0 Up votes0 Down votes

18 views25 pagesAug 16, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

18 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- 20_009
- Reactors
- Experiment 1- Sample
- Tracer experiment in plug flow reactor
- CSTR
- Guide for understanding the hydrogenation of cyclohexene
- Tower Reactor
- Process Dynamics & Control Report
- Excellence
- Problema 1 - Reacciones
- Chemical Reaction Engineering_O. Levenspiel
- solid catalyzed gas phase reactorselection-131017144425-phpapp02
- diseño reactores no isotermicos
- HW2_2009_solns
- Wo 2015024103 a 1
- Catalyst Dynamics_consequences for Classical Kinetic Descriptions of Reactors
- bagian TK
- Heuristic s
- n Octane Dehydrocyclisation
- Pressure Drop in Reactors

You are on page 1of 25

Consultation Time: 2-3 pm (22-26 April) E5-03-18

Isothermal, Ideal Reactor (Homogeneous Single Reaction) Design

Mole Balance

In Out + Gen = Acc dN A FA0 FA + rA dV = V dt

Output

Rate Law

Design Algorithm

n A

rA = kC

Kinetics: k and n

P-2

Non-Ideal Reactors

Isothermal, Non-Ideal Reactors (Single reaction)

Models (micromixing)

1.SEG 2.TIS 3.Dispersion 4.Compartment

Output

Rate Law

RTD (macromixing)

n A

rA = kC

Conversion (X)

P-3

Outline the concept of residence time distribution (RTD) as well as the reasons for using this concept in connection with non-ideal reactors. Define the residence time distribution function, E(t), and the cumulative residence time distribution function, F(t), and use the relation between them. Outline and understand the measurement methods for obtaining the residence time distribution. Use experimental results from pulse and step experiments to calculate the mean residence time and the variance. Derive the residence time distribution functions, E(t) and F(t), for ideal reactors (PFR and CSTR). Define the concept of mean residence time, tm, and, for a CSTR as an example, show that this time equals the space-time, . Define the concept of variance about mean residence time, 2, and show that this variance for a CSTR equals the space time squared, 2. Use the information of RTD to diagnose the ills of real reactor systems.

P-4

E (t ) = C (t )

C (t )dt

F (t ) = E (t )dt

0

t m = tE (t )dt

0

= (t t m ) 2 E (t )dt

2 0

P-5

E (t ) = (t )

E (t ) = e

t /

Models (Unit 8)

Outline the concept of macromixing and micromixing. Outline the concept of macrofluid and microfluid. Outline the basic assumptions of the segregation model as well as the cases when this model may be applied. Use the segregation model for calculations on non-ideal reactors. Outline the basic idea of the tanks-in-series model and the dispersion model. Use the TIS model and the dispersion model to solve reactor performance problems with experimental results from tracer experiments. Outline the concept of compartment model, and use this model to predict the performance of non-ideal reactors.

P-6

E(t) t

X = X (t ) E (t )dt

0

Segregation Model

1st order

Vi = V i = n n

Tanks-inSeries

C1

Cn 1

2 n= 2

Cn

X = 1

1 (1 + i k ) n

2 =

Plug Flow Dispersion Model Dispersion

X = 1

4q exp( (1 + q ) 2 exp( Per ) 2

P-7

F (t )

P-8

P-9

P-10

Isothermal, Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactor (PBR, Single Reaction) Design

Mole Balance

In Out + Gen = Acc

z=0

Ac

Output

dC Ab U + rA ' b = 0 dz

Overall Rate Law Expression

z + z

z=L

rA ' = f (C Ab )

External mass transfer Internal mass transfer Intrinsic reaction rate

C Ab C As

C A (r )

r

WAr

rate = (kinetic factor)(driving - force group) (adsorption group)

P-11

A B

R

CA

C As C Ab

PBR

Ac , L C Ab , v0 , U W , S a , c , b ,

A catalyst pellet

R , d p , ac WAr , kc , DAB

C Ab , C As , C A

n , ,

n ) rA ' = (rAs ' ) = (k n ' C As n rA ' = (rAb ' ) = (k n ' C Ab )

dC Ab + rA ' b = 0 U dz

P-12

C As = f (C Ab ) Unit 10 C A = f (C As ) Unit 11

rA ' = f (C A ) Unit 9

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mass transfer through external boundary layer Diffusion into pores Adsorption Surface reaction Desorption Diffusion of products out of pores Mass transfer back to bulk fluid

The overall rate of reaction is equal to the rate of the slowest step in the mechanism ratedetermining step.

P-13

Outline the steps in a catalytic reaction and use the concept of a ratelimiting step to derive a rate law. Develop a rate law and linearize it to determine the rate-law parameters from a set of gas-solid reaction rate data. Derive the design equation for a catalytic reactor. Calculate the conversion or catalyst weight for packed bed reactors. Describe the different types of catalyst deactivation. Outline the basic idea to design reactors to solve the catalyst deactivation problems. Calculate the conversion or catalyst weight for moving bed reactors.

P-14

Adsorption Surface reaction Desorption

Reactor design

rate =

kPA rA ' = Single site A S B S 1 + K A PA + K B PB kPA Dual site r ' = A S + S B S + S A (1 + K A PA + K B PB )2 kPA PB r ' = A S + B S C S + S A (1 + K A PA + K B PB + K C PC )2 kPA PB Eley-Rideal A S + B ( g ) C S rA ' = 1 + K A PA + K C PC P-15

Catalyst Deactivation

Catalyst deactivation a (t ) = Rate of reaction

Decay law

da = rd dt

To offset the decline in chemical reactivity of decaying catalysts: Temperature Time Trajectories Moving-Bed Reactor

T = f (t )

P-16

Use mass transfer in the context of reactor calculations. Outline the concept of the film theory for the external mass transfer. Evaluate the effects of fluid flow rate and particle size on the performance of a mass transfer-limited reactor. Derive the reaction rate expressions for slow and rapid reaction on a catalyst surface and outline the assumptions which this derivation is based on. Outline how mass transfer-limited reactions respond to changes in temperature and flow conditions. Design a reactor operating at conditions limited by external mass transfer.

P-17

Ac

z

z=0

z + z

z=L

dC Ab '' U + rA ac = 0 dz

For reaction at steady state

C Ab

C As

WAr

Boundary layer

'' rA = WAr

'' rA = kcC Ab

C Ab k c ac = exp z C Ab 0 U

P-18

Summary

Scheme of surface reaction kinetics

U dC Ab '' + rA ac = 0 dz

A B

fluid reactants products external transport

WAz = kc (C Ab C As )

Correlations of kc

= 2 + 0.6Re1/2Sc1/3 Flow through a packed Sh' = (Re' )1/2 (Sc' )1/3

bed (Thoenes-Kramers) Flow around a spherical particle (Frossling) Sh

internal diffusion

'' rA = kcC Ab

ln

ka 1 = c cL 1 X U

P-19

Derive the Thiele modulus. Derive the effectiveness factor for porous catalyst particles with various geometries. Use the concept of the effectiveness factor and outline how this factor can be increased by various operation conditions. Use the Thiele modulus for reactions with diffusion. Distinguish between internal and overall effectiveness factor. Describe how the reaction rate is influenced by parameters such as velocity, particle size and temperature. Design PBR operating under pore-diffusion limited regime.

P-20

Qualitative Analysis

Reactant concentration profiles around and within a porous pellet.

CA b

CAs

C A (x) CA

external mass transfer limited

P-21

+R

rate without any diffusion effects

rA ' = k ' C As

with

2 1

(1 coth 1 1)

Effectiveness factor, a fudge factor which varies between 0 and 1, and which accounts for the resistance to pore diffusion. Thiele modulus, useful for predicting reactor behavior from known kinetic information, thus known k. Effective diffusion coefficient in porous solids.

where

1 = R

k1 ' ' c S a De

P-22

Ac C Ab 0

z=0

z

C AbL

C Ab = C Ab 0 e ( b k1 ''S a z ) / U

z + z

z=L

Porous catalyst pellet

C Ab

External resistance

C As

CA

Internal resistance

X = 1 e ( b k1 ''S a L ) / U

=

1 + k1 ' ' S a b / kc ac

12

(1 coth 1 1); 1 = R

k1 ' ' c S a k =R 1 De De

P-23

External diffusion

2/3 DAB U 1/ 2 kc 1/ 6 1/ 2 dp

Internal diffusion

Reaction-limited

3 rA = De k1 C As R

rA = k1C Ab

kc U 1/ 2T 11/12

P-24

Summary

Scheme of surface reaction kinetics The Thiele modulus for porous spheres

n 1 n kn R 2C As R knC As reaction rate = = = De De [( C As 0) / R ] diffusion rate 2 n

A B

fluid reactants products external transport

=

= actual overall rate of reaction reaction that would occur if entire surface exposed to C As actual overall rate of reaction reaction that would occur if entire surface exposed to C Ab

