it was agitated. and. Salammoniac diminilhed it a little. and furnilhed with a beard. the piddcck. and. There are three families in this divifion. that whereas other fiflies give light when they tend to putrefcence. which broad end is always open. this they ufually extend to the orifice of the hole. Reaumur and the Bolognian academicians. it makes them luminous. wood. are fliells of a fomewhat triangular ihape. yet that in its would (hine. by conftant work. but that then became fuddenly extinel. Lepas. This water poured upon frefli calcined gypfuiii. or The means of their getting (tone. near to the hinge. but. when digelted. fomewhat refembling the fun when . is. 3. The hinge turns up on the outer pait of the ihell. or thoie Ihells that are made up of many diltinit pieces. The animal this fliell indoles is a kind of Aug-. It is furniflied with very ftrong calcareous valves and they have the faculty of attaching themfelves firmly to the rocks. within the Ihell. of unequal lengths. but none of The attention of the Bolognian academicians was engaged to this fubject by M. and the acids entirely. I. ^laving two large valves. Chiton. and from the firailaiity of its appearance. PHOLAS. their light .: . rived from the Greek. The openings of thele holes aie what betray the pholas being in the (tone. and lias a horny cartilaginous articulation. the liliqua. often double. Its work is very difiicult in its motion j but it has great time to peitorm it in. Three of them. that though this it became putrid. and even if it would. acorn fliell. In order to obferve in what manner this light was aftefted by different degrees of heat. the figure of the holes is that of a truncated cone. with a imall valve placed between them. and crifpus. in reiSified fpirit of wine or urine. re- The third general divifion of teftaceous animals is into nuiltivalvts. widening from a pointed or narrow top to. That part by means of which it performs this operation. on purpofe for their examination. This knife-handle is very rare. and the iieceifity they feel for hiding themfelves evidently makes them haiien tiieir work. OR SHELLS OF MANY PARTS. terminated at the bottom by a rounded cavity. on account of producing many beautiful pearls. bent back. with filvery white rays. drawing water. though it appears fingle. is. Reaumur obferves. who took fo much pains with the fubjeft of phofphoreal light. The body of the animal is lodged in the lower half of the hole in the ftone. He alfo fays that the light depends upon its moifture. that they muft have penetrated thefe fubllances when very fmall . indeed. markable for its luminous quality.'' becomes ot a purple colour but its colour on linen will not become purple in the fun like thas of the murex . In thele experiments of Beccarius. diverging from the hinge to each extremity. the ofcabrion. but they are always very fmall in proportion to the fize of the thell. is OF MUiriFALVES. who obferves that it fliines in the mouth of the perlon who eats it. the barnacle and Pholas. Tlie filh has two pipes. its quantity is toO' . They find little refiftance iii fo foft a fubltance. into the oppoiite (hell the rim at the fides appears fomewhat worn away. except a linall one downwards. vagina. fea. and their pofition is ufually fon:ewhat oblique to the horizon. The hinge is inra'ticulatp. it is not to be wondered that in fo lonsT a time it is able. compoled of two tubes. to rejeft it by the other. claws turned towards eacli other. as well as the included animal. the ufe of which has not yet been difcovered. and not inlerted. they made ufe of a Reaumur's thermometer. the piddock. has acquired to this fifli the trivial name of the J'ea-peiiis. and generally in an ereft or perpendicular dirciStion. and though it be of a loft fubltance. excepting that they are viz. and this is only proportioned to the growth of the animal. liilt He endeavoured to make his labours fucceeded. fand. Marfilius. which doles or cruftj over. becaufe the entrance of the hole in which the pholas lodges. in 1724.-\s it is immerfed in the hole. is a flelhy iiibftance placed at the lower extremity ol the Ihell 5 it is oi the fti-ipe of two points or . There feems to be no progrelhve motion of any animal in nature lb flow as that of the phol. is always much lefs than the interior part of it. will revive if they be inoiftened either with freih or water. and placing it U])on Ibnie loft clay for they will immediately go to work in bending and extending that part allotted to dig for them and in a few hours they will bury tlienilelves in the mud in as large a hole as they had taken many years to make in the ftone. when plunged ill fpirit of wine.— Thefe fliells are trivalves. to burrow into a hard ftone.wings or hams. and living in them. what is vulgarly called. and the ftones in which they were inclofed. and the Indian ocean. The manner of their performing this may be icen by taking one of them out of the ftone. and found that water rendered luminous by thefe fiflies increafed in fifli ceafed to fliiiie vi'hen moft putrid ftate it . Beccarius obleived.s. F. a very broad end. : ends. this light permanent. however. The pinnas.irts fepar. namely. The light of this filh has furniflied natter for various obfei vations and experiments to M. and under it. and if it touch his hands of clothes.ftiining through the clouds. or hinge without a tooth. than the fliell itfelf. or Se A-wi NO. as are all of the genus ipecies. 34 CONCHOLOGY. The largell and moft remarkable are found in the Mediterranean. All that we can with certainty luppofe. it exifted hardly a minute. and the upper half is occupied by a trunk of a flefliy fubltance and conical figure . The animal which confifts of eighteen is blind. feils of it when poured upon various other fubttances but light it . The fliell is fragile. who brought a number of thefe fliell-fiflies. Hence Ibme have fuppofed that they were hatched in holes accidentally formed in ftoneSj and that they naturally grew of ftich a ihape as was necefiary to fill up the cavity.ince. and the places where they join are marked by fine Itreaks or rays. Thi. and make the water in which it was immerfed luminous. oil ot tartar/fr detiquiuni nearly extinguiflied it. but that brandy iiiiniediately extinguiflies it. a folution of nitre did not incrcafeit quite fo much. or at leaft it is compofed of two p. Galeatius and Montius found that wine or vintgar extinguiflied this light that in common oil it continued fome days . Hi alio tried tlie efor fugar. are found among the fand on the Britidi coalt. and found only ill the Indian ocean. The word pbolas is deis a long curved tooth or Ipur. This trun^ cated fleiliy inftrument is ukially about five inches long. Jinall to make it worth preferving. ctrufe. each compofed of four or five rings or portions of a hollow cylinder. joined one to another. PiNNA. Thefe are fo'jnd on fome parts of the coalts of Fr. Thefe fhells are often valuable. and has no movement. 2. and. to Bologna. rotundata. and could not be revived again. fice of this double inftrument is fimilar to that in many other (hell-fifli. making themfelves holes in the eaith. the moft prized of wliich is the radiatus. lb as to leave the point or top of this inttrument naked or bare.

//. ..CONCHOLOGY Flat. -/i/.- jy ffJH'.'.„^ .)./„. /r/)//j£/^/f./ .ii-J. l<n/ff>/ft) . L. /)'..^ /or//..t^iot . f/r//4.'a Tuififf„i> Hi^Cii. I or//.pf^y?/.r ./()/!r// . i//if .'itJ.XTl.JOtfrr </e/ i/r/^n o.'/'/„.r/. rl'. ^"..>r.



. .^t j..hU*htJ .xn^.^m-tt.M./'/„ L..COlsrCHOLO&Y TloleXTl Alba-luM J^.'uA.Vi^i^oa ^ J.r. .

