MLA GUIDELINES FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS I. TITLES OF WORKS 1.

In a title or subtitle, capitalize the first word, the last word and all principal words, including the following parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, subordinating conjunctions ( after, although, as if, as soon as, because, before, if, that, unless, until, where, when, while)., e.g., Tender is the Night, The Art of Fiction, Stream of Consciousness in the Modernist Novel, Go Down, Moses, Anywhere That Chance Leads. The following parts of speech should not be capitalized when they occur in the middle of a title: ° Articles (a, an, the) – A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. ° Prepositions (against, between, in, of, to) – The Merchant of Venice, The Reaction against Experiment. ° Coordination conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet) – Love and Death in the American Novel. ° The to infinitives – How to Play Chess 2. Underlined / Italicized Titles Titles of works published independently should be underlined or italicized. These include: the names of plays, long poems published as books, pamphlets, periodicals (newspapers, magazines and journals), films, radio and television programs, compact discs), ballets, operas, paintings, works of sculpture, ships, aircraft and spacecraft, e.g., The House of the Seven Gables A Streetcar Named Desire (play) The Waste Land (poem) Wall Street Journal The Nutcracker The Titanic Challenger (spacecraft) 3. Titles in Quotation Marks Quotation marks are used for works published within larger works, such as: names of articles, essays, short stories, short poems, chapters of books, individual episodes of television and radio programs; unpublished works, such as lectures and speeches, e.g., “The End of Something” in the volume In Our Time “In Our time and Hemingway’s Later Work” (chapter in a book) “Kubla Khan” (poem) 4. Titles and Quotations within Titles Underline / italicize a title when it appears within a title enclosed in quotation marks ( “In Our Time as Modernist Achievement” – chapter in a book) Enclose in single quotation marks a title normally indicated by quotation marks, when it appears within another title given in quotation marks ( “Lines after Reading ‘Sailing to Byzantium’” – poem about a poem). Use quotation marks around a title normally indicated by quotation marks when it appears in an underlined / italicized title ( “The Lottery” and Other Stories – a book of short stories). Exceptions: Underlining and quotation marks should not be used with names of sacred writings, of laws, acts, political documents; of series, societies, buildings, monuments; of conferences, seminars, workshops and courses, e.g.,

. do not indent the first line more than the rest. Others hold an altogether different view point (Jackobson and Waugh 210-212). Talmud.If a quotation runs no more than four lines and requires no special emphasis. 1993 (hereafter cited as Stories in parentheses). set it off from your text by beginning a new line. you must write at first a footnote with all necessary information and the specification of the title shortening you are going to use throughout the paper. after the writer’s name. Genesis. Old Testament.g. Alternatively. DOCUMENTATION: CITING SOURCES IN THE TEXT 1. in parentheses. e. Treaty of Trianon. . you may paraphrase the original and quote only fragments. Ernest Hemingway.If a quotation runs to more than four lines in your paper.The simplest way to identify the source of the quotations is to mention the name of the author and the page number in parentheses.. London: Arrow Books. Modern Language Association Arch of Triumph. Declaration of Independence. stanza 20.If your quotation includes two or more paragraphs. nor are they capitalized when used in the text (preface. e. bibliography. 1993.. Tanner has already argued this point (210-215). The following guidelines should be kept in mind: .” The First Forty-Nine Stories. which may be easier to integrate into the text.Introduce and / or comment on the quotation. put it in quotation marks and incorporate it into the text. Magna Charta..2 Bible. Masterpiece Theatre. The quotations must reproduce the source exactly – unless indicated in brackets or parentheses. and typing it without adding quotation marks.g. capitalization. e. “Indian Camp. changes must not be made in the spelling.g. . 85-93 (hereafter cited as “Camp” in parentheses).Keep parenthetical references as brief – and as few – as clarity and accuracy permit. canto 32…). This applies to items belonging to secondary bibliography. Tate Gallery Words designating the divisions of a work are not underlined / italicized or put within quotation marks. you specify it as.. index. This point has already been discussed (Tanner 211-212). or interior punctuation of the source.If the quotation represents a single paragraph or part of one. Bollingen Series. Hemingway. The First Forty-Nine Stories. . . QUOTATIONS Select carefully the quotations and avoid overquotation. Gospels. . Koran. When the quotation is taken from the primary bibliography. g. you must mention the year of publication.. g. If you include the writer’s name in your comment. . III. II. When you refer only to one story in the text. .Single quotation marks should be used for quotation in quotation. Parenthetical Documentation . introduction. The references must clearly point to the specific source detailed in the list of works cited. appendix. London: Arrow Books. indent the first line of each paragraph an additional quarter inch.When the list of works cited contains more titles by the same author. make the alteration clear to the reader. If you change a quotation. The author says in the preface… This idea will be expanded in chapter 2. you need not repeat it in the parenthetical page citation that follows. indenting one inch from the left margin.

