You are on page 1of 12

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science http://pic.sagepub.

com/

Theoretical and experimental studies on the steady-state performance of low-speed high-torque hydrostatic drives. Part 2: Experimental investigation
S K Mandal, K Dasgupta, S Pan and A Chattopadhyay Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 2009 223: 2675 DOI: 10.1243/09544062JMES1203 The online version of this article can be found at: http://pic.sagepub.com/content/223/11/2675

Published by:
http://www.sagepublications.com

On behalf of:

Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Additional services and information for Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science can be found at: Email Alerts: http://pic.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://pic.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations: http://pic.sagepub.com/content/223/11/2675.refs.html

>> Version of Record - Nov 1, 2009 What is This?

Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

2675

Theoretical and experimental studies on the steady-state performance of low-speed high-torque hydrostatic drives. Part 2: experimental investigation
S K Mandal1 , K Dasgupta1 , S Pan2 , and A Chattopadhyay1 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India 2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India The manuscript was received on 4 June 2008 and was accepted after revision for publication on 12 May 2009. DOI: 10.1243/09544062JMES1203

Abstract: The performance investigations of an open-circuit and a closed-circuit low-speed high-torque hydrostatic drive are presented. The modelling of both drives and determination of their loss coefcients are presented in Part 1 of this article (pg. 2663 of this issue). This study determines and analyses the overall efciency and slip characteristics of the hydrostatic drives using the expressions describing the characteristics of their loss coefcients. The effects of critical control parameters of the pumps and the motor are investigated on the basis of their steady-state performance. This investigation is based on the performance of the hydrostatic transmission drives at different torque levels. Keywords: experimental investigation, steady-state performance, efciency, critical parameters, low-speed high-torque hydrostatic drive, open circuit, closed circuit

INTRODUCTION

The low-speed high-torque (LSHT) hydrostatic transmission (HST) drive is an essential part of modern earthmoving machineries. Obtaining the maximum efciency of an HST drive relies on the performance of its hydrostatic components mainly pump and motor, whose efciencies depend on the operating conditions. With the continuous improvement of the design of the pumps and motors, there is an overall increase in the efciency of the HST drives. The efciency of the drive may be further improved by controlling the existing hydrostatic components in a creative manner. Initial work on pumpmotor loss characteristics was developed through extensive experimental work to determine the forms and mathematical representations of each ow and torque loss term [16]. Experiments conducted by Helduser [7] indicate that a speed-controlled hydraulic pump offers improved
Corresponding

author: Mechanical Engineering and Mining

Machinery Engineering, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad 826004, Jharkhand, India. email: mandalsantosh2000@yahoo.com, mandalsantosh@hotmail. com
JMES1203 IMechE 2009

efciency compared with a displacement-controlled hydraulic pump, especially at partial load. The steadystate performance of an open-circuit hydrostatic drive using an orbital rotor LSHT hydraulic motor was investigated by Dasgupta et al. [8], where the effects of the loss coefcients on the overall efciency of the drive were studied. Using such motor with a pressure compensated pump in an open-circuit HST drive, the quasi-static performance was analysed by Dasgupta [9]. In the recent years, Watton [10] has established an explicit steady-state performance equation of a servo-valve-controlled axial piston motor through theoretical and experimental investigations. In Part 1 of this article, using the Bondgraph simulation technique [11, 12], a mathematical model of an open-circuit and a closed-circuit LSHT hydrostatic drives is developed. The slip and the efciencies of the drives have been determined in terms of the loss coefcients of the hydrostatic components and the state variables of the model. The variations of the loss coefcients of the pumps and the motor with respect to the state variables are established through experimental investigation. These variations are also recognized by McCandlish and Dorey [4, 13], Dasgupta et al. [8] and Dasgupta and Mandal [14] in their studies on piston-type hydrostatic machines.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

2676

S K Mandal, K Dasgupta, S Pan, and A Chattopadhyay

The performance of the hydrostatic drives mainly depends on the performance of the pump and the motor, which are the basic components of the system. The overall efciencies and slips of the hydrostatic drives are predicted and validated experimentally in this part of the article, using the expressions of the loss coefcients of the pumps and the motor obtained in Part 1. The bases for deciding the best combination of pump and motor of an HST drive are critical parameters like efciency , critical speed ratio mcr , displacement ratio pd , speed ratio ps , and load torque Tl . In this article, the effects of ps in case of the opencircuit LSHT drive and that of pd in case of the closed-circuit drive on their maximum efciencies are studied. A similar theoretical study was proposed by Wilson [15] for an HST drive that consists of axial piston pump and a hydraulic motor. 2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ON THE SLIP CHARACTERISTICS AND TORQUE LOSSES ON THE PERFORMANCES OF THE HYDROSTATIC DRIVES

due to the higher pump leakages in the closed-circuit drive. This also attributes to the lower efciency of the closed-circuit drive compared to the open-circuit drive, the details of which are discussed in section 3.2. 2.2 Torque loss characteristics of the hydrostatic drives Using equations (30) and (32) of Part 1, the predicted overall torque losses of the open-circuit and the closed-circuit hydrostatic drives are obtained and are shown in Figs 3 and 4. These quantities are also compared with the corresponding experimental data. The general observations made from the torque loss characteristics, which are shown in Figs 3 and 4, are as follows. 1. At a given value of motor speed ma , increasing the load torque Tl decreases the torque loss. 2. At a given value of Tl , increasing ma increases the torque loss. 3. At a given value of ps or pd , increasing Tl decreases the torque loss of the drives. Comparing the torque loss characteristics of both hydrostatic drives, it is found that the variation of torque loss with the motor speed in an open-circuit HST drive at a given value of torque is greater than the case of the closed-circuit drive. This is particularly signicant for medium- to high-speed range of operation of the drives (50140 r/min). This behaviour is due to the higher variation of overall efciency of opencircuit drive compared to the closed-circuit drive as discussed in section 3.2. 3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ON THE OVERALL EFFICIENCY OF THE LSHT HYDROSTATIC DRIVES

The slip of the hydrostatic drives depends on the overall leakage losses (Rip1 , Rip2 , Rem , Req ) of the pumps and the motor. The torque losses of the drives are due to the valve port resistance Rvm of the motor as well as to mechanical friction losses Rls of the hydrostatic pumps. The nature of these losses are obtained experimentally and described in Part 1. 2.1 Slip characteristics of the hydrostatic drives

In Part 1 of this article, equations (38), (39), and (42) to (45) express the leakage resistances of the pumps and the motor. Using equations (25) and (29) of Part 1, the predicted slip of the open-circuit and the closedcircuit hydrostatic drives are obtained and are shown in Figs 1 and 2. These quantities are also compared with the corresponding experimental data. In general, from Figs 1 and 2, the following observations are made. 1. At a given value of load torque, increasing the motor speed ma decreases the slip. 2. At a given value of the hydraulic motor speed, increasing the load torque Tl increases the slip. 3. At a given value of pump speed ratio ps or displacement ratio pd , increasing the load torque increases the slip. 4. At a given value of load torque, increasing the ps or pd decreases the slip. The slip on the open-circuit hydrostatic drive is smaller than the slip corresponding to the closedcircuit drive at a given value of load torque. This is
Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

The overall efciencies of the hydrostatic drives depend on the slips and the torque losses. Such losses vary with the pump speed ratio ps or the pump displacement ratio pd of the respective drives as well as the load torque Tl . Considering the characteristics discussed in section 2, the predicted overall efciencies of the drives are compared with the corresponding experimental data. 3.1 Open-circuit LSHT hydrostatic drive

Using equation (23), the predicted efciency po of the open-circuit HST drive is calculated, and it is compared with its actual efciency a in Fig. 5. Figure 5 shows the variation of the efciencies of the drive with respect to the motor speed ma at three different torque levels Tl and various pump speed ratios ps . The results are plotted using bestt lines to the data points. The dotted and solid
JMES1203 IMechE 2009

Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

The steady-state performance of LSHT hydrostatic drives. Part 2

2677

Fig. 1

Slip characteristics of open-circuit hydrostatic drive

Fig. 2

Slip characteristics of closed-circuit hydrostatic drive

lines correspond to the experimental and predicted results, respectively. It is seen that the experimental efciencies throughout the test speed range of the motor at any torque level between 170 and 542 Nm are smaller than the predicted efciencies. Within the test range of operation, the efciency of the HST drive varies from 52 to 84 per cent and it is observed that increasing the motor speed decreases the efciency of the drive. The results show reasonable correlations between the predicted and the experimental values. The predicted efciencies are higher than the actual efciencies by about 34 per cent. Therefore, the estimation of loss coefcients given by equations (38), (40), (42), (44), and (46) of Part 1 seems to be reasonable. The overestimation may be attributed to several aspects not accounted for in the modelling of the pump and the motor of the HST drive. Such aspects are additional leakage paths, thermodynamic effects,
JMES1203 IMechE 2009

distortion around the contact surfaces, quality of the surface nish, additional ow path around the rollers of the motor because of its distortion, etc. Further, it may be noted that the loss coefcients of the pumps and the motor are the major parameters inuencing the drives efciency and these are estimated based on experimental observations. Consideration of the effects ignored in the studies requires further renement of the model, which need a detailed analysis of the above-mentioned factors sensitive to micro-constructional variations from machine to machine and for each unit reassembled after overhaul and repair. The following observations are made from the predicted characteristics of the open-circuit HST drive. 1. At constant torque level and low speed range (about 3050 r/min), increasing the motor speed ma increases the efciency of the drive (from 80
Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

2678

S K Mandal, K Dasgupta, S Pan, and A Chattopadhyay

Fig. 3 Torque loss characteristics of open-circuit hydrostatic drive

Fig. 4 Torque loss characteristics of closed-circuit hydrostatic drive

Fig. 5

A comparison of predicted and experimental efciencies


JMES1203 IMechE 2009

Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science


Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

The steady-state performance of LSHT hydrostatic drives. Part 2

2679

to 84 per cent). However, the efciency of the drive gradually decreases as its speed increases. 2. At a given value of drive speed, increasing the torque level increases the efciency of the transmission. 3. At a given value of ps , increasing the torque level increases the drive efciency. At lower torque level, with the increase in pump speed ratio ps , the torque losses increase (Fig. 3), which mainly predominate the overall efciency of the HST drive. At the LSHT level, the slip of the drive (Fig. 1) mainly determines its overall efciency. Low torque and high efciency at comparatively high output speed may not be possible to achieve in such type of hydrostatic drive because of the characteristic of the torque loss of the motor. However, because of the lower torque loss at higher torque level (Fig. 3), the HST drive exhibits better performance throughout its speed range. With the increase in ps , the efciency of the HST drive decreases. At low value of ps such type of drive exhibits better efciency.

efciencies throughout the test range of motor speed are lower than the predicted efciencies. However, the result shows a close agreement between predicted and experimental values, which are within 45 per cent. Therefore, the estimation of the pump and the motor loss coefcients given in equations (39), (41), (43), (45), and (47) of Part 1 seems to be reasonable. The higher values of predicted efciencies over the experimental ones are because of the several aspects explained in section 3.1. The predicted efciencies as functions of output speed of the drive are shown in Fig. 7. The following observations are made from the predicted performance of the closed-circuit HST drive. 1. In general, at a given value of load torque, increasing the displacement ratio decreases the efciency and increases the speed ma of the drive. However, the efciency of the HST drive decreases slightly when the speed of the motor decreases from 36 to 20 r/min. The nature of the efciency characteristics remains almost at. This behaviour may be due to the characteristics of the torque loss of the drive discussed in section 2.2. As a conclusion, the displacement-controlled HST drive maintains good efciency for a wide range of speed and torque. 2. The maximum efciency of the HST drive is about 78 per cent, which is smaller than the speedcontrolled open-circuit HST drive; this may be due to a higher slip and torque losses. 3. At a given value of displacement ratio pd , increasing the load torque Tl increases the drive efciency. As observed in Fig. 4, at a lower value of torque level, increasing the displacement ratio pd , the torque losses increase, which mainly inuences the efciency

