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CHAPTER 1 WAVES

1.1 Understanding Waves ( ……………/ 25 X 100 % = ……………… )

Learning Outcomes

A student is able to :

• Describe what is meant by wave motion.

• Recognise that waves transfer energy without transferring matter.
• Compare transverse and longitudinal waves and give examples of each.
• State what is meant by a wavefront.
• State the direction of propagation of waves in relation to wavefronts
• .define
i. amplitude
ii. period,
iii. frequency,
iv. wavelength,
v. wave speed.
• Sketch and interpret a displacement-time graph for a wave.
• Sketch and interpret a displacement-distance graph for a wave,
• Clarify the relationship between speed, wavelength and frequency
• .Solve problems involving speed, wavelength and frequency.
• Describe damping in a oscillating system.
• Describe resonance in a oscillating system.

a) The wave that travels along the spring consists of a series

(1)…………………..and (2)………………………….

b) A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the vibration of the medium

is (3)…………………….to the direction of propagation of the wave.

c) A transverse wave is produced when the vibration of the medium is

(4)………………….to the direction of propagation of wave.

d) The wavelength is the distance between two adjacent

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2. Match the following terms with the meaning given.

Terms Meaning
(7) The displacement of
Wavefront 1 a crest or a trough
from the equilibrium
position of a wave.
(8) The number of waves
Wavelength 2 produced by a source
in one unit time.
(9) The distance between
Amplitude 3 two adjacent points of
the same phase on
wave.
(10) Lines joining all points
Frequency 4 of the same phase.

(11) The measurement of

Wavespeed 5 how a crest is moving
from a fixed point.
(12) Time taken for an
Period 6 oscillation to complete
one cycle.

3. Complete the sentence and chart given below with suitable words.

a) In a damping oscillation,(13)........................and (14)……………….…

remain constant while (15)………... decreases.

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2

Examples of
Damping in oscillating system

3 4

(16,17,18,19)

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b) State two causes of damping in an oscillating system:

i. …………………………………(20)

ii. …………………………………(21)

3. Figure shows the displacement-distance and displacement –time graphs of an

oscillating system.

From the graphs determine the…….

a) Period :…………………………………….(22)

b) Frequency :……………………………………..(23)

c) Wavelength :………………………………….…(24)

d) Speed of the waves.:……………………………………(25)

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1.2 : Analysing reflection of waves ( ……………/ 10 X 100 % = ………… )

Learning Outcomes

A student is able to :

• Describe reflection of waves in terms of the angle of incidence, angle of reflection,

wavelength, frequency, speed and direction of propagation.
• Draw a diagram to show reflection of waves.

1. Diagram 1.1 and 1.2 shows water waves and sound waves propagating towards a
reflector.

Diagram 1.1

Diagram 1.2

a) ( i) What is meant by reflected waves?

……………………………………………………………………………………(1)

( ii) Complete the diagrams 1.1 and 1.2 to show the phenomena of reflection of
waves.
(2),(3),(4),(5)

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(iii) With reference to diagram 1.1 and 1.2,compare the incident and reflected angle,
wavelenght, frequency, speed and direction of propagation of the reflected
wave with the incident wave. Complete the table with a suitable word..

(6)

Wavelength remains unchanged

Frequency ……………………………….(7)

Speed ……………………………….(8)

propagation

(iv) State the principle of the reflection of waves.

…………………………………………………………………………………….(10)

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1.3 Analysing refraction of waves ( ……………/ 12 X 100 % = ……………… )

Learning Outcomes

A student is able to :

• describe refraction of waves in terms angle of incidence, angle of refraction,

wavelength, frequency , speed and direction of propagation.
• Draw a diagram to show refraction of waves.

1. Figure below shows the plane waves approaching a convex-shaped shallow area.

(a) Complete the diagram by drawing the wavefronts of the waves entering the shallow
area. Label clearly the wavelength in a shallow area with λ1 and in deep area with
λ 2. (1),(2),(3)

(b) Complete the table below, to show what happen to wavelength, frequency, speed
and direction of the propagation of wave after the phenomena of refraction.

Wavelength (4)

Frequency (5)

Speed (6)

Direction of the (7)

propagation

2. Diagram below shows the phenomena of refraction of water wave of the sea water

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1. Why are the speed and wavelength of waves in the middle of the sea almost
uniform?

……………………………………………………………………………….(8)

2. Why do the distances between the wavefronts decrease as the waves approach the
beach?

…………………………………………………………………………………(9)

3. Why is the water in the bay stationary compared to the water at the cape?

i.………………………………………………………………………………………

ii………………………………………………………………………………………

iii……………………………………………………………………………………..

(10),(11),(12)

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1.4 Analysing diffraction of waves ( …………… / 18 X 100 % = ……………. )

Learning Outcomes
A student is able to
• describe diffraction of waves in terms of wavelength, frequency, speed,
direction of propagation and shape of waves,
• draw a diagram to show diffraction of waves.

1. Diagram 1 shows a listener who is able to hear the sound of the radio behind the wall of
a building.

Diagram 1.

2. _________________(2) of waves is a phenomenon in which waves _____________(3)

as they pass through a _______________(4) or round an ________________(5).