Internal diffusion

2 = n +1

1/ 2

P-25

- 20_009Uploaded byhyde2520015754
- ReactorsUploaded byLyka Balmes
- Experiment 1- SampleUploaded byNasrul Firdaus
- Tracer experiment in plug flow reactorUploaded byAfrillia Fahrina
- CSTRUploaded byVicky Durai
- Guide for understanding the hydrogenation of cyclohexeneUploaded byOscar Cruz Garduza
- Tower ReactorUploaded byLidya Kurniawan
- Process Dynamics & Control ReportUploaded byDonna Joy Mallari
- ExcellenceUploaded byValeriaFuster
- Problema 1 - ReaccionesUploaded byMagali Marisol Coronel Salvador
- Chemical Reaction Engineering_O. LevenspielUploaded byJack1123q
- solid catalyzed gas phase reactorselection-131017144425-phpapp02Uploaded byHarunAbdullah
- diseño reactores no isotermicosUploaded byCarlos Jaime Espinosa
- HW2_2009_solnsUploaded byMatthew Richardson
- Wo 2015024103 a 1Uploaded bygucci
- Catalyst Dynamics_consequences for Classical Kinetic Descriptions of ReactorsUploaded byzorro21072107
- bagian TKUploaded byaswad tanjung
- Heuristic sUploaded byNg Kee Nain
- n Octane DehydrocyclisationUploaded byראול אפונטה
- Pressure Drop in ReactorsUploaded byMahmed Ed
- yes no maybe idkUploaded byalejzamora9
- 3164.pdfUploaded bynoel
- Articulo Phenomena Transport.docUploaded bySergio Lesmes
- Acetone 3Uploaded byNuNu Taofik Nurdiansyach
- lec25_05162007_gUploaded byHafid Alwan
- cre-unit6Uploaded byweber
- 1-s2.0-S1877705813001318-main mac to tulUploaded byMujahid Al Hinai
- GATE_CH_2013Uploaded bymahesh
- FrontUploaded byAmeya10
- Bioreactor scale-up.pptUploaded byAndréia Anschau

- Butanol by Two Stage FermentationUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Chung-FO Technologies and Challenges for Clean Water and Clean Energy-COCHE 2012Uploaded byJiaqi Chua
- CN3135 0 ScopeUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Ternary PlotUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Reimbursement Template(01-10-2013).docUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- B1_lab_results[1].docxUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Reliability ProblemsUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- FaultTree NotesUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Update Bci Research for International Conference by ArafatUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Lesson Plan for PrintingUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- The Sealed Beam Headlight Case.pdfUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Chemical SafetyUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Separation and Identification of Two Organic CompoundsUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Rev on ProportionUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Rev on FractionsUploaded byJiaqi Chua
- Acids and Bases WorksheetUploaded byJiaqi Chua

- DRS08.pdfUploaded byJulii Trochez
- section on Hypersonic FlowUploaded byP K
- Application for Thapar UniversityUploaded byBaljeet Singh Sinwar
- nota matrikulasi tajuk 5 PDTUploaded byNur Hidayah
- IAL_AS_Physics_SN_6Uploaded byMohamed Al Sharkawy
- Maznev14_UmklappUploaded byvika1301
- 3a Load CombinationsUploaded byUzair Maqbool Khan
- helicopter experimentUploaded byapi-257031328
- TRISPIRAL XT39 (3) (1)Uploaded byCerón Niño Santiago
- Size ReductionUploaded byOsas E Egho
- B-Electrical Energy Audit.pptUploaded byNesarkiran Bagade
- eq100-allUploaded bydoube
- 2.Declaration, Contents, AbstractUploaded byNur Izzati
- LECTURE 06 - Latent Image FormationUploaded byPradeep
- Me 311 Machine Design Notes 06Uploaded byAdiKurdi
- A Review on CFD Analysis of Control ValvesUploaded byGRD Journals
- Muurroots-science (Updated Mar 2014)Uploaded byGuy G. Roumain El Bey
- Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier CoatingsUploaded byHarry Mole
- CHAPTER 1Uploaded byShoby Kesavan Pillai
- RS-USING NEWMARK`S LINEAR ACCELERATION METHODUploaded byluciandu
- ES 13 PROB SET 1Uploaded byJulian de Lara
- Mech Material 1 199 LogoUploaded bySuchitK
- superThevininMar96Uploaded byVIV0411
- Metal Cutting -Chapter 3Uploaded bygeturjob769
- Lec16_Sunway.pdfUploaded byShaun Stanley
- Series ParallelUploaded byCindy Java
- 10.4416_JCST2016-00012Uploaded byamd mhm
- ME202_L2Uploaded bySaurabh Sharma
- Systemics: an Introduction - by Umberta Telfener and Luca CasadioUploaded bychristopherkinman
- Classical Plate TheoryUploaded byAkshata Deshpande

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.