3.2

Closed-circuit LSHT hydrostatic drive

Using equation (27), the predicted efciency pc of the closed-circuit HST drive is calculated. It is compared with its actual efciency a . The variations of the efciencies with motor speed at different torque Tl levels and displacement ratios are shown in Fig. 6. Such characteristics are plotted using best-t lines to the data points. The dotted and solid lines indicate the experimental and the predicted efciencies, respectively, of the HST drive. It has been observed that the actual

Fig. 6
JMES1203 IMechE 2009

A comparison of predicted and experimental efciencies


Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science
Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

2680

S K Mandal, K Dasgupta, S Pan, and A Chattopadhyay

Fig. 7

Predicted efciency as a function of output speed

of the closed-circuit drive. At LSHT operation, the higher slip of the drive (Fig. 2) mainly inuences its overall efciency. Referring to Fig. 6, with the increase in pd , the efciency of the closed-circuit HST drive decreases. At low values of pd , such type of drive exhibits better efciency due to its lower torque loss. The characteristics shown in Fig. 7 indicate that the range of maximum efciency of the drive is 7278 per cent for the test range of operation, which is smaller than the efciency of the open-circuit HST drive. The maximum efciency range of the open-circuit HST drive is 7284 per cent. However, comparing the results shown in Figs 5 and 6, it may be concluded that the closed-circuit HST drive provides small variation in efciency throughout its range of operation. The maximum efciency line indicated in Fig. 7 shows the maximum that can be attained at output speed from 20 to 130 r/min by varying the displacement ratios from 0.28 to 1.0.

4.1

Open-circuit hydrostatic drive

MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY OPERATION OF THE HYDROSTATIC DRIVES

The maximum efciency lines indicated in Figs 5 and 6 give an idea about a scheme for maximum energy efcient operation of the HST drives in steady-state condition. For a constant load torque Tl , the maximum efciency line gives the values of the prime mover speed p in case of the open-circuit drive, or the displacement ratio pd in case of the closed-circuit drive, for the maximum efciency operation. In this way, in case of open-circuit drive the pump speed is to be set and in case of closed-circuit drive the pump displacement ratio is to be adjusted to obtain the maximum efciency at a given steady-state load.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

In Fig. 8, the maximum efciency line has been obtained for the output speed range from 30 to 130 r/min by varying the pump speed ratio ps from 0.33 to 1.0. The maximum efciency with a given ps occurs at a critical speed ratio (mcr = ma /mmax ). For example, in Fig. 8, for ps = 0.41, the maximum efciency obtained is 84 per cent at motor speed ma = 50 r/min and the corresponding critical load torque Tlcro = 636 Nm. In Fig. 9, mcr is shown as a function of ps for the open-circuit HST drive considered in the present investigation. It is observed that in the HST drive considered in the present example, a minimum value of ps = 0.15 is needed to compensate the leakages of the pump and the motor and to build up pressure to overcome the minimum load torque connected with the motor. From the predicted performance of the HST drive shown in Fig. 8, the variation of critical speed ratio mcr with respect to critical load torque Tlcro is plotted in Fig. 10, where the pump speed ratio ps varies from 0.33 to 1.00. The best-t line connecting the data points indicates that decreasing Tlcro increases mcr . From the characteristics shown in Figs 9 and 10, the following expressions of mcr are obtained for the maximum efciency operation of the HST drive
2 + 0.0088Tlcro 0.6055 mcr = 105 Tlcro

(1)

and
2 + 1.488ps 0.2182 mcr = 0.3404ps

(2)

To operate the drive at maximum efciency, for a given load torque, the critical output speed mcr and input speed p of the drive can be predicted from equations (1) and (2).
JMES1203 IMechE 2009

Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

The steady-state performance of LSHT hydrostatic drives. Part 2

2681

Fig. 8

Predicted efciency as a function of output speed

Fig. 11 Fig. 9 Critical output speed ratio as a function of pump speed ratio

Critical output speed ratio as a function of critical displacement ratio

Fig. 10

Critical output speed ratio as a function of critical load torque

the motor of the closed-circuit hydrostatic drive and to build up sufcient pressure to overcome the minimum load torque connected with the motor. Figure 12 shows the variation of the critical load torque Tlcrc with respect to the critical output speed ratio mcr , where the pump displacement pd varies from 0.28 to 1.0. The best-t line connecting the data points indicates that with increase in mcr , the critical load torque Tlcr increases. From the characteristics shown in Figs 11 and 12, the following expressions of mcr and pdcr are obtained for maximum efciency operation of the closed-circuit HST drive
2 0.2624Tlcrc + 63.359 mcr = 0.0003Tlcrc

(3)

4.2

Closed-circuit hydrostatic drive

and
2 + 0.8673mcr + 0.1765 pdcr = 0.0394mcr

From the characteristics shown in Fig. 7, the variation of mcr with respect to pdcr is obtained and it is shown in Fig. 11, where Tlcr varies from 475 to 541 Nm. It indicates that a minimum value of pdcr = 0.18 is needed to compensate the leakages of the pump and
JMES1203 IMechE 2009

(4)

The critical output speed and the displacement ratio of the drive are obtained from equations (3) and
Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

2682

S K Mandal, K Dasgupta, S Pan, and A Chattopadhyay

increases with the increase in supply owrate. This inuences the overall efciency of the drive. The steady-state performance of the closed-circuit HST drive indicates the following. 1. When the motor speed increases, the efciency decreases gradually. 2. The characteristic curve of the efciency almost remains at and it indicates that displacementcontrolled HST drive exhibits good efciency for a wide range of speed and torque. 3. The maximum efciency of the closed-circuit HST drive is about 78 per cent, which is less than the speed-controlled open-circuit HST drive, which is about 84 per cent. This is because of the fact that the volumetric efciency of the displacementcontrolled pump is less than that of the xed displacement pump, which attributes to the higher slip of the closed-circuit drive. The low torque and the high efciency at high motor speed may not be possible to achieve in these types of hydrostatic drives because of the role of valve port resistance of its motor. It is observed that at a given value of load torque, the maximum efciency of the drive occurs at a particular ps or pd and are shown in Figs 7 and 8. Accordingly, the concerned components of the HST drive should be chosen to achieve the maximum possible efciency for all operating conditions. The method of achieving maximum efciency may be further scope of the work. This method of predicting the performance may be useful to the practicing engineers and it may also be useful for the selection of similar HST drives. The steady-state models proposed here would have considerable value to study the control aspects of the plants where such hydrostatic drives are the integral part. It also may be useful for initial design and selection of similar machine for a given application, where one can easily obtain more economical solutions using the idea developed here. By measuring load torque and speed from the slip characteristics of the HST drives shown in Figs 1 and 2, suitable control schemes may be formulated for varying the pump speed ratio or pump displacement ratio to reduce the slip of the respective hydrostatic drives. This may be a potential future work. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Research & Development Project Grant for 19992004 from University Grants Commission, Government of India, under Special Assistance Programme for carrying out the research work on this topic is acknowledged. The authors are thankful to Dr M. Rahman, Indian School of Mines University, for checking the language of the manuscript. The authors wish to offer special thanks to the learned reviewers
JMES1203 IMechE 2009

Fig. 12

Critical output speed ratio as a function of critical load torque

(4) to operate the displacement-controlled drive at maximum efciency. The discrepancies found while comparing the theoretical and the test results of the efciencies are due to the minor losses, such as additional leakage paths, thermodynamic effects, distortion around the contact surfaces, quality of the surface nish, and additional ow path around the rollers of the motor because of its distortion. Consideration of these effects requires more detailed theoretical analysis and wider range of test. 5 CONCLUSION

In Part 1 of this article, with the help of the bondgraph technique, a reduced model to study the steady-state performance of an open-circuit and a closed-circuit LSHT hydrostatic drives has been proposed. The loss coefcients of the HST drives are identied and their characteristics are determined experimentally. In this Part 2 of this article, using the nature of the loss coefcients that vary with the operating parameters of the drive, the models are validated experimentally and the performances of both HST drives are studied. The slip of the open-circuit HST drive is smaller than the closed-circuit drive due to the higher leakages of the pump of the closed-circuit drive. This results in a higher efciency of open-circuit drive particularly at high load torque. The steady-state performance of the open-circuit HST drive indicates the following. 1. At constant torque level and low speed of the motor, there is a small increase in efciency when the motor speed increases. 2. The efciency of the HST drive increases when the load torque at a particular motor speed increases. 3. The drive efciency decreases when the torque level at a constant pump speed ratio decreases. 4. At a lower torque level, the overall efciency of the drive mainly depends on its torque loss, which
Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