3. Diagram 3a and 3b shows water waves passing through a narrow gap and a wider gap
respectively.

(6) (7)

Diagram 3a Diagram 3b

(a) Complete diagrams 3a and 3b above to show the wave pattern after passing through
the gaps.

(b) Based on your answer in (a) state the relationship between the wavelength , size of the
gaps and the wave pattern formed.

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________
(8),(9)

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(c) Compare the water waves before and after passing through the gap in terms of
(i) wavelength :_____________________(10)

(iv) Amplitude :______________________(13)

2. Diagram 4 shows light from a laser pen is diffracted if it passes through a narrow
slit comparable in size to its wavelength.

(a) In the space below , draw and label the diffraction pattern of light through a
narrow slit.

(14)

(b) As the light passes through the single slit , it is diffracted to produce a wide
__________ (15) fringe at the centre.

(c) After diffraction , interference also occur to produce alternate bright and
________ (16) fringes at the side of the middle bright fringe.

(d) The bright fringe is caused by ____________(17) interference and the dark
fringe is produced by ___________ (18) interference.

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1.5 Interference of Waves ( ……..……./ 20 x 100 % = ..…………. )

Learning Outcomes
A student is able to :

• state the principle of superposition

• explain the interference of waves
• draw interference patterns
• interpret interference patterns
• apply the following formula in problem solving

ax
λ=
D

(1)

2. Interference is the superposition of two coherent waves. Two waves are

coherent if they have the same wavelength , same ______________(2) and
constant ________________________(3).

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3. Complete the table below

(a)
Superposition
of two crests

Constructive
interference

(b)
Superposition
of two
troughs

(4) (5)
(c)
Superposition
of a crest and
a trough

(6) (7)

4. Diagram 4 shows an interference pattern produced by two coherent sources P and Q

P Q
Diagram 4

In the diagram above , draw and label one antinodal and one nodal line.
(8), (9)
5. Complete the table below to compare sound and light waves.

Light Sound
Constructive Bright fringes
interference (10)
Destructive
interference (11) (12)

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6.Diagram 6 shows an experiment to study the interference of light waves.

Diagram 6
(a) What is meant by monochromatic light ?

______________________________________________________________(13)

(b) In the boxes above , label a , x and D where

a = distance___________________________________________________(14)
x = distance___________________________________________________(15)
D = distance __________________________________________________ (16)

(17)

(d ) Calculate the wavelength of light used if a = 0. 2 mm , x = 3 mm , and D is 4 m.

ax
[ λ= ] (18)
D

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7 Two loud speakers placed 2 m apart are connected to an audio signal generator
that is adjusted to produce sound waves of frequency 550 Hz. The detection of
loud and soft sounds as a person moves along a line is at 4.0 m from the
loudspeakers. The distance between 2 consecutive loud sounds is 0.5 m.

Calculate the
(a) Wavelength of the sound waves. (19)
(b) speed of the sound waves. (20)

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1.6 Sound Waves ( ……………./ 20 x 100 % = ……………. % )
Learning Outcomes

A student is able to :
• describe sound waves
• explain how the loudness relates to amplitude.
• explain how the pitch relates to frequency.
• describe applications of reflection of sound waves.
• calculate distances using the reflection of sound waves.

1. Fill in the blanks.

(a) Sound waves are __________________(1) waves .
(b) Sound waves are produced when a vibrating object causes air molecules around
it to __________(2) and producing a series of ___________(3) and
___________(4)

Diagram 2

(a) Label the wavelength (5)

(b) Label areas of compression (6) and rarefaction (7)

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3. Complete the concept map below.
Low pitch, loud sound, soft sound, high pitch

(8),(9),(10),(11),(12),(13)

4. Diagram 4 shows a submarine transmitting ultrasonic waves directed at a big rock

on the sea bed. After sometime, the submarine detects the wave again.

DIAGRAM 4.

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(a) State the wave phenomenon involved.

________________________(14)

(b) State 2 reasons why the submarine used ultrasonic wave but not ordinary sound
wave.

1.........................................................................................................................(15)

2.........................................................................................................................(16)

(c) Calculate the distance of the submarine from the big rock if the submarine
detects the second wave after 1.5 seconds. [Velocity of ultrasonic wave =
1560 m s-1]
(17),(18)

(d) State 2 other applications of sound waves.

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
(19),(20)

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1.7 Analysing electromagnetic spectrum ( ……..…….. / 20 x 100 % = …………..…)

Learning Outcomes
1. Diagram 1 show the electromagnetic spectrum. Write the names of the electromagnetic
waves in the boxes provided.

Diagram 1
(1),(2),(3)
2. Electromagnetic waves are __________(4) waves ,consisting of_________ (5) fields and

4. List 4 properties of electromagnetic waves.

(i) _______________________________________________

(II) _______________________________________________

(III)_______________________________________________

(IV) ______________________________________________

(9),(10),(11),(12)

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5. Diagram 2 show electromagnetic waves. Match the correct source by drawing lines from
the boxes to the respective sources.

(13),(14),(15),(16)
6. Name the electromagnetic wave which is used in the following appliance: