How to develop sustainable Business Development Services (BDS) without Radicalism?

Revising the inefficient fundamentalist full commercial BDS Approach of the International Donor Committee

Heidelberg, Germany June 2006 Dieter GAGEL Freelance consultant mail@gagel.net

Table of Contents
Introduction ..............................................................................................................................1 1. Traditional and revised BDS approach ........................................................................2 BDS definition.........................................................................................................2 Traditional BDS approach of the Committee of Donor Agencies for Small Enterprise Development...........................................................................3 o Business Development Services and BDS actors...........................................3 o BDS market assessment and market development ........................................3 o Limitations of the full-commercial approach....................................................4 o Voucher schemes - market simulation instead of stimulation ..........................4 Revised BDS approach ..........................................................................................8 o Our “ BDS Mix”including commercial business consultants as well as NGOs and public BDS providers................................................................8 o Table: Why micro and small enterprise owners are not willing to pay for BDS services?...........................................................................................8 o Table: Why most of the commercial BDS services to micro and small enterprises are SUPPLY-driven and not demand-driven?...............................9 o Support of self-help organization or full-commercial BDS? .............................9 o The Nucleus approach. Bringing together BDS and self-help............10 o What is sustainable: Monopoly of the one segment of commercial BDS providers or BDS-Coexistence of public, private and commercial providers?10 2. 3. How to put BDS into practice? The six-month BDS cycle approach. ......................11 Situation analysis and action planning with start-ups and business associations 14 Example of BDS with start-ups in Tunisia (appendix 3) Example of BDS with business associations in Mali (appendix 4) Selected BDS success stories ...................................................................................15 Fields of intervention of BDS facilitators ...................................................................16 BDS in industrial clusters (appendix 5) BDS support for self-employment of TVET graduates (appendix 6) BDS and organizational development of Chambers of Commerce and business associations (appendix 7) ............................................................................................................................17

4. 5.

References

Appendices ............................................................................................................................18 1. Powerpoint presentation on BDS implementation ..........................................................19 2. BDS approach with situation analysis overview and action plan – Ethiopian example ...22 3. Situation analysis and action planning with start-ups – example of Tunisia....................29 4. Situation analysis and action planning with business associations – example of Mali....30 5. Powerpoint on BDS in industrial clusters .......................................................................32 6. Powerpoint on support for self-employment of TVET graduates ....................................34 7. BDS of the Bahir Dar chamber of Commerce, Ethiopia..................................................36 8. Internet based BDS portals and learning platforms........................................................37 9. Impact and sustainability of ICT based BDS portals ......................................................38 10. Table of contents of BDS-Reader (CD-ROM) for participants ........................................39 11. Lessons learnt on BDS, BDS Portals and Business Information Services......................40

Introduction
In the last ten years with the upcoming full-commercial BDS approach of the International Donor Committee (micro and small entrepreneurs have to pay the full costs of the services provided) we have seen so many projects with problems in BDS implementation spending tax payers’money for capacity building of so-called BDS providers and awareness creation of entrepreneurs. Private Sector Development (PSD) related projects based on the full commercial BDS approach often spend most of their time to build the capacity of BDS providers and create awareness of BDS providers’ offer on enterprises level instead of help to implement concrete BDS services to a wide range of enterprises. Thus, even after a time period of two or four years they often cannot present any impact on enterprises level because commercial BDS providers could not sell the training products forced by donor related projects. At the end of the day you will not be evaluated on how many BDS providers are in the market, but on the impact on the final beneficiaries: How many businesses have been supported how is the impact in terms of o increased turnover, o revenue, and o employment. In contrast to the initial rigid "full-commercial BDS approach" of 1998/2002 focussing exclusively on commercial BDS providers and considered as a binding law by many donor agencies, you will find our new revised 2003-2006 experience of mixed private sector development interventions including commercial BDS providers as well as self-help business associations and chambers of commerce, NGOs and public support institutions. We do not need any monopoly in private sector development strategies but diversity and competition of different approaches!

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1.
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Traditional and revised BDS Approach
Definition of BDS

Business Development Services (BDS) comprise a wide range of non-financial services provided by public and private suppliers (BDS providers) to entrepreneurs who use them to efficiently operate and make their businesses grow. The types of services in a functioning BDS system are determined by the demand articulated on the part of the businesses. Some examples of BDS include: Market access services: Market information; market linkages; trade fairs and product exhibitions; development of samples for buyers; subcontracting and outsourcing; marketing trips and meetings; market research; market space development; showrooms; packaging; advertising. Input supply services: Linking SMEs to input suppliers; improving suppliers’ capacity to provide a regular supply of quality inputs; facilitating the establishment of bulk buying groups; information on input supply sources. Technology and product development services: Technology transfer/commercialisation; linking SMEs and technology suppliers; facilitating technology procurement; quality assurance programmes; equipment leasing and rental; design services. Training and technical assistance: Mentoring; feasibility studies and business plans; exchange visits and business tours; franchising; management training; technical training; counselling/advisory services; legal services; financial and taxation advice; accountancy and bookkeeping. Infrastructure-related and information services: Storage and warehousing; transport and delivery; business incubators; telecommunications; courier services; money transfer; information via print, radio, TV; internet access; computer services; secretarial services. Policy and advocacy: Training in policy advocacy; analysis and communication of policy constraints and opportunities; direct advocacy on behalf of SMEs (e.g. taxation problems and premises); sponsorship of conferences; policy studies. Access to finance BDS providers do not provide direct financial support, but link businesses to banks and micro-finance institutions; provide information on credit schemes and conditions; encourage savings; assist in business planning for loan applications.

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Donors who provide funding for BDS projects and programs. Other BDS market facilitation functions include the external evaluation of the impact of BDS providers. BDS facilitation is a function normally carried out by development-oriented institutions having the objective of BDS market development. and its ability to compete. the demand side of the market. for example by educating SEs about the potential benefits of services or providing incentives to try them. its access to markets. set up facilities. industry associations. etc. In some cases.and long-term issues in order to improve the performance of the enterprise. which may include NGOs. marketing assistance. are SME informed on the BDS offers? BDS Market Development with supply-side and demand-side interventions “ The BDS market development paradigm is driven by the belief that the objectives of outreach and sustainability can only be achieved in well-developed markets for BDS. and advocacy for a better policy environment for the local BDS market. Washington 2002 Business Development Services for Small Enterprises . BDS facilitators support BDS providers. For example. management of accounts and tax records. A distinction is sometimes made between “ operational”and “ strategic”business services. and compliance with labor laws and other regulations. BDS facilitators can also work on the demand side. They may be individuals. Operational services are those needed for day-to-day operations. on the other hand.B. as well as public goods such as basic infrastructure. and others. parastatals. They may be small enterprises themselves. promoting good practice. strategic services can help the enterprise to identify and service markets. legal and regulatory environment for SEs and BDS providers. NGOs.bds-forum. are used by the enterprise to address medium.htm ).” “ The actors involved in BDS markets include: Small enterprises (SEs). and business linkage promotion.” BDS Market Assessment Supply-side analysis: Identify existing or potential BDS providers to work with. national or sub-national government agencies. Strategic services. the principal role of governments is to provide an enabling policy. such as information and communications. technology development and transfer. like donors. industry associations. The full commercial BDS Approach of the International Donor Committee Publication: Committee of Donor Agencies for Small Enterprise Development. quality assurance. BDS providers provide services directly to SEs. “ Business Development Services include training. private forprofit firms. and seek financing.Guidelines for Donor Intervention (BDS Bluebook) (see on www. education and information services. and measure progress in expanding the demand and supply of services and the range of products available. Beyond BDS interventions. the facilitator is the project office of a donor. capacity and willingness to pay. information. design products. are micro enterprises and SMEs that are mostly profit-oriented and are the actual or potential clients of BDS providers. Governments who. for example by developing new service products.net/bds-reader. and not by direct 3 . Demand-side analysis: Needs assessment of small enterprises. may provide funding for BDS projects and programs. consultancy and advisory services. and building provider capacity.

