Int. I. Mech. Sci. Vol. 22, pp. 285-296 Pergamon Press Ltd., 1980.

Printedin Great Britain

ACOUSTIC EMISSION ORTHOGONAL METAL

DURING CUTTING

D. A. DORNFELDand E. KANNATEY-AsIBU
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A.

(Received 9 July 1979; in revised form 30 November 1979)
Summary--The theory of acoustic emission and the analysis of emission signals is reviewed as it applies to generation of acoustic emission in metal cutting. Based upon the mechanics of the orthogonal cutting operation a relationship is developed between the root mean square (RMS) voltage of the acoustic emission and fundamental cutting parameters. The validity of this relationship is evaluated by a series of tests varying cutting speed, feed and rake angle for orthogonal machining. Strong dependence of the RMS voltage of the emission on both strain rate and cutting velocity was observed. The sources of acoustic emission in metal cutting are discussed and areas of additional work in the study of acoustic emission from metal cutting are identified. NOTATION b magnitude of burgers vector Ci, C2 constants E energy of acoustic emission rate of energy generation f feed k maximum shear stress, rmax I average distance between dislocations rc chip thickness ratio As shear plane deformation average dislocation velocity t time T~ uncut chip thickness T2 chip thickness U volume of participating material 1. INTRODUCTION

Acoustic emission analysis has steadily grown as a sophisticated non-destructive testing technique over the past 25 yr. It has been applied to a variety of situations including weld flaw detection, fracture and crack propagation in pressure vessels and mechanical equipment and material property evaluation during tensile testing. A recent application of acoustic emission to the monitoring of manufacturing operations is the work of Iwata and Moriwaki[1]. Their work relates acoustic emission signal characteristics to tool flank wear during metal cutting. Acoustic emission analysis is ideally suited for applications in which process changes such as tool wear must be detected because the emissions from the operation can be directly related to the mechanics of the process. Thus, the potential for increased use of acoustic emission for monitoring of manufacturing processes such as punching and forming, drawing, extrusion, welding and metal cutting is great. To be able to apply acoustic emission analysis to any one of these processes requires that the relationship between the mechanics of the process and the acoustic emission generated be understood. The objectives of this paper are threefold; (1) to review the theory of acoustic emission as it applies to metal cutting, (2) to propose a relationship between the RMS voltage level of the acoustic emission signal and basic metal cutting parameters, and (3) to evaluate this relationship by experimental investigation. A review of the theory of acoustic emission and the analysis of acoustic emission signals is presented in Section 2. A relationship between acoustic emission signal characteristics and metal cutting parameters is developed in Section 3, and Section 4 discusses the experimental procedure used and presents the data from those experiments. Analysis of the data and conclusions are presented in Sections 5 and 6, respectively.
MS Vol. 22, No. 5--B 285

dependent on basic deformation mechanisms. the rate of energy dissipation is given by. As the stress increases. somewhat erratic.i. acoustic emission can be strongly related to the grain size. the major part appearing as thermal energy. steady. The signals observed at the beginning are emitted from local volumes where plastic processes are occurring. the average dislocation velocity lOxiO 3ACOUSTIC EMISSION 8 ~7 56 ~s ~4 )- ~2 c) ~.286 D. In the general case. g. and (b) the lower amplitude. being normally observed during tests of tensile specimens.08 0. realignment or growth of magnetic domains. fracture. Thus. This thermal energy can be considered as a potential power source for acoustic emissions since it is the cumulative effect of a large number of phonons of dislocations generated as they pass through the crystal lattice [4].'. The energy contained in an acoustic emission and the rate at which it is dissipated are strongly dependent on the rate of deformation (strain rate). . (2) Acoustic emission from dislocation generation is easily seen in Fig. 1 I 0. Acoustic emission and stress as a function of strain f o r a mild steel tensile specimen [5]. KANNATEY-ASIBU 2. the signal characteristics are such that the average time between emissions of similar amplitude is less than or comparable to the duration of the emission[3]. or both [2]. Neither a comprehensive explanation of the sources of acoustic emission nor a complete analytical description of the stress waves generated by an emission source have been presented to date. The phonon can be looked upon as the elastic strain that is suddenly released to produce a vibrational wave in the lattice as a dislocation moves from one minimum energy position to another. transform mechanical excitations into electrical signals which are then amplified and transmitted to an oscilloscope. or spectrum analyzer. Dislocation motion is the major mechanism of plastic deformation in most crystalline materials and it depends on the microstructure of a material. low-frequency type called the burst emission which is generally associated with surface events. RMS (root mean square) voltmeter. The irreversibility of the acoustic emission process supports the contention that plastic processes are involved. such as slip line formation and surface microcracks. (I) Over the entire volume.A. the work of plastic deformation is normally made up of two parts: (a) an elastic part that is partially or fully recoverable on unloading. For example. the rate of energy dissipation and consequently the emission rate are very small. This follows from the understanding that in crystalline materials.04 STRAIN. d W = o'ii d~ 0 d U . then. Thus. for an element of volume d U subject to stresses ~i which cause plastic strain increments de.10 0. 1. 1. The emission signal is usually detected by an instrumentation system using sensors (transducers) which. ACOUSTIC EMISSION THEORY AND DATA ANALYSIS Acoustic emission can be defined as the transient elastic energy spontaneously released in materials undergoing deformation. Thus. when stimulated by stress waves. and high-frequency type called the continuous emission that is generally associated with internal mechanism activity. in which most of the deformation processes are mainly a result of dislocation motion. FIG. (ram/ram) 0. the applied stress. depending on the type of analysis required. As will be seen. its generation cannot be attributed solely to the above mentioned mechanisms. the energy increment per unit volume of plastic deformation (dW) is given by. dislocation density and distribution of second phase particles in materials. Other proposed sources of acoustic emission in metals include fracture and decohesion of inclusions.~" L-! ~. That is. However. and phase transformations. illustrating the AE activity during the testing of a low carbon steel tensile specimen[5]. recorder. '. a process can be monitored using acoustic emission if it can be directly related to one or more of the above parameters. The most commonly used transducer type is a piezoelectric ceramic element. lead zirconate titanate. Acoustic emission in metal cutting is considered to be continuous. There are two distinctive types of acoustic emissions: (a) the high amplitude.12 in/in. therefore. since it is also observed during deformation of noncrystalline materials. such as dislocation motion. twinning. and vacancy coalescence. grain boundary sliding. counter.02 0.06 0. At the beginning of the test (in the elastic region) most dislocations are either dormant or move with very little velocity. DORNFELD and E. and (b) the plastic work of deformation for which a small portion is associated with an increase in the number of dislocations. It is. the initial output voltage of a transducer is proportional to the square root of the energy released during a given deformation process. = fu d U. Changes in the process parameters can then be correlated with changes in the emission observed. changes in the RMS voltage level and its characteristics of an observed signal can be related to the strain rate and volume. and the volume of the participating material.