comma. -----. A BOOK BY MORE AUTHORS: Eggins. Northrop.If the quotation is set off from the text.” Trans. Underline / italicize the whole title. . full title of the book. Scholles. Ed.e. Sound and Poetry.g. including subtitle. Thomas Colchie. The Double Vision. Margaret Sayers Peden.. explanations or information that the text cannot accommodate. Princeton: Princeton UP. . . parentheses after the full stop). e.3 This is a book explicitly about the making of modern styles in life and emotion…” (Bradbury 1992. 97) . year of publication. A Hammock Beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. but do not underline the period that follows the title. New York: Columbia UP. 1962. If two or more entries citing coauthors begin with the same name.The parenthetical reference precedes the quotation mark that concludes the sentence. Carl H. Robert and Robert Kellog Scholles. IV. 1992. e. Publication Information: city of publication. Analysing Casual Conversation. A TEXT IN AN ANTHOLOGY: Allende.Bibliographic notes containing either several sources or comments on sources. a period after the date. Language and Meaning in Religion. publisher’s name. 1957. type a space after the concluding punctuation mark of the quotation and insert the parenthetical reference (i. 2. 1997. Using Notes Two kinds of notes can be used: . ed. You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation (New York: Morrow.A reference directly after a quotation follows the closing quotation mark. the publication data in parentheses and a page of reference. “Toad’s Mouth. London: Cassell. WORKS CITED The entries in the list of works cited should be alphabetized by the author’s last name. alphabetize by the last names of the second authors listed. EXAMPLES: MORE BOOKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR: Frye. . Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. New York: Plume. Robert. 1990) 52. Klaus and Michael Silverman Arrangement of Entries: Author’s name (as it appears on the title page). clause or phrase containing the borrowed material. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1957. Isabel. offering comments. a comma between the publisher and the date. Deborah Tannen. Suzanne. period. A documentation note has four main divisions: the author’s name in normal order ( first name followed by last name). period (unless it ends with another punctuation mark).. 83-88.g. and Diana Slade. Use a colon between the place of publication and the publisher.Content notes.. You may include these notes either as endnotes (at the end of the paper/chapter of your work) or as footnotes. the title. -----.

give full publication information: Allen. Chicago..” Atlantic Online. begin with the title. Conf. Rev. Ed. Middlemarch. Introduction. especially at the first edition. Trans. Margaret.bartleby.english. David. 1985. 5 vols. e.2002. OR A READING In a citation of an oral presentation. in quotation marks..web. “Reading Ophelia’s Madness. 22 June 2002 http://www. 15161657. Bader.” Encyclopedia of Bioethics. followed by the descriptive label Diss. Boyle. Beyond Category: The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington. To cite a master’s thesis. Barry. “The Epistemological Evolution of Renaissance Utopian Literature. The Faber Book to America. 2002. 15 May 2002 http://www. 22 Mar.” Exemplaria 10.britannica. Benjamin. FOREWORD. New York: Bantam. New York: Somerset. 2001.” 1782. 1983. “Noon” def. FAMILIAR REFERENCE BOOKS: “Ginsburg. Ruth. Terkel. If there is no title. the location. Encyclopedia of Virginia.g. New York U. 56th ed. 24 Sept. Studs. Ed. A SPEECH.htm AN UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATION Write the title of an unpublished dissertation in quotation marks. AN INTERNET SITE: Bartleby. AFTERWORD: Drable. AN INTRODUCTION. New York: Macmillan – Simon. e. Selected Writings. 2002 http://www.g. comma and the year. “Privacy in Health Care. Boston: Faber. By George Eliot. the meeting. MS thesis) for Diss. 13-14. 1990. neither underlined nor enclosed in quotation marks.Ed. Palmer House. the title of the presentation (if known). June 2002. 4b. 1993.2002.com/ AN ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE: Brooks. New York: Penguin. New York: Simon.com/> Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. use an appropriate descriptive label (Address. Warren T. Reich. 2nd ed. substitute the appropriate label (e.ufl. AN ANONYMOUS BOOK: If there is no author’s or editor’s name on the title page.” Diss. on Coll. By John Edward Hasse. 24-26. Keynote Speech. Christopher Ricks and William L. Mark Atherton. 1995. 1989 When citing less familiar reference books. TRANSLATION: Hildegard of Bingen.com: Great Books Online .htm AN ARTICLE IN A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL: Dane. Gabrielle.2 (1998). Composition and Communication Convention. A LECTURE. Anita L. PREFACE. Anthony T.com/issues/2002/06/brooks. Vance. Afterword. Sears. Lecture.. 1992. viixviii. ”Who’s Who in America. AN ADDRESS. give the speaker’s name. Steven van Leeuwen. “Emigration in America.g. the name of the degree-granting university.theatlantic.edu/english/exemplaria/danefram. . MA thesis. 5 May 2002 <http:// www. 1993. Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Oxford English Dictionary. Reading). and the date. Address. “The Culture of Martyrdom.4 Franklin..

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