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Paper/Page Layout All papers should be clearly written and word-processed using plain white 8.5” x 11” paper size with 1” margins on all sides. Avoid the use of frilly font types that are hard to read - Times Roman or Arial are preferred. Font size should be uniform through out and be in the range 10-12pt. Larger fonts may be used on the title page (see example). Text should generally be double spaced; however, single spacing may be used for: figure and table entries and captions, and reference, computer code or data listings. Pages should be numbered consecutively starting after the title page. General Content - Title Page (indicating title, student name, paper purpose, course number and name, professor name, date – see example on page 4) - Table of Contents - Introduction (provide background, literature review, paper purpose and contents, etc.) - Various Internal Sections (logically divided and ordered to present the study) - Summary and Conclusions - List of References (either numbered in order of appearance in text or alphabetical order by last name; see referencing section) - Appendix (optional for additional material that is of minor importance; e.g. data, computer code or parts listings, extra figures and/or tables, etc. ) Figures and Tables can either be embedded in the text immediately after they are first referenced or placed together at the paper’s end after the references. Figures All figures should be clearly readable and scaled properly to match the font size used in the text. Electronic copying or custom generation (Word Graphics, MATLAB, Excel, etc.) should allow easy manipulation of figures to accomplish proper location and sizing. Figures must include a caption (usually placed below the graphic) that contains the figure number followed by a brief description of what is shown. All figures must be explicitly discussed in the text by referencing the appropriate figure number. For papers of limited length, a simple consecutive numbering scheme can be used. An example of the text referencing and discussion along with the figure captioning is shown below.

- - FROM TEXT - . . . The GFEA model shown in Fig. 1 uses problem symmetry and thus analyzes only a quarter domain for the case b/a = 20, with a taken as unity. The mesh was refined around the center hole and was graded in the direction moving away from the hole toward the outer boundaries. Several meshes were tested for accuracy and convergence and the case shown was chosen for comparison with the analytical solution. Comparisons of the dimensionless tangential stress σθ/T are illustrated, and the results indicate a very close match between GFEA predictions and the analytical solution (shown as continuous lines). . . .

Fig. 1. Verification problem mesh geometry and stress profile comparisons.

1

282 1.1 0.360 1.988 0.Tables Similar to figures.FROM TEXT . is Poisson’s ratio and φ is the usual Airy stress function . . All tables must be explicitly discussed in the text by referencing the appropriate table number.184 1. Using Cartesian coordinate formulation in the x. .0 Depth 45% 35% 28% 14% 45% 35% 28% 14% 45% 35% 28% 14% 45% 35% 28% 14% -0.153 1.197 1.552 1.230 1. The results are tabulated in Table 3 for all cases evaluated. or at a slightly more shallow depth. . The first scheme uses the reference author’s last name and date in the text which is then linked to the 2 .200 1. a simple consecutive numbering scheme can be used. than the gradation depth. Electronic copying or custom generation (use Word Equation Editor) should allow easy manipulation of equations to accomplish proper location and sizing.085 1.815 1. it appears that as gradation depth is increased.2 0.177 1. All equations should be discussed or referenced in the text by quoting the appropriate equation number. This is clearly the case for n = 0. .1 0.529 1. Equations are normally centered in an open space in the text and should include a number (normally placed in parentheses to the right of the equation)..400 1. . . a simple consecutive numbering scheme can be used.3 2.552 1.738 0.034 1.230 1.337 1.4 -0. Two common format methods exist of doing this. the stress gradient from the hole to the interior peak becomes smoother with its peak slightly inside.2 0.775 0.1 0.3 -0.562 1. An example of proper equation formatting and referencing is shown below.y-plane.2 0. This means that the paper should contain a method of linking text information to the sources from which it came.1.529 1.7 0. k -0. Table 3. An example of the text referencing and discussion along with the table captioning is shown below.230 1.590 1.590 1. Equation (1) represents the governing equation in the terms of the stress function. the compatibility equation for the plane stress problem of linear elasticity can be written as 2 2 2 ∂2 1 ∂ φ − ν ∂ φ+ ∂ 2 E 2 2 2 E ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 2 1 ∂ 2φ ν ∂ 2φ + 2 ∂ 1+ ν ∂ φ = 0 − 2 2 E ∂y E ∂x ∂x∂y E ∂x∂y (1) where E is the elastic or Young’s modulus.410 σ θ /T at hole 0.1 0. For term papers of limited length.209 1..0 0. all tables should be clearly readable and scaled properly to match the font size used in the text.6 σ θ /T max 1.197 1. .282 1. For papers of limited length.3 2.410 Equations Like figures and tables.839 0.2 0. Stress concentration results for biaxial loading. equations should be clearly readable and scaled properly to match the font size used in the text. Electronic copying or custom generation should allow easy manipulation of tables to accomplish proper location and sizing.0 0. .2 n 0.8 E/E 0 max 0. Furthermore. Referencing All sources of information used to develop the paper should be properly referenced.3 2.4 0.025 0. Tables must include a caption (commonly placed above the table) that contains the number followed by a brief description of what is shown.3 2.6 0.0 0. and your paper should consistently use one of them.