The steady-state performance of LSHT hydrostatic drives. Part 2

2683

for their valuable suggestions during preparation of the manuscript. REFERENCES


1 Wilson, W. E. Performance criteria for positive displacement pumps and uid motors. In Proceedings of the ASME Semi-annual Meeting, 30 MayJune 1948, paper no. 48-SA-14. 2 Schlossor, W. M. J. A mathematical model for displacement type pumps and motors. Hydraulic power transmission, April 1961, pp. 252253 and p. 269; May 1961, pp. 324328. 3 Bowns, D. E., Rolfe, A. C. J., and Chappel, P . J. A. A discussion of factors which affect motor torque under starting conditions, In Proceedings of the Fifth BHRA Fluid Power Symposium, Durham, UK, 1978, paper B6. 4 McCandlish, D. and Dorey, R. E. Steady-state losses in hydrostatic pumps and motors, In Proceedings of the Sixth BHRA Fluid Power Symposium, Cambridge, UK, 1981, pp. 133144. 5 Blackburn, J. F., Reethof, J. L., and Shearer, J. L. Fluid power control, 1960 (Technology Press of MIT and John Wiley, New York). 6 Merritt, H. E. Hydraulic control systems, 1967 (John Wiley, New York). 7 Helduser, S. Electric-hydrostatic drive an innovative energy-saving power and motion control system. Proc. IMechE, Part I: J. Systems and Control Engineering, 1999, 213(I5), 427437. DOI: 10.1243/0959651991540250. 8 Dasgupta, K., Mukherjee, A., and Maiti, R. Theoretical and experimental studies of the steady-state performance of an orbital rotor low speed high torque hydraulic motor. Proc. IMechE, Part A: J. Power and Energy, 1996, 210(A6), 423429. DOI: 10.1243/PIME_PROC_1996_ 210_70_02. 9 Dasgupta, K. Analysis of hydrostatic transmission system using low-speed-high-torque motor. Mech. Mach. Theory, 2000, 35, 14811499. 10 Watton, J. An explicit design approach to determine the optimum steady-state performance of axial piston motor drives. Proc. IMechE, Part I: J. Systems and Control Engineering, 2006, 220(I2), 131143. DOI: 10.1243/ 09596518JSCE157. 11 Thoma, J. U. Simulation by bondgraph, 1990 (SpringerVerlag, Berlin). 12 Mukherjee, A. and Karmakar, R. Modelling and simulation of engineering systems through bondgraph, 2000 (Narora Publishing House, New Delhi, India). 13 McCandlish, D. and Dorey, R. E. The mathematical modelling of hydrostatic pumps and motors. Proc. IMechE, Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture, 1984, 198(B3), 165 174. DOI: 10.1243/PIME_PROC_1984_198_162_02. 14 Dasgupta, K. and Mandal, S. K. Analysis of the steadystate performance of a multi-plunger hydraulic pump. Proc. IMechE, Part A: J. Power and Energy, 2002, 216(A6), 471479. DOI: 10.1243/095765002761034249. 15 Wilson, W. E. Mathematical models in uid power engineering. Hydraul. Pneum. Power, 1967, 1, 136147. 16 BS 4617. Methods of testing hydraulic pumps and motors for hydrostatic power transmission, 1983 (British Standards Institution, London).
JMES1203 IMechE 2009