There are twenty-eight fpecies of thefe fliells of which the diodema. and then it would. as arranged in the Linnjean fyfteni by Dr. ufmg luminous milk. who dill infill. imply - ftells . from an external afiinity to thofe objedls fnake. Cancer. the pholas but the water was lometimes made more luwhich they alcribed to the rifmg of bubbles of air through it. which peculiarly appertain to fliell?. fo of the fliield. elephant's tooth. Tnis gentleman had the curiofity to try how diftarently coloured lubllunces were atFefted by this kind of ligli! j and having. whereas in the glaffes. ftones.ilves . names given to the nautilus. however. whereby the mofl: minute objefts in the creation are afligned their proper fcale in the order of nature. and in a perpendicular pofition. or other folid bodies. have induced all the modern naturalilts to rejeft them every fvllem of conchology. . Afterwanls. are fliells lo named. and ferpeatine di. that was perceived in this cafe. Gmelin have fiftaceous animals nally decided their Urufture to be clearly that of multivalve fliells. or lea liars . and failer. from the traiifparency of its v. They appertain noj only to the European leas. from the fimilarity of the apices of thofe (hells to a garnet or a goat's eye. 3. and a long narrow fpur-like valve which conneth them together. but are found on the coafls of Africa and America. becaule their fpots or marks refemble the letters of (ome alphabets.tcle. the blue was nearly equal to the yellow. He then di^iped boards painted with the dirferent colours. and are made up of two large valves with two hnall ontrs beneath them. the gondola. contrary to the pofition of all other valves. and furvey without dilbrder or confufion the boundiefs works of the Creator. and found that it would give light when it was immerled in warm water. for the balani are never found loofe. A bles of air were mixed with it. and the fea cars. For this puipofe he kneaded the juice into a kind of palle with flour. as they have no hinges. which terminates our enumeration of all the fliells at prefent known in the univcrfe. now univerfaily received . had many i'chemes to render the light of thefe pholades permanent. fo named from the richnefs of its colours. Thefe (hells have till lately been rejetled by conchologifts. which lie horizontally. In any other method of prefervation. from their fimilitude to a French horn. from its chambered llruiture. fome of which are found near Scarborough. efpecially when arrived at fo much accuracy and precifion. be included as fuch in all our collections. The balani are made up of many valves lying parallel to each other. and in the Indian ocean. and where the reader will find.). and runs lengthwife. and the filh performs its neceliary functions by that aperture for the valves never open or feparate. are Cowries or for the argonaut. and it looked as if it was tranfpareiit. in water rendered luminous by the pholades. Thefe (liells are moftly quinqiie-valvcs. Of all the liquors to which he put the pholades. Venus'sear. cylindric tapering form and curvature. the pewit's egg. We in warm water. Twelve Ipecies of the pholas are now afcertained by Dr. There are fome. but that of tartar increafed it. Beccarius. neverthelels p. who. the natural hidory and habitudes of thofe numerous animals. The top is open. is a fpecies of efcallo. At the fame time we have dire<Jted a clear and obvious reference to the terms of the Linnsean fyltem. in an exhaufted receiver. Gnielin. and porcelains.ited or prickly chiton the ofcabrion properly lb called j the magellanic. as well as Reaumur. the yellow was the brightelf.idem. ib that the valves fold over each other tranfverfely. The bottom is the part by which they affix themfelves to other bodies. from the fame origin. yet the great dilference in their exterior coverings. of all the principal writers on (hells. CHITON. and (hould. in the methanifm of the fmallefr animalcule. . Sec. next to this was the yellow. the property of becoming luminous would not continue longer than fix months. on the boards. that diftinftive rules and cflential charailers are eftabliflied. in Ipite of fyftematic arrangements. Sec. and in their gradation form fo clofe an afiinity with each other. the is name of for the lituus. minous . Thus the Panama camp has marks upon the fliell formed like the tents of common foldiers . the blue was inferior to the green. It was not. literals. the fea-nuts. that. The reader will have noticed what has already been obferved with relpeft to crullaceous animals. There are twenty eight fpedes. from its. and difcordant methods. It is our province to foilovv lliiiSiiy fyllematic writers. or from the marks and colours of their external coverings. and the want of thole dilUn6live charatlers in the crullaceous families. becaule the birds they were luppoled to produce were the barnacles or brent geele. in the great view of enabling the young concholcigift to didinguifli readilv. no agitation would make it fhine. In both thefe cafes the red was hardly vilible. the white came out the brigbteft. but it aniwered bed to prelerve the (liell and fifli in honey. Alfo Montius and Galeatius found. This opinion may in fome mealure be deemed arbitrary. the painted cockle. and on otiier parts of the Britifh coaft. and therefore every naturalill will decide for himfelf. like a coat of mail. are names for (hells of the cypress genus. are pied or party-coloured fpots names for ipecies of teilens. he found that oil of vitriol extinguiflied the light. and the onyxes. the acorn and barnacle fhells. that the faces of perfons might be diltinguilhfd by it. and alio glals tubes filled with fubftanccs of different colours. are . The trivial or technical names of fliells.ay due attention to an illullration of the crullaceous tribes. the meduca. that the alterias. &c. but in honey it had lalled above a-year. The moll valued (hells are the acule. limpets. . Air appeare. The Latin name anatij'era. viz. for. was given to fome of this fpecies from the fabulous Itory of their becominsj geefe . the goat's eye. the glafsoylier. hom . as approaching too nearly to the crubut Linnaeus and Dr. the olcabiion. fo long in ufe among conchologills. money (hells. however. loricRted. on account of its convoluted gaiitry. fingle pholas made fcven ounces of milk fb luminous. Echinus. having a beak or mouth curioufly turned like the beak of thofe birds. has evinced the fmie inimitable contrivance. for this purpofe. the ram's-horn. the drawberry. and to the broken rays of the fun. Venus's. This fliell confills of many parts. from a likenefs to tftat Partridges. and tied together by articulations. and then the green the other colours could hardly be perceived. that though they are very nearly allied to the tedaccous tribes. from their the ray and the tulip. In the prefent treatife we have principally followed Da Coda. under their refpertive titles in this work. the tops. fpeckled exaflly like the eggs of the plover . are fo called from their refemblance to the helix of the ear. but affixed to large fliells. give as much light as ever it had done. and anatifera. and the green more languid . have arilen from their fancied refemblance to other objeils. LEP. is a name fliape. and Turk's-cap. &c. when Beccarius put the luminous milk into glafs tubes. . dipped feveral ribljons in it. that we find in the Itrno^ure of the mofl: perfeil animals.CONCHOLOGY. and whereby the mind is enableil to comprehend and appreciate the different clafles of animated beings. from having the polilh and beauty of china. feot there was notlihig very remarkable in them. the garnet. but only liglit. any particular colour. unlcl's bub. limpets. Midas's ear.5 Thefe clofe the divifion of multi valves. which are the humble architecls of thefe curious and beautiful fuperftruilures.! to be necelVaiy to this light. and the violet the dullell.-^S. the varying names. when plun'^ed loft its light. fiovi-er. — . echinus. But. are thought the moft curious. milk was rendered the moll luminous. The ducal mantle. or paper nautilus. in proof of which we beg to refer the reader to the articles Asterias. as was alfo the Englilh name bani. the magpye. and with precifion. fliells Ib called. Gmelin . pod-horns. The weaver's fliuttle is formed much like that indrument. are real fliells.

let their reforts be where they may. the bear's paw. the polKhing is to be finiihed operation they (hould not be touched svith aquafortis. file. the The the ribbon. tower of Eabel. till they have been polilhed genuity of man. are of this kind. or with a piece of chamois leather. and then the (licU is to be ))0lilhed in the ufual way with putty. ibme in (hallows and in bays and fome are littoral. . . low. with fome tripoli. fortis. excepting only two or three. Pcru. and a Of collecting. but the judicious conchoTlie buccina in are formed Jbme kind of relcmblance. CLEANING. the bafon.alliltance of an art of this kind mon objetts. the furbeouter (kin. V/hen a Ihell is covered with a thick and fatty epiderAmong the lliells which are found naturiilly poliflied mis. fpideis. The white of an egg anfwers this purpoic alio beauty. or coarfe helmet. and where he is only bear the full glow of their natural colours. yet it is very dangerous to the (liells . the thorny woodcock. often deliroys it. or inhabit only the deeps the (urtace. imdip in boiling water. but in cafes where and after that the (kin worked off by drgrces with a Imooih the beauties are latent and covered with a coarler (kin. are all (hells merely defjgna(liells in their native and genuine appearance. ! . mult: be left a conhderable time (teeping in hot water when it has imbibed However. the mulcles. linders. green their utmoft n. Many fliells in their The aflimilation of the names of (hells to fo many com. natural dull polilh. and has the devil's-claws. when dry. always endeavour to obtain luch tion requires the hand of an experienced perfon. executed with iuptrior judgment and talte by rally a (mooth furface. Hence it is evident that trivial names additional pleafure of comparing the beauties of the (hell. In order to kill the filh. A . yet there are feverai other gepeas. as in feverai of the mulclcs and telliiia. their that it may be eaten off. the mafk. which is in many very opaque and rough. Though the art of poli(hing (hells is evidently a valutoLichologills . and it will become perfectly bright and o( Conchologifts who are judicious in the choice of (liells. Emery is not to be trulled on this occafion. thecaihdes. the cylinder. called the rke//il>i. colours being all fpread upon thefurface. the olive. and the wearing away ever fo little of the fliell defaces them. in which all or mrit of the Ipecies are taken up naturally toul. for it is found that live (iiells knows how delicate the work mull be. the grimace. art is to be called in. the gold-moutli. foul. as they are tjve ot the things after which they are named. if much expoled to the fun. This will add greatly to tlie Ipeed of the work. or as that in its wrought ftate. Ipirit of (alt. by this means. in order to get thofe reforts. If the (hell though the etfed be lb much elleemed. Da Cofta advifes to give them quick After this it is to be well rubbed with linen cloths. or any other acid. it may be dipped in diluted aquabeaches and (hores bceaule. the volutes. that all which 'liavt: not the natural polilh of the reft. the (hells mull be (tetped in hot water. the gaper. SHELLS. or inhabit the very ty.irneus feat. is fuppofed to have firft introduced to the in. hiding a great t^ide to the orders from whence they take their name. and immediately after (forms on the fea o(f the coat. and when they are cooled. fkeletons.native liate are like rough diamonds and we can form no ju!t idea of their beauties. . and murices are many of them fliells of fnch ifrange fi.uity within. be again plunged into common that injure them. A . for within hermitages. the fig. the notion of (liell-work many elegant Specimens of which are to be feen in the colleftions of and wrought into form. agreeable to the reader to find lome inllru^itions in exeand then it gives no fenfible coat. jury to the (hell. ter acquainted with its internal iiruflure. the nera. or fine rotten (tone. . and their natural polidi luperior to any thiifg that art could give. very well. crolieis. the internal beauties may appear. with fine emery and a hair-brulh. and the outer veil removed. without inwater. fine emery. though improIhtUs which have the appearance of a vulva . and crulof the fea . or olives. onlylieightening the cuting fo pleating a method of adding to their natural colours. or iiiraped with a knife. the and Ethiopian crowns. nor ex|)ofed to the heat of the fire and lun.iiural poli(h. or any other acid and after reu. and they are liable to other accidents iiig a few moments in it. if .logill contrives to have the fame (hells in different fpecimens both rough and poliflied becaufe. the duck's foot. tempt to add any thing to her charms . and PRESERVING. the tun. are very beautifu! and coltlydiells. The (hare of be. in this cale are the porcelains. lliores. . gures. mipeily. the method uted to polifh and beauiicent decorations of this kind in England. fliell that is rough. fhell which has a fmooth lurface. or tripoli. or. appears not to have lo good a poli(h as it ought. and the cythen a rough ^ brulh and coarfe emery are to be uled and . When it is only a pellicle that nature in hcrftlf is thus perfeft. that thtry have given rife to appellatives equally befides knowing the outfide of the (hell. the fpur. This oper. fhores. Rigid naturaiills intift upon having all filver-mouth. and in this pregnati-d with common (oap . it is to be dipped leveral times in diluted one. that as have been filhcd up alive .aelegance of decoration. the plough. the acorn. is the grotto tify a (hell. and tne butter-tub rhombus. as ti es. nera are t ikcn out of the fea in all their beauty. to lay them in cold water till they are cleaned. 'J~he art of polifhlng ihells has but lately arrived at its it mull be rubbed over with a (olution ot gum arable prefent high Itate of perfeilion . like other animals. the melon. and. and in grottos. it were madnefs to athides the colours. After this. where there is an unpromiling film on the furf.. called C. to the coarfe appearance nature has given it.aintheir colours fade. the turnip. prongs. or cowries aquafortis will do no iervice. and in the fpoon-hinge. or tuns. or grove the firlt thing to be examined is. Among the immenle variety of lltells which prefent themfelves to our has an epidermis which will by no means admit the porelearch. as they are often. . need only be rubbed with the hand. This is often the cafe with I'evcral of the cylinders. be:iriiii. Though the fiiells of tht(e getiger. papal crouns. at Goodwood Park in Su(fex. the dolphin. may be applied to (hells as far as the fptcies go.the liaia. hump-backs. the barnacle. S6 CONCHOLOGY. the plum. and wherefound when living in the lea. How many elegancies in this part of the creathe fanciful imagination and invention of man can poliition would be wholly lolt to us. the fwallow. in all their native perfeflion and beauty. or covered with a tartareous coat. fome are fiken out of the fea.-^ j . the cock's-comb. without doing it the lecling fea-(hells is become fo general. and covered with an epidermis. The gum-water mud not be too thick. the poached egg. it may not l)e dil(malltft injury. others keep in le(s depths. a large quantity of this. he becomes betItrange and vulgar. the harp. ijc. the crane. the cochleae. have their particular retorts Ibme are pelagian. whether it have natuof it will not touch the ikin . but it is fubjeel to turn yellow. and many others. the grubs. fuch as devils. when by thcle means it is made perfcilly clean. prominences. the knife-handle. and who value them in proportion to their fiiranefs and a fine polilli. if it were not for the bly extend. in ornamental devices in noblemen's feats j One of the moll magni. .&c. it is to be rublied with rough all (hells (liould be procured from the deepell parts of emery on a Hick. or found on its lifli. If after this the fliell. or be covered with tubercles or the delicate hand of the late duchefj of Richmond. the cone. out the utmoft care. becauie it wears away too much of the (hell. the conchae globol'sc. Where on the hair of a fine brufli. lome buccina.fninii. All to (lop tor ill many of thefe (hells the lines are only on Ipecies of (liell filh. When a (hell is to be poliflied. the rules for which arc at prelent little kuowu. and as the tafte for coland this will add greatly to its glofs.

and another full of common water. ^ Thefe are fume of the moft frequent among an endlefs variety of changes wrought on (hells bypoli(hing. This is a very tedious and troublefome operation. and of a fine bright yellow. Thefe are the methods to be taken with fliells which require only a moderate quantity of the furface to be eaten off. whence it has been called the parroquet. with fpots and veins of a bright and highly polifiied white. or polifiied with only the fuperhcies taken off. indultry and patience are camel's-hair penthe only means of effecting a polifti. or the white of an egg. After the fliell is thus cut down to a proper degree. when it is poiiftied down. the aquafortis fliould be ufed in the following manner long piece of wax mud be provided. When the repeated dippings into the aquafortis fiiow that the coat is fufiiciently eaten away. : The violet (hells. and the raufcles. and covered with tubercles. The fliell is (o be plunged into the aquafortis. V.ime ingredients. In its rough ftate it is dulky and coarfe. become very different when polifiied. In this fort of work the operator (hould wear gloves. in general. and after ren\aiuiiig a few minutes in it. and what worft of all. moft of them (hewmg bright and elegant colours. difpofed like the variegations in agates. nuift have this fort of management but as (he delign is to (how the hidden beauties under the criift. or common cowry. however. aurts marine. which are to be prefervtd. it muft be wiped clean. but when it is eaten away deeper. when p'. . and obtains a fine rofe-colour all about the rnouch. when the cutting it down at the wheel woidd have defaced the adjacent parts. tha' When when this labour has been employed. is s. is all over white. colour with dulky hairs. helmet-flielh. and one end of it made perfectly to cover the whole mouth of the fliell . with the lower part bluifli it is in this ftate called the oiiyxjlell . becomes extremely glofi)'. and feveral oiher fpecies of this kind. No. and lience we fometimes hear of new (licHs in the cabinets of colleitors. and rubbed over with gum-water. that the fiiell can fcarcely be known afterwards to be the iame. as . In this cafe. in fome cafes it is even necefi'avy to add a coat of varnifli. than the performing this viork with nicety . eat away fortis will To caution the young conchologlft againft errors of this kind. and are thus fraudulently impofed upon the hafty and unwary collec- : they alio mult be flopped up with wax. The Dutch aie very fend of fliells. when worked down and polifiied. The limpets. but when flightly eroded. furface . the bufinefs is not fufiiciently done. when wrought. 152. it appears of a fine milk white. to ftop the too great erofion of the acid. The onyx-(heil or volute. as different Ipecies of (hells. is of a fine bright yellow . efpecially when the echinated oyfters and raurices. The limpets. and the (hell will be Ipoiled. is.dways to be plunged into water. it appears of a grey colour. appears all over of a fine pearly colour. it appears auris marina (hows itfelf in it is rent forms. then the (hell is to be wrought carefully with fine emery and a brufli . Nothing is more difficult. it is then impoflible to uie the wheel . which would otherwile penetrate too deep. leaving the proluberances dry . im.otherwife the aquaquickly eat through in thofe places. and polifiied. fpecies of porcelain. with a wooden wheel turned by the fame machine as the this is : two or three diffemore or lefs deeply wrought. the liquor cannot get in to the infide to fpoil it . are to be employed. called the purfi'e or 'viokt-tip. . and any other tender parts. the if this n? is (hells are to be wrought. . is to bd taken out. or the common polifhing-lloiie uled by the goldfmiths. and when it is poliflied as high as it will bear. it loles at once its reti- A cular work and its colour. in general. till the ftubborn cruft is wholly eroded. and are very nice they are under no rcin thtjr manner of working them : L Itraint. : CONCHOLOGY. is only a white chami with a reticulated of a fine yellow i(li when entirely cleared of its coat. tor. and give a glof. or with tripoli. when it is wrought flightly. and in its yellow appearance. and other limihuVol.'ilhed after working it down with the file. it appears of a variegated mixture of green and red. it appears of a fine pearly hue within and without. a fiiell has a thick cru!t. it may be proper to mention the moft remarkable fpecies thus ufually altered. The buigau. and (how large veins of the moft elegant colours. : could not be reached by any inftrument. the other end ferves as a handle. to prevent the aquafortis from eating them away. it is to be polifiied with fine emery. which will not give way to any of thefe means. but when this is polilhed. and becomes perfcflly fmooih. which does not appear in that elegance till it has been polifiied . is of a fine milk white. lb common among the curious. and if the common way of dipping into aquafortis be attempted. The nautilus.. leaden one. which has deceived (o many into an opinion of its being a new fpecies. and to be uncovered deeper called entirely fcaling a (liell. and altera few moments the fliell is . in order to bring out the colours. The Perfiaii fliell. for there ftill remain feverai places which only mode left is to plunge ir ieveial times into itrong aquafortis. tripoli. . if not regarded. cil mult be dipped in aquafortis. and the (liell is worked down in the fame aiianner in which (tones are wrought by the lapidary: both figures of the nautilus-(hell given in the CcnchologyPlate III. and pumice-ftoiie. is of the colour of the fineft agate. and we find there are n>any of the very greatelt beauties of this part of the creation which mult have been loft but for this method of fearching deep into the fubltance of the fliell for them. and with this the intermediate parts of the (hell muft be wetted. When this has fufiiciently taken o(F the foulnefs of the fliell.when polifiied. this is to be often repeated. it (hows variations of black and green and when ftill farther eroded. but when it has been ground down on a wheel. it is to be polilhed with emery of the fineft kind. otherwife the lealt touch of the aquafortis will burn the fingers. but when it is eatenaway but to a fmall depth. and wholly fpoikd and to avoid this. This is done by means of a horizontal wheel of lead or tin. are to be covered with wax. which in its natural ftate is of a fimple pale brown. and deftroy the beauty of the fliell. with a great number of blue veins. and taken down afterwards with th'e file. then there muft be placed on a table a vtli'el full of aquafortis. fo that the (IkU muft be rubbed over with gum-water or the white of sn egg. by means of a fmall ftick. of a pale brown on the outfide. or fifh-flcin. will be eaten through before the reft is fufficiently (caled. or rotten (tone. become beautiful . The progrefs the aquafortis makes in eroding the fiirface is thus to be carefully obferved every time it is taken out the point of the (liell. or by the common method of working with the hand with the l. . and pearly within when it is eaten down a little way below the furface. and often. which have no real exiftence as feparate fpecies. in its natural Itate. and plunged into the common watei'. The violet-coloured chama of New England. were worked down in this manner. but there are others which require to have a larger quantity taken off. very often (hells are cut down too far by it.pregnated with rough emery. and the changes A produced by poliftiing in this manner are ib great. andnot to deftroy the natural beauty and polifli of the infide of th'fe (liell. and the common the fkin and the nails. . a coarfe vein muft be often lett ttanding in fome place. or protuberances. That elegant fpecies of (hell called the jcnquil-chnnia. When a fliell is full of tubercles. among thefe the tortoile-fiiell limpet is the principal it does not appear at all of that colour or tranfpaience till it has been wrought. Thefe are the means ufed by artifts to brighten the colours and add to the beauty of (hells . is of the moft beautiful pearl-colour . does not fucceed. the tubercles being harder than the reft of the (hell. though very plain (hells in their common appearance. The afi'es-ear (hell. but are (hells difguifed by polifhing. and it is preferved in many cabinets in its rough ftate. feal-fkin. The common helmet-lhell. and the mouth being Hopped by the wax. and if there be any worm-holes.

The ifland of Magellan. the very thick ami'o to thofe who fliells. without at all injuring it as an objeft of natural hiltoiy. in parts where there fliould be none. Some fpecies of thel'e are remarkably light and thin. afterwards covering them with a fine coat of vnr. but neither thj wheel. dcfefls are the c(l\6l of age. but what we principally have from thence are the purpuix. and volulEe. The ildive and Philippine IflanJs. is very frequent there. it na. pencil. provided the pieces chipped oft" be not too large. When the fliell is valuable. furniflics us with a very remarkable fpecies of mulclc called by its name. and the people of the Levant adorn their hair with them. and the coral oyfters. for valt quantities of the pinns mannas. the engraving on it lines and circles.u'. however. from the fame place. and frequently add fome lines and colours with a have befide. or with jfinghils: thel'e fubflanccs mult be either coloured to the tinge of the fliell. have beauty at any rate. . the curious are often enticed by this artifice. beltowed on certain fpccies of fliell?. There are fome artificers of this and in the gulf of Mexico. which is white all over. About Bralll. but Imaller than Eall Indies. and has alfo a great variety of beautiful fnails. and m. but they are by no means to be regarded as iiiftructors iji natural hiitorv. the whole mult be : which are of confi-. and echini marini. much fainter in the dead Ihells. and feveral very elegant fpecies of limpets are found there. Ihcll and find thai the colours are always barren in llielh the principal kind found there are mufiiiethoiis. and the toalt of Malab. at the fouthcrn point of America. tellinx. or comha globo/'a. The natural general the fame Ihells as at St. Domingo. Tlie great bank of Newfoundland is fctond a t/eaJ. of porcelains. Several fpecies of mufcles are alfo common there. Buonani and Seba have figuied feveral of thefe of fliells that we have from the Ealt Indies only they are wrought ihells but they are now principally done in the lefs beautiful. thefe faults may be in fome degree removed. fome of in the Pcrfian gulf.with a Venus fliells of extreme beauty and alfo a great variety of porcelains. difl'crent from thofe of the European feas. The dolia. nautili. determined to in fo great abundance nor beauty as the Ihores of Alia. when it mull deltioy the very charai>eis of the fpt-cies.Panama is famous for the cylinders or rhombi. in their worVs . Bcfides the imperfertions arifing from age and ficknefs in tlie fifli. and we ture. but ufe the mod violent the beauty of the (liell. fcarcely any eye tan perceive the artifice the fame iubltances may alfo be ufed to repair the battered edges of a fliell. and elegant limpets. or elfe a pencil dipped in water-colours mull finifh them up to the rtlcmblance of the rell . When lain long dead on the fliores. and often take them to and variety of the patella or limpets. The pearl-oylter is found alio on this coalt. and among them the wentletrap and I'pider It important r. and the lakes of that country abouml with niufcles of a greatelt mifchief happens to fliells by the fifli dying in them. CONCHOLOGY. or protuberances. ful.iiit colours as thofe of the Perfian gulf. Many elegant cochleae and fcrew-fliells are alio brought from thence. called from this place the Pn}m!!:n furptc Jhell. One of the luolfc nilh. and fome other good fliells j and we have from Ma- filed down. are likewile found on this coaft in great beauty. are found fome beautiful fpeciinens of the Venus fliell. and many of very remarkable elegance and beauty . At Mirtinico there are found in Shells are fubieS to feveral impeifeftions . or with the white of an egg. they are upon the whole. Coilica is famous. the coalt of Na))les and Sardinia afi'urd alio the fame. and many other very beautiful Ihells are found there. Befldcs thefe. or difeafe in the fifli. many of which are very elegant. inferior to thole of the Eafl Indies. and much added to the beauty of the Ipecimen. famous for a very elegant kind of oyller. Bengal. the ducal mantle. Here alio are found a great variety of extremely beautiful niufcles. the women make bracelets of