One of the primary methods for quantitatively presenting acoustic emission data is by measuring the energy of the AE signal. shear angle Vw.rc sin a (4) PRI SHEARzONE MARY ~ ~ ~ T /SECONDARY SHEAR ZONE TOOL Vw --- ~ WORKPIECEa. E. The location of this shearing action is defined as a straight line in Fig. contains many frequencies and cannot be described by an explicit mathematical relationship [6]. 2. 2) before losing contact with the tool face. After separation from the work piece. the energy. chip thickness FIG. a uniform stress distribution can be assumed in any section taken through the chip perpendicular to the cutting edge of the tool. . Among these are. 2. Then the majority of the dormant dislocations suddenly begin to move. ACOUSTIC EMISSION AND METAL CUTTING The basic cutting process can be represented schematically as shown in Fig. (b) the disappearance of the extreme sensitivity of the count rate technique to small changes in the threshold level. (c) the reduced sensitivity of the RMS values to small changes in the system electronic gain or in the transducer coupling efficiency. shear velocity TI . caused by the motion of the tool parallel to the surface of the work piece. to the surface of the work. Knowing the chip thickness ratio. causing a much lower emission activity. when AE is the energy expenditure during the interval At. the shear angle. contained in the emission can be derived. 2. The energy of the emission signal can be expressed as AE ac (RMS)2At. the chip slides over the rake face of the cutting tool and may experience some additional deformation (referred to as secondary deformation. assumed a plane. (a) the smoothing of the acoustic emission data which facilitates the modeling of the data with analytical functions. The RMS voltage of a continuous AE signal can be used to make this energy measurement. then. neglecting end conditions. and the flank surface of the tool is perpendicular to the direction of tool motion. and (d) the possible ease of relating the RMS acoustic emission data to the energy contained in the signal. cutting velocity Vc. rc = T~]T2. This method of monitoring the AE signal is known to have several advantages over the traditional count and count rate techniques[7]. the shear angle 4) can be calculated by geometry as (3) (k = tan -~ rc cos l . The length of this line multiplied by the depth of the cut (or width of the tool where the tool is totally engaged) determines the shear area at an angle 4). An emission signal is nonperiodic. see Fig. Here it is assumed that a continuous chip without a built-up edge is formed principally by a shear deformation (referred to as primary deformation). an increase in the dislocation density follows. clearance angle (k. The cutting process is termed orthogonal when the tip of the tool formed by the intersection of the rake surface. and the process can be analyzed as one of plane strain.Acoustic emission during orthogonal metal cutting 287 increases as does the emission rate until yielding occurs. From the definition of the RMS voltage level of the emission. 3. chip velocity Vs. Schematic of orthogonal cutting. rake angle 8. With strain hardening. uncut chip thickness T2. If the width of the chip is large compared to the thickness of the chip. It is this sudden mass mobilization involving the tearing off of pinned dislocations that causes the sudden jump in emission activity at yield. extending from the point of intersection of the chip with the uncut surface to the tip of the tool and separating the uncut material in the work piece from the cut material in the chip. The greatest problem encountered in the application of acoustic emission is the analysis or interpretation of the emission signals obtained due to the randomness of the acoustic emission process. this results in a reduction in average dislocation motion.

It is then possible to relate these basic cutting parameters directly to the emission signal characteristics. ~ (5) where Ay is the spacing of successive shear planes. Vw. which. is taken generally as 10-3 > Ay > 10-4 in (0. is As 1 V~. From (9) it is seen that the strain rate is a function of cutting speed. V. as. the shear strain rate during cutting. 3 [8]. The straight line representation of the shear plane in two dimensions is imposed by continuity requirements for the motion of a particle of material passing from the uncut work piece material through the shear zone and exiting as part of the chip/9]. Taking into consideration the time AT for the metal to move a distance As along the shear plane. 3. degrees. inches/revolution (mm/rev) and (d) cutting velocity. Further. The shear strain can be represented as a function of the average distance between dislocations. / / :y TOOL ~b.a) Ay (8) where Ay.288 D. The shear strain in cutting. and Vw is the cutting speed. degrees. a. is a line in two dimensions coincident with the slip line. applied stress. The shear strain specified by (5) is a finite quantity and a measure of the large plastic shear deformation occurring in the shear zone[10].A. these are in turn a function of the following basic cutting parameters in orthogonal machining. feet/minute (m/s). y. 3. Continuing. I. the shear plane spacing. If the shear mechanism along the shear plane is assumed to act as illustrated in Fig. strain rate can be represented as r~ c o s ot Vw sin d~ Ay knowing that r~ sin 4~ cos (d~ . = bpl (10) . 8. the rate of dislocation generation is a function of the strain rate and the instantaneous dislocation density. in the primary deformation zone can then be defined as (refer to Fig.025 > Ay > 0. as shown in Fig. (b) clearance angle. i.a ) Vw (7) COS a Vw ~/ cos (~ . and volume of participating material. where a is the tool rake angle. Determination of shear strain in orthogonal cutting.-c~j+cos~o'l. then the shear stress is maximum at the shear plane. similar to a sliding deck of cards.. ~. Ay At where the shear velocity along the shear plane. f. IS#E~#TTSI~q~AIN ~y &$ B~ c o SHEAR STRAIN ~N D A GENERAL FIG. y. (a) rake angle. KANNATEY-ASIBU i / v---.a)" (9) The parameters upon which the acoustic emission from metal cutting is dependent are strain rate.e. is c o s ot Ay (6) Vs and from (6) and (7) c o s ( d ~ . DORNFELD and E. (c) feed. 3).0025 mm) for carbon steel. As Ay A D DB' CD ~--~--~-=tan~.