APPENDIX 1 Notation Dm Dpc Dpc max Dpo Rem Req Rvm Rip1 Rip2 Tl Tlcrc Tlcro Tplc Tplo plkg V s V mcrc mcro pd pdcr ps a pc po ma mcr mmax mp p p max ( ) motor displacement rate pump displacement rate in a closed-circuit HST drive maximum pump displacement rate in a closed-circuit HST drive pump displacement rate in an open-circuit HST drive external leakage resistance of the motor equivalent leakage resistance of the motor valve port resistance of the motor internal leakage resistance of the xed displacement pump internal leakage resistance of the variable displacement pump load torque of the motor shaft critical load torque of the motor shaft (closed circuit) critical load torque of the motor shaft (open circuit) predicted torque loss of a closed-circuit HST drive predicted torque loss of an open-circuit HST drive leakage owrate of the pump supply owrate critical output speed ratio of the motor (closed circuit) critical output speed ratio of the motor (open circuit) pump displacement ratio (Dpc /Dpc max ) critical displacement ratio (pump) pump speed ratio (p /p max ) generalized efciency of the HST drive actual efciency of the HST drive predicted efciency of the closed-circuit HST drive predicted efciency of the open-circuit HST drive actual speed of the hydraulic motor critical output speed of the hydraulic motor maximum rotational speed of the hydraulic motor predicted speed of the HST drive actual speed of the pump maximum rotational speed of the pump time derivative of a variable

APPENDIX 2 Experimental test set-up Before validating the steady-state models of the HST drives, the characteristics of various loss coefcients of
Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

2684

S K Mandal, K Dasgupta, S Pan, and A Chattopadhyay

Fig. 13

Experimental test set-up

Table 1
S/n 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 Item description

List of components used in test set-up


S/n 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Item description Variable displacement pump Pressure transducer (system) Gear box (1:20) Pressure relief valve Flow transducer (outlet) Pressure transducer (loading pump) Torque indicator (electric motor) Pressure indicator (system) Pressure indicator (motor outlet) Torque indicator (motor) Data acquisition system

Electric motor Charge pump LSHT motor Loading pump Flow transducer (inlet) Pressure transducer (outlet) Speed indicator (electric motor) Flow indicator (motor return) Flow indicator (motor inlet) Speed indicator (motor) Pressure indicator (loading pump)

the pumps and the motor are determined experimentally. Using them, the proposed models are validated. A simplied representation of the experimental test setup is shown in Fig. 13 for ready reference. The list of components used in the test set-up is given in Table 1. The experiment has been conducted over a wide range of speed and torque levels, following a standard test procedure [16]. In investigating the performance of the HST drives, the experiments have been conducted at different torque levels Tl , maintaining the outlet pressure of the motor at atmospheric level. Constant load torque is maintained by adjusting the set pressure of the proportional relief valve of the loading unit.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

As such, the transmission considered in the present investigation which is used in LSHT drive, the test speed of the motor is limited to 30140 r/min to cover its maximum efciency zone. The high speed of the transmission could not be achieved due to the limitations of the test unit. Viscosity of the uid has been kept constant by maintaining oil temperature at 50 2 C. The parameters like load s, torque Tl , motor speed ma , supply owrate V and system pressure Pp are measured through suitable sensors and recorded in the respective instruments. Summary of the major components and instruments used in the test set-up are given in Table 2.
JMES1203 IMechE 2009

Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013

The steady-state performance of LSHT hydrostatic drives. Part 2

2685

Table 2

Summary of the major components and instruments used in the test set-up
Parameters

Components

Pressure compensated axial piston pump Make Bosch Rexroth, Germany Model A10VSO28DR/3XRPPA12N00 Displacement 4.45 106 m3 /rad Variable displacement swash plate controlled pump Make Bosch Rexroth, Germany Model A4VG28EP2DM1/3XRPZC10F02D Displacement 4.45 106 m3 /rad Radial piston LSHT motor Make Bosch Rexroth, Germany Model MCR 3F 280 F 180 Z 32 B2 M Displacement 4.45 105 m3 /rad Torque transducer Make Model Maximum torque range Accuracy Tachometer Make Model r/min range Accuracy Flowmeter Make Model Flow range Accuracy Pressure transducer Make Model Pressure range Accuracy Honeywell Sensotec, USA 2100A series data telemetry system 1000 Nm Less than 0.05% full-scale torque Syscon Instruments Pvt. Ltd, India ST-60 0500 Within 0.1%, FSR 1 count Rockwin Flowmeter India Pvt. Ltd, India TFM 1015 050 l/m 0.5% over 10 to 100% ow range Wika, Germany S-10 0200 bar 0.25%

JMES1203 IMechE 2009

Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science


Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com by Dragoslav Janosevic on May 10, 2013