thefe. The coalt of Zanguebar is very rich in fliells : we find there a valt variety of the large porcelains. diflolved in fpirit of wine. China abounds in the nneft fpecies of poicelain (hells. there are found murices and nation who have a w. The Red Sea is beyond ail other parts of the world abundant in Ihelis. and Jamaica and the illand of Barbadoes have their ihorts groups of figures. the ear is found principally about this place. peiStens. The guif of Tarcntum affords great variety of purpur3E. and buccina and at obvious a woik of ait to luiTer any one to fuppoii. Japan furnifhes all the M deira great variety of the echini. thicker and larger bivalves. to purchafe them as great curiofities.. ftudy conchology. particularly the nau. Domingo there are found almofl ail the lame Ipecies tural. lor. and other things. and The ifle of Cayenne ftiaped fliells. The Mediterranean and Northern Ocean contain a great variety of fhells. Itais. About Carthagena cularly the pyramidal. If the lip of a fliell be fb battered that it will rot admit of repairing by any cement. About Canada are found the violet chatuas. (hells are fubjcfl: to other deformities. and the caflides. there are found on this coaft all the ipccies of nautili. The Mediterranean abounds much more in Ihells tlun the Ocean. ib as often to dellroy all .lerable there are many mother-ofpearl fliells. beyond all other places. to know in what countries the fineft fliells are produced.beautiful of the cylinders is alio known among our naturalirts under the name of the Panama cnmp. they are to be taken down with a fine rile. and elegant oyfters . The Canary ifles abound with a vail variety of the murices. and there is another Ipecies of porcelain on the fame cojlt which is all over white . : . they are for improving upon na. or fea-nut.: 58 ftr. many fine buccina. In Africa. or fea-eggs. many of them of great beauty j and the nux maris. which fliould always be the great end of collecting tliele articles. and the Ethiopian crown.t pale blue and pale red or pink colour. particles of feveral fpecies. there is a prodigious quantity of that fmall fpecies ot porcelain or cowry which is uled there as money . This is too covered with porcelains.eni down on all fides.iny other fliells. and a great variety of other beautiful fliells. with tellinae and cliama: of many fpecies. others are able to dillinguifli a fhell taken up with the fifli alive from one found on the fho es they call the tirll a If-viiig. and then the whole fhell being rubbed over with gum-water. The curious in thefe things pretend to be always very elegan. bucardi^or heartdifierent tinge from that which nature gives them. they are injuries.and the IMid. About Syracufe are found the gondola fliell or . And when the excrefcences of a fliell are faulty. Nor do they Hop at this: but. or ground on the wheel is till it becomes even.and a very fine fpec4es of dolium. but they are not of fo brilli. but yet lefs The beautiful.St. and with them a valt number of the The ifland of Sicily is folens of all the known fpecies. porcelains. The cavities may be filled up with niaftic. neritie. of which the being eaten by fca-wurms is not the leall age renders the fineft Ihells livid or dead in : the Ihells have Uibjei5t to many their colouis. and the auris marina is nowhere more nburuiant. There is another kind of work affords one of the molt beautiful of the buccinum kind. tilus namely. . however. fo that they ieemthe natural lineations of the fliell the Dutch cabinets are by thefe means made very beauti. fome good porcelains. or tuns. pinna? manna' and porcelains are alfo found in great plenty there. and furnilh many other kinds of Ihells in great abundance and ptrfeiilion. fcarcely any kind is wanting there. j . on the coafl of Guinea. chaniK. in the greatelt perfeftion. ' . and the ifle of Cyprus is famous above all other parts of the world for the beauty T!ey tile ol beauty. The fliores of Afia furnifli us with the pearl-oyiler and About Auiboyna efcallops. abound with the moft elegant of all the fpecies of fnails.iy of covering lliells all over. America affords many very elegant fliclls. and the colours more pale and dull. liich as morbid cavities. and others accidental. which are natural.

and. elfe. but they arc of much fainter colours. but thole of many other very dillant ones. or a river of fredi water. lb we have alio many fpecies. to the abfence of which the cavity was owing. and greatly inferior in beauty. The large fielhwater mul'ce. vvitli foiiie of the dolia or tuns. which yet we know not of in any part of the world in their recent ftate. on the Guernley coall. that it can hardly be handled without breaking to pieces. and on molt of our other (hores. anomias.aiDorough and other places. or fome other native mineral body. which is not found in any other part of the world. the onion-peel oylters.: CONCHOLOGY.iul. 4- thirty . or the unknown bottoms of deep leas. can nectffarily be of no other form than that of the the yet tjnhardencd matter of our Honey and . have been yet carefully fcarched for the fliell-fifli that inhabit them . beauty. The ports of Mar- . though not yet known to us in their living rtate. lome volutas. wdiich are in their recent ftate. or gulf of Venice. Or all the foflil fhells. when the fliell itfeirihould be worn away or perifiied from their outfide. cochlttaf. and lome of the heart-fhaped fhells . the (olens. are. there is fcarctly a nond. Of fossil shells. and the (ize lufficiently diltinguilhes at from all other frefh- cl. in many genera. Mr. a peculiarly beautiful . a fmall kind of mufcle is alio very common. the Ihell having been firlt depolited in fome folid matrix. and they are of very little beauty. About Plymouth are found oylters. There are. About Cad z there are found very large pinnx marinjc. Maloes.aj-ey Itrata. recent and foflll. with the fi(h living in them. is lefs furniflied with fiielis than alinolt any of the feas thereabout. (ome rivers in Bavaria in 'vhich theie are found pearls of a fine water. Toulon. being uliially of a plain greyi(h or brownilh colour.. and having therefore nicely filled all their cavities. feiiles. and fome patellx . Our ditches afford us chama. but no where found in greater numbers. mull retain the perfeiSl figures of the internal part of the fliell. St. there are alfo Ibnie telllnrC. The exaft fiinilitude of the known fliells. Some of thele fliells are fmooth. lie Ibuud more thaa it makes variety of regions. oth-rs greatly p. out of which fhells had been dillbived and walTied away. than in oui ifl. The Bailee affonls a gr:at many beautiful Ipecies. but others are v. Ireland affords us great numbcis of mufcles. Tlie coalts of Bretagne afford great numbers of the conchse Lujatifera: and acorns. as fome have idly thought. mufcles. and ueiits. are numbers of the aures marinas and dentalia. in wnich there are not found vail numbers of Ihells. and otheis ridged in different directions. Co filling the cavities. wrought into gloves. and thence di'llblved by very flow degrees. FolTil fliells earth. The ides of Majorca and Minorca aftonl a great variety of extremely ekgant Ihells.ariouily altered are found buried at great depths in the thele fome are found remaining almoll entirely by leem wonderful whence fo valt a number and them fliould be brought into our lubterrancan They fcem indeed diiperfed in gieat plenty throughout the world. but pai ticularly an orange-coloured pc6ten. Our own fhells. Of this fort alio are the cornua animonis and the gryphita. expreiiing all their lineaments in the moll exaift manner. in their feieral kinds. will by no means I'ufter us to believe that thefe. the cornua ammonis. The various fpecies we find ot thefe are.Tecorum an inll. ov We elegant and curious. commonly called in England the horjemuj'ck. or elcallop-lhell". a ditch. and the pholadjs are frequent on moll of our fliores. Of in their native ftate. the inhabitants of other yet unknown or unfearched leas and fliores. tlie mufcles.iny nines. and the other common bivalves of our own leas. fur. even in the molt elevated fituations. The other cal led firaivhtrrles. but of the common kind. and a great variety of elegant fnails. . which are excellent food.ince of fliells being brought from very dinant parts of the world to be buried here. which is fo extremely thin and tender. The '^(hintic lea. nhich may have been brought with the relt. Dunkirk. and conchas anatifera. or undulated. on the cavities of Hone and other folid fubllances.-iolt They are found of all fizes. or the effetl of any other cataftrophe of a like kind. which though a fliell not found living in our own or any neighbouring feas. thefe lubilances. as numerous as the known recent ones and as we have in our own ifland not only the fliells of our own fliores. furnilhed the ancients with a fpecies of tellina which was large and eatable. they are found on old rotten boards. neritse. particularly of the nautilus grscorum. Mufcles and oyllcrs of feveral fpecies sre however found there." have a (inall Ipecies of buccinum common in our freili waters. with feveral of the echinitx and others. The frelh-water (hells are alfo found in great plenty . being afterwards filled up lels (lowly with thefe different fubitances. or by whatever other means. accordins to Tavtrnier and others. and Antibes. but the Nile. in great abundance and there. is decidedly the . called thence the Guernfey-j'nail. and alwais has its operculum in the manner of the larger buccina . ticed in i fnah fones. &. 