~- (12) Here the effects of fixed dislocations and loss of dislocation mobility through interaction are not accounted for. Fig. b and the average dislocation velocity[12]. zs. -dT = J u (15) Then. Thus. Slip-line field configuration with no built up edge. The slipline field theory is based on plain strain conditions which hold true for this case. must include material undergoing deformation in both the primary and secondary shear zones. in3(mm3). the energy in the signal over the entire volume of material can be related to material deformation characteristics by equating (3) to (2) and replacing the stress tr by the shear stress.~ ~ .. and the energy rate due to the dislocation generation as E'= T..-~ ~ . Since for most materials the elastic yield point strain is of the order 10 3. Here deformation occurs instantaneously across the shear plane AC. or I = p . 4. strains of an order of magnitude as high as 1 occur. (14) where zs is the shear stress in the primary deformation zone. 4. equation (12) estimates the rate of dislocation generation for a uniform array of mobile dislocations and this rate of generation (and therefore the level of acoustic emission activity) is proportional to the externally influenced strain rate in metal cutting.~. Thus. . The volume of participating material. U (16) where U = volume of participating material.o. This assumes that the material behaves as an ideal plastic (rigid-perfectly plastic) but does not account for the work-hardening that occurs during machining. = ~t = bl -~tt + bP -di dl Since dislocation density is defined on a per unit area basis.Acoustic emission during orthogonal metal cutting 289 where O = dislocation density. yielding (RMS) 2 0c d E I| r~%. A suitable approximation for U is the volume of the slipline field for orthogonal cutting without built up edge of Lee and Shaffer [13]. t~. p = (i/12). number of mobile dislocations in a unit area of the material section. ~. where AC represents a direction of maximum shear stress in the material being cut when the constant maximum shear stress ~'m~ = k is exceeded. as ~'a~ bpS = (13) where S = average dislocation velocity. . and the strain rate ~ by the average shear strain rate. that is. being an ideal plastic in the region ABC after the instantaneous shearing along AC and subjected to a uniform state of stress. for material shear strength k = ~'s and strain rate ~/(15) becomes (RMS) 2 = CtkS. Under normal machining conditions. Then the strain rate -~ is [11] ~.. U.2 (11) "~=~bp . this can be neglected when analyzing large plastic deformation and the material can be treated as a rigid plastic. The average strain rate in metal cutting can also be represented as a function of p. and b = magnitude of the burgers vector.~ / Tool i WORKPIECE c FIG. . The material is considered rigid to the left of the shear plane AC and in the chip beyond AB./2_~ or the rate of dislocation generation. ... is dp = ~_ pl/2. d U.-. Such an assumption is reasonable in metal cutting.

a). 11 as a function of feed at different cutting speeds. ~ A / ) \ Flank Face B FIG. . The actual shear zone thickness. orthogonal cutting tests were conducted with low carbon steel under stable cutting conditions without lubricant. The square of the RMS voltage of the acoustic emission generated during cutting under the conditions listed in Table I are shown in Fig. 5. The tool is constructed of a conventional HSS orthogonal cutting tool to which a cube of similar material has been silver brazed.018--0. 5. is the shear zone thickness measured in a plane perpendicular to the cutting edge and in the direction parallel to the tool rake face. The acoustic emission signal from the transducer was recorded on a videotape recorder for further analysis.0039 in.. This provides a large enough surface for the mounting of the acoustic emission transducer using a locating frame and a rubber band to prevent movement of the transducer.007 in. position A was used. The combination of the couplant. For the tests described here. Fig. cos (~b . The frequency response of the transducer was 200-300 kHz which was found to be suitable for the experiments.290 D. Fig. 4. in addition to the cutting speed and shear and rake angles. Ay. and Fig. V. Cutting tool with possible transducer locations. A typical acoustic emission signal during metal cutting of the 1015 material is shown in Fig.. Preliminary tests indicated that there is no significant variation in the acoustic emission RMS voltage from any of the transducer locations under similar cutting conditions.. Rex 95 high speed steel (HSS) cutting tools and SAE 1015 steel tubing as the work piece.d to the transducer. respectively. based on (9). The acoustic emission signal was detected via a transducer mounted on a specially adapted cutting tool. Tool rake angles of 0 and 20 with 3° clearance angles were used. B. Data for both 0 and 20° rake angle tools is included.0108ipr (0. 9 as a function of calculated strain rate. the shear zone thickness was approximated based on the data of Kececioglu[14] who observed a range of the average shear zone thickness of 0. (ipr)-0. the tool is designed to allow location of the transducer at any one of three positions. The strain rate is dependent upon Ay.~ -~yU ) . or C. Schematic of transducer mounting and locating technique. the mid range of shear zone thickness observed by Kececioglu was used for strain rate calculations.0007-0. cutting tests were performed over a range of cutting speeds and feeds of 33 ft/min (fpm)-239fpm (0-168m/s-l. 6. Although not necessarily obvious from the photograph. For the purposes of this calculation. A highly viscous resin couplant is used to promote efficient transmission of the acoustic emission sign'. KANNATEY-ASIBU FI ' I # ~ /EpoxyWear Plate Transducer-~_ J ELi ~ t .00257in. A. the shear zone thickness./rev. locating frame and rubber band insure that the transducer is adequately affixed to the tool.2743mm/rev). (RMS)2 = C1k rc c-~°sa Vw U sm ~ Ay or (17) / rcCOSa V. Here Ay. Using a twocomponent cutting force dynamometer. Table 1 lists the machining conditions for the 0 and 20° rake angle tools along with calculated values of strain rate. 8.A. As seen in Fig. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF METAL CUTTING ACOUSTIC EMISSION To evaluate the dependence of acoustic emission on metal cutting conditions. "~.~ ~ B o t t o r n Locating Frame Cutting TooI~ ~ J ~ Top LocatingFrame ( ~Rubber Bond Hold Down FIG. (0-099 mm). RakeFace . 7. j. the acoustic emission is continuous. XJ/2 R M S = C z ~ k s i .18 ram) for dry machining of SAE 1015 seamless tubing. 6. (0.0653mm/rev-0. A schematic of the test equipment is shown in Fig. is A y = Ay. 5. DORNFELD and E. A value of Ay. Fig. = 0. A comprehensive expression relating the RMS value of the acoustic emission signal to process and material parameters can be written from (9) and (16) as..214m/s) and 0. 10 as a function of cutting speed. due to the lack of resolution. ~ .