. Sankar. Kawasaki.H.. .H. Elasticity. Mech. Eng.T.. Mech. J. 240-249. 2002). Inhomogeneous Elastostatic Problem Solutions Constructed from Stress-Associated Homogeneous Solutions. Santare. 69. Appl. Functionally Graded Materails: Design.G. (Kim and Paulino.. Paulino. Note that this scheme uses a non-alphabetized list. Gibson. Fraldi. A. . Horgan.. S. Elasticity. Mech.M. . 8. J... B..A. A second method uses a consecutive numbering scheme starting at [1] in the text which is then linked to a corresponding item in a numbered list of references as demonstrated with the same previous material in the example below.O. LIST OF REFERENCES Buttlar. 227-242. 69.. G. . 61. Lambros. Isoparametric Graded Finite Elements for Nonhomogeneous Isotropic and Orthotropic Materials. Rabin. Physics Solids. J.. Appl.. 3 . 67. 1967. Isoparametric Graded Finite Elements for Nonhomogeneous Isotropic and Orthotropic Materials. 2002. 2001.. G. J.G.H. On the Theory of Elasticity of a Non-Homogeneous Medium. 1998. C. Ford. Y.. 1978.V. W.. J. Kluwer Academic.. Horgan. Application of Graded Finite Elements for Asphalt Pavements. A Note on Antiplane Deformations of Inhomogeneous Elastic Materials. [3] Buttlar. Vol.. Vol. Song.L.M. Vol. . B. Appl. 2006.. 58-67. Geotechnique... Dhaliwal. Use of Graded Finite Elements to Model the Behavior of Nonhomogeneous Materials. J.V. 35.E. Processing and Applications...C. J.H. Kim. 609-614. . W. J. J.. Some Results Concerning Displacements and Stresses in a Non-Homogeneous Elastic Half Space.O.. Chan. Vol. Miyamoto. W. The Crack Problem for a Nonhomogeneous Plane. . Cowin. . Closed-form. LIST OF REFERENCES [1] Santare.. Mech.. analytical solutions for graded materials provide important verification problems for computational modeling. Erdogan. 819-822... . Sci. 211-219. Applications and Numerics. End Effects in Anti-Plane Shear for an Inhomogeneous Isotropic Elastic Semi-Infinte Strip. 2006. Appl. 61. G.H.. [5] Chan. 2001. 1983. R.. Mech..H. and recent papers developing graded finite element analysis [1].. F. . A. 2000)... B. Vol.H. M..H. An Elasticity Solution for Functionally Graded Beams.S. Vol. . Vol. Academic Press/Elsevier.. M. Int. Ang.. Clements. Delale. Vol. 689-696. End Effects in Anti-Plane Shear for an Inhomogeneous Isotropic Elastic SemiInfinte Strip. 1999. Dordrecht. Paulino. [4] Sankar. 2004.. Lambros. J. .H. Use of Graded Finite Elements to Model the Behavior of Nonhomogeneous Materials. J. [2] and [3] indicate growing interest in this area. Elasticity Theory. [2] Kim. Mech. J. Appl.. J. Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 593-601. and (Butlar et al.FROM TEXT .. S.. Eng. All entries in the Reference List must be cited in the text and vice versa. Vol. A. 132. analytical solutions for graded materials provide important verification problems for computational modeling. M. 240-249. 67.. . 2009. C. Paulino. Eng.. Mech. Composites Science and Technology. Elasticity.. 502-514. second ed. S. 2006) indicate growing interest in this area. M. 227-242. Paulino. 1997. 132. . B.. R. J. and recent papers developing graded finite element analysis (Santare and Lambros.corresponding item in the list of references which is in alphabetic order. 2207-2233. 819-822. 51. Singh. 2000.. Sadd. 51.. Song. Application of Graded Finite Elements for Asphalt Pavements. Boston. . 17. D. J. Kusuma. Vol.G. R. 2002. Closed-form. 689-696.M. J. W. 50. An example of this scheme is shown below. 1998. 2000. G.H.. J... 52.FROM TEXT . Vol. An Elasticity Solution for Functionally Graded Beams.H. Vol. Vol.H. Mech. 502-514. Kaysser.

H. Sadd May 2010 4 .(Example Title Page) A Review of Anisotropic Elasticity James Smith Project Report for MCE 571 Theory of Elasticity I Professor M.

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