22 comprtllcd. and this matter left in its place. So tew of this family liaving been yet found in their recent or living itate. buccina. Englifli coafts are not the leaft fruitful in though they do not produce Inch elegantly painted ones as the Indies. on fea Ivibftances.. vulgarly cMed fcr/>e/il-Jlo>ies. with peftens. " the royal teilina. and fonie fine luccina. and many elegant fpecies of the chamas and tellinss are filhed up in the lea about Si. we have alio in many places niafies of ftone formed within various (hells. and charaae. whether they were at the time of the general deluge. and fonie very eiegant ckallop (hslls in great abundance. that of the many known fliores. and lome other rivers. Ibiiie of them rounded. and other things. slated miircx. auu among a great variety of belemiiitje.'c. lliulcles. The cockles. and among clutters of fpouges. is t o well known to need a delcription . and fonie of the corditorra (hells. tellinas. (lockings. and thefe having been received into the cavities of the fliells while they were perfec=tly fluid. are full of pinnx marina?. yet is found buried in all our clay-pits about London and ellewhere. though all the nicer lineaments may not be fo exafilly exprelfed. irregularly crooked. being impregnated with particles of (Ions and of other follilsj in the place of others there is found mere ftone or fpar. and lodged in different Itrata of itones and clays. we cannot wonder that yet unknown fliores. fUould have furnilhed us with many unknown fhell fiih." as Rochelle. Harenberg tbund prodigious numbers ot them on the banks of a river in Germany. very few. and theii lilk or beards is fnail. and the nures marina: are pjrticularly frequent about Puzzoli. nifii oylfers excellent for the table. and io much (uperior to the common lea tellina in flavour. oyllers. whether fpar or v/hatever ports of France. and thole in great numbers. and variety. a (brt of lu/us iialura: It is certain.>9 or argonauf. their llriEe and ridges being either ftraight. and others. He traced this river through its feveral windings for ni. in any part of the world. and folens. The coalts of Spain and Portugal afford mugh the fame fpecies of fliells •with the Ealt Indies. The pinna? marinas are alio very numerous there. that it is commonly known by ihc name oi tellina regia.. as having been formed wholly fiom them. All thefe Iheils are iiuall. are very abundant but we have alio an amazing number of the nautilus kind. We have alfo great varuty of the buccina and cochlese. and the iiiuft frequent of all follil fliells in fome of our counties are the concha. not even thole of our own ifland. are alfo frequent there. At Granville there are found very beautiful peilens. Befides thefe. to be left . as no- water fliells. and of no beauty in their Iliells great numbers of mufcles are alfo found there and the common telling. which is very elegant. About Ancona there are found vail numbers of the pholades buiied in (tone. and as we lee in the nautilus gr. Brelt.

and the number of which in the . it is common to find thirty or more of thefe follils . is no good argument to prove their non-exiftence. at every degree of elevation from below -the level of the fea to the fummits of the Analogy alfo leads us to fuppole.) which befides is microfeopical and celled. in a multitude of places. " to afcertain the precife meaning of the term ammanite. fiftiermen might fum-times entangle it in their nets. and that Linnaeus was deceived when he fuppofed that in great depths they may ftill be found. fo minute that their figure cannot be diftingui(hed till examined by the microfcope. The fuiface is linooth . for the fame parity of re. and materially different from the greater part of the follil (lieils above defcribed. the foflil fhells we now find on the moft elevated fummits. of which. can call on fliore thefe pelagian fhells. in fupport of the extindlion of the foflil ammonia. The extinction of the ancient race of ammonites is therefore a faft. in . by filling or emptying a part of its fhell. yet in fome the pearly part of the original Ihell is preferved Sometimes alfo. fome very deep with high ridges between them. fufliciently powerful to overturn the bottom of the fea. vifible only through a magnifier. which no rational i'uppofition can deftroy . others undulated. that the ancient ammonites did not inhabit great depths of the fea. they are equally convex on both fides. that have eluded the refearches of mankind for thouliinds of years before ? and how many may yet remain in the depths of the ocean. fometimes of the matter of the common pyrites.rlbn that no convulfion of nature. How and entirely does away his own argument. but the large and beautifully maiked ones are found only follil. there would be fragments fticking to the lead ot the founding-line when aicertaining great depths. or bonetta. and of a great variety of (izes. The celebrated Juflieu proved. at leaft. or cavities. fsw of the Imall fpecies have been fiihed up alive. where no bottom was to be found . — : . the long diameter being to the (hort one as three lines to two lines and three quarters. the inner cavity is filled with a pure white fparofthe common plated texture. many of which are dug cur of the aluin rocks in Yorkdiire. the following obfervations " The foflil he confiders as a fufficient demonftration fiiells are very light and thin. while the outer fubin all its beauty. in fome meafure.liiles. and ferves to join them together. who has given eyes to the nautilus. higheft mountains. tli. a French naturalift. 22.40 CONCHOLOGY. in the South Sea. de Lanunon. however. the back is armed with a flat. between the tropics. and are fixed on a plane. often of quarry ftone. (mentioned in p. The form of this is almoi't orbicular. whereas the ftiells of thofe animals that live in very deep water aie always thick and ponderous. they are confequently the largeft living ammonites that have yet been dilcovered. and their ftrise alfo are extremely various . That there are no living animals with fliells of the -very fame kind with fome of the foflil cornua ammonis. and in the lame bed.t!)e manner of the nautilus pompilius. and others havijig tubercles in two or three places. others crooked. They lie immeri'ed iu a bluidi foflil ftone. The number of circumvolutions is four and a half. matter. occupying nearly half of the longitudinal diameter. ammonites mixed with turbines. towards the back. and cannot be looked up to as the reprefentativcs of the old ammonites.incient ocean was probably far more confiderable than that of all the other ftiells befides. The fummit is placed at the diftance of about two-thirds of this diameter. Such as lie in the fofteft of thefe ftones are foft like their matrix. The mouth of the (hell is nearly triangular. and this fait is undoubtedly the moft furpriiing of 'any that is prefented to us in the hiftory of aquatic animals. light is unable to penetrate. belides. from the larger forts down to fuch as coiiid not be feen without very accurate infpedtion. rhns diftering from the ammonite of Rimini. for thefe ammonites are very different from thofe which are found petrified. or. or mineral. others very flight . (b varied in their fpecies. feems tu agree with moft conchologifts. but he thinks they are in very fm. Their fize varies from one to four lines acrols. line is the twelfth part of an inch. when he with : tells us. that there exifted a very clofe analogy between the ammonite and nautilus. The firft fpire is by far the largeft. totally unknown to man. promili:uoufly together. fo as that a horizontal plane will divide it into two equal parts. who accompanied La Peroule in his late voyages of difcovery. They are found. brittle crelt. that if the ammonites never quitted the ahyfs of the fea. its edges projeft in the form of lips. alio would throw fragments of it on the fliore . and of a great variety of other fubItances and though they appear ufually mere ftones. has not now what ule could thefe rel uled them to the ammonite be of if they remained confined to thofe depths which the : fpcaking of being entirely plain. each having a communication with the others. or other coarfe. fome ftraight. as thin as paper. extends over the fummit of the i'pires. It may alfo be ailded. M. dividing the (hell into two equal parts there is on each fide a kind of bofs formed by the increafe of the perpendicular diameter of the fpires. and other littoral (hells. ftance is of the matter of the pyrites. In a piece of this ftone. of the bignefs of a finger. the inlide of this which we are A M. caught now fpiral . They are all compofed of a great number of chambers or cells. and by no means eftablifties the fa61 in quefhon. in lyii. could have heaped up. or thofe defcendants are reduced to a very few degenerate individuals. fortned of united fpirals. becaufe nothing lefs than a convulfion of the globe. in prodigious numbers. and fome terminating in dots. and in fituations far removed from the places of their natural and primeval abode." fays he. it would The waves furely be occafionally discovered by failors." tliiny different fvecies of the cornua amnionis. the organization of the animal which inhabited it. many fpecies of teftaceous animals have been lately difcovered. " I thought it abfoluttly neceflary. I have often found this ammonite enclofed in the ftomach of the (comber pelamis. But this naturalift contradifts himfclf. previous to defcribing that which I found during our voyage round the world. buccina. This gives a great beauty to the (pecimens. dwelling perhaps in a tranquil Itate. that the larger cornua anunonis may rtill exift in the fea. itony. it is terminated on the right fide by a very fmall knob. The dilcovery of a few living fpecies of cornua ammonis does not deftroy the truth of this. Thele (hells were covered with a black clayey mud. b. with the maturer cornua ammonis ? That no fragments of thefe fliells in a recent ftate are now ever found upon the fea-coafts of any country. They are compofed of various foflil bodies. that he could never find the recent ammonites but in the South Sea." The above reafoning. They all confift of feveral fpirals. either there are no defcdndants. this author gives the name of an ammonite. has the power of remaining ftationary in any depth it the fame was doubtlefs the cafe with the ammopleafes nite and if this fpecies ftill abounds in the fea. de Lamanon feems anxious to prove. formerly the moft numerous of all. in proportion as they recede from the center. and eafily crumble to pieces . rolled in a fpiral. lefs univerfal than the general deluge. which are different in number in the different fpecies. the form of the foflil cornua ammonis points out to us. as thofe ftiell-filh that only inhabit the ftiallows. A . of a foft texture and fatty appearance. furrounding it on every fide like a ruft': it is about half a line bioad. others are harder. tubercles. by means of a pipe or fiphunculus. even. tholi: which are found petrified would iio't be conlbantly met with on the lame level. Yet there are found. He contends that thofe ought to be confidered as a race.ili number. To every univalve (hell. and hearing a certain proportion to each other. where no bottom was found with a line of more than two hundred fathoms. and are rounded at the nature. feems far from concluflve. and often they are (("en only in form of white fpecks. It is well known that the nautilus. They are extremely rare.

where his father was raifed from a notary. plicity.] Brief. The providences of God are promifcuoufly adminiftered in this world . He came into France at the beginning of the feventeenth century with Mary de Medicis./ The aa of gaining or reconciling. a jurifdiftion in the empire of Peru. Baker. Bro-ivti. With V. CONCI'SENESS. It was accounted a philtre. CONCHY'LIA. concio. tojliut or clofe the difpute : — — — — — : Youth. Lat.-252. CONCI'LIATORY. (Sec. for I conclude of it already Addifan. CONCLU'DINGLY. CONCrSION. Iconciniius. broken into adj. but becaufe the article ConchoLOGY has never before appeared in any Cyclopsedia. by the godlike man. deftru<Sion. with feveral piftol-lhots. CON'CLAVE.vhitt on Chaucer.] An outcry or iliout of many together. / Confequence CONCl'SE. to finifh. a jingling of words. to colleft the confequence . n./ [co/:c/ave. excir . Tyrn. fitnefs . ihort periods.". CONCILIA'TOR. ad-v. Judgment —and coKcludency coiiceiiiiiig regular proof. not only becauie it forms an interetting and elegant department of natural hiftory. Peter's chair. 16 17. Tillotfon. Lat. . to determine : — orders. fliort logical deduftion of real on. JValls.ath concluded them all in unbelief. Ufed adj. CONCIN'NOUS. grain. and And how concluded how the war began. who executed it on the draw-bridge of the For why ftiould we the bufy foul believe. was born at Florence.. to procure good will. Briefly . One that makes peace between — others. muft have confifttd in the rime. CONCI'NI. to be fecretary of ftate.r. that he might have mercy upon all. but he was afterwards made her mafter of the horl'e. To perform the laft aft of ratiocination . Shortly . Hale. returning tlience. . Hovjtll. CONCHU'COS. and fet his notions in a fairer view. The room in which the cardinals meet . nor where. that in two concla-ves he went in pope. the name of the marlhal d'Ancre. / fion . in free — Having aJj. "j.] The aft of ftirring up. fentenced his wife to lofe her head. CON'CIONATORY. enjoyed many confiderable poftsj and was firftgentlemanof the bed-chamber. have been found ten feet in circiiinference In tieaiingof this fubjeft we have been the more elaborate in our explanations and extenfive in our engravings. Where the author is obfcure.' Louvre. Lat. CONCILIA'TION. orputting in motion The revelations of heaven are conceived by immediate illuminations of the foul . — Dry den. yet. amplify a little.— Thsf- tious regards. the afiembly of the cardinals at Rome./. tTlyfTes . If therefore they will appeal to revelation for their creation. We'll tell when 'tis enough". No. produces conceited phaiitafmes.>f«. or other Dldtionary. To f. upon a due confideration of them.N 41 here fpeaks very concifely. which ex- CONCLU'DENT. in the Englifli language. To will fettle opinion. Their conieli- — King. concludes it beft. God h.] Becoming. he fays. that verfion. tpuching bodily fubftance. Iconcifus. that the only method to ftop his ambition. which conftitute its greatell commerce with the other provinces. for ever and the felfwas only. ere And it fees the world. — To To have a goodly peace concluded oi end : Between the realms of England and of France. South. bought the marquifate of Ancre. ending in juft and Vol. v. CONCLU'DENCY. concluded wkhm the grave. CONCLAMA'TION. he difpofed of the finances and employments. — The cut. by concitaticn of humours. [concionatorius. and affords extenfive pafture for cattleof all kinds. Dryden. Hale. body was afterwards abufed by the populace the parliament declared him guilty of treafon. Nor how. to comprehend. filled the army and cities with his creatures. . 01 the negleil in decifion.. . under the archbifhop of Lima .] private apartment./. or plants that conciliate affeilion. yi\.] To Hiut./t?. or. To end . j His Davies.] at preachings or public afiemblies. Lat. prefTeth not enough. Lat. Thefe are my theme. It was faid of a cardinal.. they are highly confequential and concludent to — Deciflve. To CONCI'LIATE. ends coiicij'e ilile. this part with the fpeech of a counfellor of Bacon. Icondlio. without any ambi- men Forthwith a concla-ve of the godhead meets. but leaves fomewhat to be undcrftood. while of three hundred varieties of fofiil amniojiites which he mentions. had over the queen but he abufed all this confidence . general name for all forts of pe! C O ftort fentences. Or if it wants the nice concluding bout. better known by very perfon of Chrift. Romans. fue unto I queftion not but your tranflation to our country . Lat. wife of Henry the Great. When -boldly ftie concludes of that and this When of herfelf ftie can no judgment give. Lat. Accordingly a commifllon was given to Vitry.] Cutting off. Lat. has lefs of his concifencj's. by the influence his wife. Icoiidlutm. and came out again cardinal. where he is too brief and concife. and marlhal of France. 'v. / [from conciiiiiitas. adj.] been framed by coiiciliar and Relating to a of primitive (imdebates. CONCIN'MTY. in — undeniable confequences. and endeavoured to make himfelf mafThis created great troubles in ter of the government. was to finiih his exiltcnce. ThoiK^h thefe.kind of arguments m:iy feem more obfcure.o St. agreeable. A CONCITA'TION. they muft be concluded by it. nor what (he is. — I will conclude ftate. fimilar to the convocation of archbifliops and bilhops in England. nefs unbeguiled the vulgar of the old opinion the loyalilis had formerly infufed into them by i\wr concionatory mveflives. it begins forty leagues north-north-eaft of the metropolis. he nforms us. to be known. De Luines perfuaded Louis XIII. Lat. fo that no man can conclude God's love or hatred to any perfon. clofe alTeinbly — A — —A : trifiid (hells. To include. lconclama!:o./ Brevity fhortnefs. one of the captains of the life-guard. Hale.mie. Relating to reconciliation. Several branches of the woollen manufaftory are carried on here. and incap. Ibme. Broivn.] Decency. nor whence. therefore. It produces fruits. To decide j to determine that is. and was then only gentleman in ordinary to that princefs. and declared their fon ignoble. CONCI'LIAR. Eleonora Galigay. council. Where Juno in the fliining (enate fits. Lat.ble of holding any office in France. : To oblige. CONCLU'DE. I i'uppofe. and he may feem to break abi-uptly into the fubjed. whereas the deceiving fpirit./ [coKcitatlo. /. enlighten him . in few words. pleafant. CONCI'SELY. To CONCLU'DE. . Ben Joufon. thinos of them. Broome.— Giving more ftope to Mezentius and Laufus. Shaket^. age. [conclndo. adj. Encyclopaedia. The cottcinnitj. and put a period to the difadj. Honker. that their (liells were covered with a black cLiyey mud. — — Finally to determine: They humbly your excellence. which hus more of the majefty of Virgil. [f(!. and runs along the center of the Cordilleras. as by the final determination. by anv thing that befals him. Drydcii. Carlh. do honour from thofe performances. my purpol'e. CON ^ith a line of more than two hundred fathoms j and to put it beyond a doubt that the animals had been at that Isottom. by reafon of his apparent likelihood to ftep in'. ^. April 14. ^i. M uncontrovertible evldence.] To gain . Lat. a. It is true theCe ammonites were but Tmail . here ftudies reft. the ftate. to reconcile.. in South America. To coUeft by ratiocination.a.