I. . .508) 150 (. .~ (103/sec) FIG.I i. ['re Amo"*'e* I + Monitoring ~ Osc Iloscope I Recorder I I Am°'''+er I + Threshold Level ~ + II ~n.270) Vw .er + r Chort Recorder ~ J I i Bond Poss Filte I RMS [ Vottmeter IJ FIG. I 0 50 (254) I00 (. 7. (RMS)2 vs cutting speed. • i. Component :22Z '+. 9.~4~I i. 8 +i 'o x • • 0° RAKE 20 = RAKE i . Schematic of test equipment. + J. i I FI .762) 200 (I. 8I 7 _o 5 o • 0° RAKE 0 20° RAKE -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0 al i2 13 STRAIN RATE.016) 250 0. t i I.Acoustic emission during orthogonal metal cutting Work -- ~ /Tool/Cultln9 Force Two. (RMS) 2 vs "~. 10.fpm (m/s) Fro.

00343 (.00381 (.0 25.0978) .0978) .0077 (. 1909.382 .451 .396 .00382 (. deg 24.453 .2743) . 5981.2 AX.4 25. A .0968) .325) 64 (.00257 (.476 . ipr (mm/rev) .475 .214) 64 (.0 21.00383 (.0871) .1567) .0970) .4 19. I1863.1567) .00381 (.00382 (.0653) .00370 (. 3115.00351 (.359 .00383 (.4 13.325) 33 (. DORNFELD and E.451 26.00359 (.0912) .442 16.00257 (.00364 (. 12658.610) 41 (.0953) .0653) .0653) .752) 95 (.325) 38 (.1567) .332 .342 . I1934.00617 (. 3537.0940) .00474 (. deg.00617 (.5 . in (mm) .0973) .00617 (.9 20.00375 (. 1981.00257 (.292 D .168) 148 (. 3741.325} 64 (.0892) .113 21. 2004.00257 (.00385 (.00382 (.0108 (.208) 64 (.610) 239 (1. fpm (m/s) 64 (.0 28.0108 (.1 26.0108 (.0970) .325) XEE XFF XGG XHH XII XJJ XKK . TEST CONDITIONS Test A2 B2 Tool Rake Angle.483) 239 (1.0 7.1204) .00343 (. 3140.5 21.342 .00617 (.1567) .123 .325) 120 (.1 18. 3793.00343 (.0653) .00257 (.0973) .00257 (.610) XCC XDD 120 (. C2 E2 F2 H2 L2 M2 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 20 20 20 20 2O 20 2O 2O 2O 20 2O .193) 239 (1.00617 (. KANNATEY-ASIBU TABLE I. 5353.214) 64 (.1567) .2743) .435 25.286 .1956) .6 26.6 22.208) 41 (.2743) .0871) .325) Feed.1 XAA XBB 239 (1.00385 (. 7861.0653) .214) 64 (.0925) .0973) .214) 120 (.0108 (.0973) . 3135.00385 (.234 ¢.00382 (.0978) .0909) .6 XLL .00383 (.433 . 5857.7 (.404 . 5955.00385 (.0653) .00383 l/sec 3997. 1966.0970) .0970) .2743) rc . I1686. 0 0 Cutting Speed.0968) .0871) .385 .00358 (.6 6.1 28.0978) .

8. . Typical acoustic emission signal during metal cutting.Acoustic emission during orthogonal metal cutting 293 FIG.

.