[. CONCO'MITANTLY. regular conleciuence.n. concurrent with . Hartley. The end 5 the latt part I can fpeak no longer! Jet I will itrain mylelf to breathe out this one invocation. as that they will —'Tis Determinable certain by regu- do at all. Companion.:>res. [concordia.iUt of compaifion. ripe. xii. a town of France. it as certainly conchifihle from God's preTcience. perfon or thing collaterally connefted. Charles. who intend the levying of a fine of finds one to the other. to feveinl degrees. Then doth the wit Build fond concJuJians on thofe idle grounds. Bacon. Thoie that are not men of art. CCNCLU'SIVHNESS. CONCO'MITANCE. Regularly confequential. Whofe high concoiled venom through the Principal grammatical relation of one word to another. . ftratagems. whereas conco6tion is applied to what alterations are made in the blood veffels. Power of determining the opinion. Decifively . Cheyne. . Baton. A is rapid lightning darts. for treafbns. and keep his commandments. The fecondary attion fubfifteth not alone. Bacon. be /•(/. Haivel. and fruits and grains are half a year in co/ico^ing.] Con'oined with. The fpirit that furthereth the extenfion or dilatation of bodies. fuitablenefs of one to another. Dighy. CON'CORD.^^The agreeing votes of both houles were not by any law or reafon condtifi've to my judgment.^nce of the fine. ad'v.] Agreement between perfons or things.< pleafure. of their feveral weights. will not be Ibuntl . Ltit. mutual kindnel's a.without variety. CONCO'MITANT. Hafvey. with final t^etermination. To curdle or congeal one thing with another. Lat. To GONCO'CT.] be collaterally connefted with any thing . / Deterniinafion Ways of peaceable ccnciiifion there' ai-e — and perfeiSl.confetjuence The coiiclu/ion of experience. Philips. To CONCO'MITATE. fiiall And acquire no honour. The event of experiments . we meafure not their beauty thereby for if a crow or blackbird grow white. 5. the blood circulates. and fyntaxes. and his fad concomitant — — Defpair. To root which continueth ever in the earth. and that in feveral objcfls. not knowing the true forms of iyllogifni. A'. Have thofe who have writ about diftinft from regimen. prattife likewife all conclufions of grafting and inoculating. f. fo as to turn food to nutriment. CONCOCTION. whereas leaves are out and perfect in a month. who could bear Filthy concomitant of claret Prior. adj. in the department of the Here four leagues and a half norfh-eatt of Gienuble. and hot diftillations. adj. formerly coiicoagidaied with them.^ Let us hear the ccndufion of the whole matter Fear God. — It — — The man who Nor Is is fit hath not mufic in himfelf. and niinuteft veffels. CONCO'LOUR.] To digeft by the The vital funcftomach. IVarivith Spain. adii. expEriment. an univerfal heat of the body. CONCLU'SIVELY. the lungs play. veins Tliomfon. . Decifive. Irora crudity to psrfeiit concoilion. Daines. 'V. for this is the whole duty : of man.VTION. a torminous diarrhoea. This I fpeak only to dciire Eupolis not to fpeak peremptorily. thjugh digeftion is more generally confined to what pafles in the ftomach. Harmony . or evidence. To purify or fublime by heatj to heighten to perfedlion: — — [concomilatus. declenfions. and fucli as are confined unto the fame colour. or Concomitancy. Lat. Ecclef. iniied. To CONCO. as collateial. which may be called the fecond concoSion and that in the nerves. CONCLU'SIBLE. the. [conco-pio. Hale. In Shukefpeare it feems to fignify filence . as alfo to feveral of our thoughts. CON —Examine whether the opinion you meet with. /. the food is concoBed. Bacon. : — . coagulation by whicb CONCOAGUL. cannot know whether they are made in right Horror Italks around. or coiidufi'vely. a fo«(row/Vrt?. Shakcfpeare. but in concomitcmcy with the other f fo the noftrils are ufcful for refpiration and fmelling. In confumptiojis. Locke.. tions are performed by general and conlL-wit laws. And for tobacco. f. maturation by heat. CON j repiigiKint to what you were formerly co»chiJi>ig/jx\smoni\['iited or not. and is divided into concord executory. .— but thefe two certain the one a fentence of judicial decifion. In concolour animals. In 'V. : CON'CORD. Iconcomitans. 6. CONCO'MITANT. to come and go with another. may work upon thofe other fubftances. upon a trefpafs cbmmitted.] Subfdlencc together with another thing. Then doth it fly the' A A appeareth by the concord made betw^jen Henry and Roderick the Irifli king. of abjefl look. or by commilfioners in the country. company with others. CONCLU'SION. how and in what manner the lands fliall pafs it is the foundation and fubft. a.VGULATE. /. by the earth. fhivd. Thus concoclion is uled for the fame as digeftion. or w. final decifion. Demurring upon me. and concord executed. an agreement made between two or more. o). and ill purfue. we account it more pretty. confinement of the thoughts — We — — — : Your wife Oftavia. the acceleration of any thmg towards The conltantclt notion oi concocpurity and perfection (hll concocted — The — tion that it ftiould lignify the degrees of alteration of »ne body into another. South. which (iiall be . Lat. upon tlieir folution by the i-ain. liooher. i 3. which is the ultimity of that action or proceft. Bojle. union. in law. adj.'-osco/or. CON'CORD. CON'COLIN. — — — — — CONCLU'SIVE. it ? Wild flaring.Tibility. Bacon. with her modeft eyes Hill condufion. Confideration of things to be known. till they have heard me deduce the means of the execution. /. but the principal ufe is fmelling.] Of one colour. not mov'd with concord of fweet founds. heavenly this vaft globe in ! born whofe blifsful reign one furrounding chain . The faline parts of thofe. have all a corrolive quality. and condufi've modes and figures. Lnt. and is ever concomitant with porofity and drynefs. is differenced from that which concomitates a pleurify. the preternatural concomitants. It has pleafed our wife Creator to annex to feveral obiefls. This fimple bloody fpeftation of tils' lungs. concliifi-venefs. parties. the third and laft concoffion. conclufion. loft their labour ? — Locke. taken and acknowledged by the party before one of the judges of the court of common ple. the like kind of fentence given by a more univerfal authority. confent of founds compait. Hammond. &c. concords. Davies. as well of wild trees as fruit trees. different bodies are joined in one niaCs. The colledHon from propofitions pre. The clofe. and fpoils ! Shakejpeare. Bro'wn. [from ccncumilor./ Digeftion in the ftomach . from tlie time part to the time prefent. embued with.y. is. touching the point of po. Thefe concords and agreements are by way of f'atisfadtion Concord is alfb an agreement between for trefpafs. peace. ! Soul of the world Tickle. Brouun. the laft refult of argumentative deduftion. not caufitive or confequential.: : ! 42 dence. coming and going with. Locke. the heart beats. To — Kind Holds — concord. lar proof. that they will voluntarily do this. a. given by authority thereto appointed within ourfelves the other. giving the laft determination to the opinion. The other co7iconnt ant of ingratitude \ihard-heartednef's. — The fmall clofe-iiirking minifter of fate.



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