friction on the flank face.254) FIG. ANALYSIS OF DATA It is evident from the data presented in Section 4 that metal cutting is a good source of acoustic emission. yield a higher strain rate than that calculated based on a constant Ay. a and b. (b) chip motion. (d) impact of broken chips on tool or work piece or entanglement of continuous chips with the tool or work piece. Several areas for additional work with respect to acoustic emission generated . ipr (ram/r) . the strongest dependency is expected to occur between the acoustic emission energy and the metal strain rate and participating volume combined. the RMS level of the acoustic emission signals generated reflects the shear zone deformation and chip-tool rubbing/sticking during metal cutting for the tests conducted. This is evident in Fig. The acoustic emission due to tool-work piece friction on the flank surface. (c) chip breaking or fracture.22) 20 ° RAKE fpm (m/s) • 64(. but do not incorporate the true variation of Ay with cutting conditions. The thickness. Since the increased tool-chip rubbing evidenced by increased contact length generates additional acoustic emission.005 (.127) FEED. This dependency has been demonstrated in uniaxial tension tests in which both strain rate and participating volumes are known but is impossible to verify here for metal cutting. along the tool rake face. In addition. however. The effect of feed on acoustic emission activity is shown in Fig. was minimized by the use of sharp tools and adequate flank clearance during the tests.J15]).010 (. constitute the major sources of acoustic emission during cutting. the first two sources. Since the strain rate is influenced by the cutting speed. From Kececioglu's observations[14] an increase in strain-rate of at least 50% for a 0.33) 240(1.102 mm/rev) decrease in feed is expected. The effect of tool rake angle is again masked by the changes in shear zone thickness and chip-tool interaction. (RMS) 2 vs feed. During the experimental investigation the effect of chip breaking and entanglement was insignificant in comparison to the overall emission RMS voltage or nonexistent. the values of Ay listed in Table 1 are used to approximate the strain rate. In the absence of exact measurements of Ay for the cutting conditions used.004ipr (0.61) • 240(I 22) ro i 0 5 4 x rr 3 [] [] I I I I I I I I I I I . for an increase in feed. As evident in Fig. the effect of tool rake angle is also masked by the contribution of acoustic emission from chip-tool friction to the total acoustic emission signal as previously discussed. 11. it is possible that the presence of a built up edge at lower speeds contributes to additional acoustic emission activity at higher feed rates. The effect of the tool rake angle on the acoustic emission is not seen for primarily two reasons. The data in Fig. a strong dependence of the RMS voltage on speed is expected. sliding and sticking. 9 substantiate the proportional relationship between calculated strain rate and the square of the RMS voltage of the acoustic emission signal as proposed in (17).Acoustic emission during orthogonal metal cutting 8 7 0 O'RAKE fpm (m/s) 295 • 0 • 64 (.5 m/s) increase in cutting velocity. 10. 11. Second. Observations of Kececioglu[14] indicate that the shear zone thickness should decrease approximately 7% for a 5° increase in rake angle and 11% for a 100 fpm (30. Thus. whereas a slight decrease in the RMS level with feed is seen at higher speeds. Considering the stress and strain-rates involved. for example. Decreasing feed also caused a decrease in shear zone thickness as well. the length of the tool-chip contact also increases (see. First. a decrease in the RMS voltage of the acoustic emission should occur with increasing feed at constant velocity. thus. A close investigation of the tool-chip-work piece interaction during machining reveals that acoustic emission can originate from five different sources. the accuracy with which the thickness of the shear zone is approximated in the strain rate calculation is poor. Ay. This can be explained in part by the observation that at constant rake angle and cutting speed. (a) material deformation in the shear zone during chip formation. the effect of increases in the shear zone at higher feeds is nullified. The contribution of emission from sources c and d is relatively minor. 11 for several cutting speeds. Since acoustic emission activity is related to dislocation movement and the volume of material in which this movement occurs. and (e) tool-work rubbing.33) [ ] 120(. Thus. this does not occur for all cutting speeds and RMS voltage is essentially constant with respect to feed at the lowest velocity. e. 5. will decrease at higher rake angles and cutting velocities and.

Metal Cutting Principles. 201. Engng Indust. U. 12. 15. C. REFERENCES I. 1 (1977). . 79-86 (1960). L.The mechanics of the simple shearing process during orthogonal machining. Report no.JR. American Society for Testing and Materials (1972). Factors affecting acoustic emission response from materials. A. K. American Society for Testing and Materials (1972). New York (1964).S. 3. Acoustic Emission. W. H. Ay. Wiley. T.D. ASTM STP 505. 132 (1957). Acoustic Emission.Mechanics of Plastic Deformation in Metal Processing. 11. 82. as well as effects due to a built-up edge must be included. 2. In addition. Ann. ASME 73. p. to allow calculation of realistic strain rates. 152-163. CIRP 26. C. IWATA and T. M. GILLIS. Trans. SPANNER. New York (1967). COTrRELL. (a) accurate measurement of shear zone thickness. B. compressive stress and shear strain in metal cutting and their effects on mean shear flow stress. E. J. strain hardening will reduce the level of acoustic emission activity during cutting.. p. THOMSEN. For more accurate estimation of acoustic emission activity. American Society for Testing and Materials (1972). THOMSEN. A. MIT Press. J. S. Mech. 8th LM. In actuality. JORDANand E. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. 7. UCRL-76286 (1974). HAMSTAD. and (c) isolation of the contributions to the acoustic emission signal from deformation in the primary and secondary zones. SCHAFFER. P.T. LEE. 6. 10. K. deformation in these other zones. the present model assumes no strain hardening occurs during cutting. Conf. p. 534. T. U. DORNFELDand E. LONG. YANG.Dislocation theory of shear stress and strain rate in metal cutting.(1967). 79. 6. GREEN.On energy measurement of continuous acoustic emission. ASME AMD29 (1978). DUNEGANand A. Macmillan. H. 269. A r e a s of a d d i t i o n a l w o r k n e c e s s a r y to fully u n d e r s t a n d the g e n e r a t i o n of a c o u s t i c e m i s s i o n in m e t a l c u t t i n g w e r e identified. KOBAYASHI and C. M. H.A. E. F. The "sliding cards" representation of shear zone deformation for strain rate calculation neglects deformation in other zones during cutting.An application of acoustic emission measurement to in-process sensing of tool wear. G. J. B. The Mechanical Properties of Matter. ASTM STP 505. W. 20-29. Carol Chiang for typing the manuscript. Elastic Waves and Non-Destructive Testing of Materials. of Mechanical Engineering. YON TURKOVICH. 331 (1955). D. 451. CONCLUSIONS T h e g e n e r a t i o n of a c o u s t i c e m i s s i o n d u r i n g m e t a l c u t t i n g b a s e d u p o n the m e c h a n i c s of the c u t t i n g p r o c e s s has b e e n a n a l y z e d a n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o p o s e d c o r r e l a t i n g the e n e r g y of the a c o u s t i c e m i s s i o n signal as m e a s u r e d b y the R M S voltage of the signal with m a c h i n i n g p a r a m e t e r s . 5.Shear zone size. App. of Michigan (1974). 77.Some studies of angle relationships in metal cutting. G. 8.R. pp. KANNATEY-ASIBU in metal cutting that would aid in the verification of this dependency can be identified based upon this investigation. A c o u s t i c e m i s s i o n d a t a r e c o r d e d d u r i n g o r t h o g o n a i c u t t i n g tests h a v e verified the d e p e n d e n c y of e m i s s i o n e n e r g y o n the c u t t i n g speed a n d strain rate.R. ONO. Dept. Acoustic Emission Working Group Subcommittee Report. p. Acoustic Emission. SHAW. CREVLING. ASME Trans. 405 (1951).Dislocation motions and acoustic emissions. Trans. The present model (17) will underestimate the level of acoustic emission activity by exclusion of these contributions. 3. 4. R. Trans. Univ. MORlWAKI. Application of correlation analysis to acoustic emission. ASME.296 D. Frederick). (Chairman: J. STERNand M.Acoustic emission-applications and trends. Acknowledgements--The authors wish to thank Mrs.The theory of plasticity applied to a problem of machining. pp. Cambridge (1956). 14. respectively. ASTM STP 505. B.T. 9. (b) estimation of the volume of participating material. SHAFFER. P. 3rd Edn. 13. H. KECECIOGLU. ASME. F. Proc.

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