Voucher schemes . "The important aspect of the revised BDS paradigm of the 2000s is that though the services are still essentially market led.those businesses that can afford to pay for the services. inform on existing BDS offer.vouchers). which operate at such a high level of efficiency that they do not require subsidy and thus utilize the wide range of services offered by private companies. Demand-side interventions: Raise awareness of the potential benefits of BDS. make preliminary diagnostic by BDS facilitators in order to identify and show needs for advice.market simulation instead of stimulation The Donor Committee outlined the instrument of vouchers as one tool for market stimulation. enterprises would use paid services even after the voucher scheme is phased out. Experience in countries all over the world – in industrialized countries of the North as well – show. Therefore micro and small enterprises have usually not benefited from such business-like BDS services to date. look for new market segments. advertising. In this case it is not clear that: the expected increased demand after the voucher intervention is due to the voucher or may be raised by a general trend of a strengthened BDS provider offer on the supplyside.. 2004) As larger enterprises are seen as being capable and having the resources to seek out and pay for such services." (unpublished winning offer of GTZ for a World Bank BDS bid for East Timor. i. p. that only large enterprises hire BDS providers on their own initiative and pay fully for the services. Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) have no tradition in asking unknown persons for advice.g. the business consultants have usually targeted medium-scale and the upper range of small businesses .” Supply-side interventions: Capacity building of BDS providers. clients have to bear the full cost of service provision by paying cost covering fees. Such services are needed to empower the individual by creating awareness of market potential. introduce incentives to use the offer (e. They are suspicious of foreigners and fear the direct and indirect costs unknown to them at the start. there is increasing awareness that MEs and SEs need preparatory services that may never be paid for. membership associations or public agencies. publishing. however. But there are few enterprises in the industrialized and developing world. revise existing products. 4 . In the market development paradigm. develop new products..6. including a cost-effect analysis and excluding external effects like changes in economic situation and other side-effects after a time frame of three years. Limitations of the full-commercial BDS approach The traditional BDS paradigm developed by the Committee of Donor Agencies in the second half of the 1990s and considered as binding law by many development co-operation practitioners stipulates the business-like provision of BDS. But some constraints of the voucher schemes are the following: No valid evaluation on voucher schemes So far there is no evident evaluation of the real effects of a voucher intervention after the voucher scheme phased out. It is expected that by way of using vouchers. Vouchers are documents issued by a voucher administration entitling users (enterprises) to a specified service at a subsidized rate.provision by donors and governments.e. subsidization should be replaced by private payment for services.

. They do not measure impact and success on a strengthened BDS market after the voucher program has phased-out but just measure performance of the ongoing program: "The success of voucher programs is still being measured primarily by the number of courses given and the number of vouchers used.it is too early to tell whether the training market which developed as a result of the program will continue to function. p.the slightly increased demand after a three-year voucher scheme is due to the voucher itself or due to the economic growth and trend in general and the information campaign accompanying the voucher introduction in particular "Although a program may not distribute vouchers to a large number of enterprises. 39)." (Goldmark/Schor. Thus.unambiguous in the sense that other effects have been clearly filtered out from the effects from vouchers and that sustainability of a strengthened BDS market can clearly be attributed to the introduction of vouchers: "In the Paraguay case . p.. p.." (ibid.13). Linda Fitzgerald: Vouchers: From Practice to Principles. p. the number of enterprises that will benefit 1) from this intervention in the long term could increase substantially. 1 ) Lara Goldmark. p. the sustainability of this type of program is doubtful. But sustainability should be defined as that "positive market development effects from the program continue once the vouchers are discontinued" (ibid. 39) "A third critical issue. But what's about long-term effects say after a period of two to three years? Thus. and suppliers become convinced that micro enterprises are worthwhile clients. namely information campaigns and strengthening of the BDS providers' supply-side." (ibid. events or programs/institutions during the voucher program that have contributed to BDS market development? Wouldn't there have been other possibilities in the same time frame to raise demand without vouchers? In addition to the above mentioned limitations." (ibid.23. p." (ibid. 15) . still unresolved. (ibid. 16) If there are on the one hand already a lot of confirmed negative results." The above quote points out that other means than vouchers. if through successful management of the information component and supplier-strengthening activities the new product development and adaptation process is catalyzed.. most of the evaluations have another critical point." (ibid. may have brought out the impact on BDS market development. p. 48). p. concerns the sustainability of voucher interventions.11) "Both the Kenyan and Paraguayan programs raise serious questions about the sustainability of a training market directed primarily at low-income micro enterprises. USAID/DAI 9/2001 5 . "The East-Java program kept good records.13) "In the Latin America region. Even in this case it is evident that there will be an "echo-effect" of higher demand for some months or one year. with disappointing results. the impact of voucher schemes is far long way from a valid evaluation. ibid. but usage was so low and program regulations so strict that not much market development could be expected. no unambiguous evaluation of voucher programs is available to date . Have there been other interventions. several incomplete voucher programs have been put into practice. and whether the micro enterprise clientele will continue to demand services. on the other hand positive impact has not been evaluated by netting out side effects.

”p 69 “ Although training voucher programs have helped large numbers of micro enterprises link with corresponding numbers of BDS suppliers. “ Implementing The Market Approach To Enterprise Support: A Comparative Evaluation Of Matching Grant Schemes.the delivery of individualized technical assistance is much more difficult.. But do not believe: in this case let's design a small voucher program. Edited by Jacob Levitsky. Thus. The Peru program faced heightened difficulties in fraud and quality control . costs of voucher program are calculated as follows: "The administration costs per voucher in Peru.. there is growing concern about the sustainability of the positive market changes on both the demand and supply side. 1999 6 . "Bolivia's heavy overhead burden was due in part to the small size of the program.especially for nonstandardized products like technical assistance. 2000. there is little evidence to date that matching grant programs anywhere resulted in the development of competitive BDS markets. Gabriel Schor: Vouchers with information: What next.but only with a costly administration bureaucracy. ibid. Thus.”p 71 Crisafulli. the administration cost rate of small voucher programs is near to 100% of the voucher value . p. after Paraguay?. David A." (ibid.”World Bank. Even taken into account these administrative measures it is learned that voucher schemes are often misused by both BDS providers and enterprises arranging informal agreements in order to get the voucher profit without rendering the voucher subsidized services. Not so easy! Programs with low administration costs have a high rate of fraud because of insufficient control mechanisms. Daniel. El Salvador.“ However. “ Matching Grant Schemes. 14) "Non-target-group consumers who are seeking vouchers find ways to circumvent program regulations.32) But do not believe: in this case let's take the 25% system. Argentina.no good option for cost-effectiveness! In the case of Ethiopia." (ibid. 16) No cost-effectiveness Probably. the above mentioned fraud may be kept down by control mechanisms . identifying voucher allocating agents. p. p. Intermediate Technology Publications. Thus. voucher programs are costly .”in Business Development Services: A Review of International Experience.35) 2 ) Lara Goldmark. Small voucher programs have almost the same administrative costs like big voucher programs. December 2000. preparing voucher manuals and contractual agreements and setting up voucher administration.12. The approach involves high costs not only for the subsidized services but also for a huge voucher administration and for anti-fraud control. Phillips. to control. and costly. Voucher Bureaucracy Voucher schemes need to be organized by a huge and costly administration of national and regional voucher administrators and a multitude of bureaucratic procedures like identifying suitable institutions for voucher administration." (ibid. "The Peru program did not produce very positive results.. p." 2) "Many micro entrepreneurs passed the vouchers on to family members who then used them to attend computer courses" (Goldmark. p. and Bolivia ranges from 25% to 120%. the voucher program costs would almost be equivalent to the costs of the entire BDS intervention.between 1 million to 3 million Euro for vouchers plus 50% for administration and information costs.

and the subsidy may be hard to turn off. Target groups are limited on micro enterprises The evaluation of the Ethio-German Micro and Small Enterprises Development Project recommended focusing in future more on small and medium enterprises than on micro enterprises. institutions may become more and more adept at capturing the voucher subsidy as time goes on. however.training. initiate sector networks of all actors involved. Need to market program to employers. Thus. BDS is support for access to finance." (ibid. that a voucher intervention can only be managed in neglecting other fields of intervention." (Goldmark/Schor. intervention in case of tax problems and intervention for premises. or improve competitiveness in regional or export industries. p. because standardized products like training are easier to control than business consultancy and on-the-spot advice. an artificial BDS environment for BDS providers offer and enterprises demand . 7 . support for trade fair participation and export-import. may ultimately constitute a powerful local political constituency.will cause some distortions in the price of training. advice for business planning. 21) Market Distortion One of the negative impacts of a voucher scheme is the great risk of market distortion.Work overflow One important side-effect of setting up and managing a huge voucher bureaucracy will be.." (ibid. The staff has to supervise more than 500 BDS facilitators and more than 30 partner organiza-tions. but employers often are reluctant to contribute to skills that an employee can transfer elsewhere. But most voucher programs in reality never have been demand-oriented! 90% of the voucher programs are limited to class-room and further trainings. ibid. voucher studies tell us about "supplier dependence" of voucher systems and "crowding out effects" of non-participating suppliers. along with hundreds of training providers. organize sector specific studies and interventions. But it is learned that voucher systems are not adapted to the needs of small and medium enterprises. 16) "The voucher subsidy. "Those who have targeted small and medium-sized enterprises have not done as well in meeting their objectives. suppliers will adjust their prices to reflect the presence of the subsidy. It is clear that voucher schemes create an artificial. subsidized BDS market with a modified subsidized price schedule. customized courses.plus setting-up and managing a huge voucher system? Thus.." (ibid. But BDS today is much more than training. p. and subsequently higher voucher values.17) "Small and medium enterprises need sophisticated business services. Thus. introduce 50 BDS facilitators in 25 new industrial zones of Addis Ababa and extend an employment program for unemployed TVET graduates in 6-month cycles . p.market simulation instead of market stimulation? "Ten of thousands of voucher clients.. Demand-orientation? Voucher programs are supposed to be demand-oriented. In addition." (ibid. will have about four to six line staff members for a countrywide intervention.24) Thus. on-the-spot technical advice and re-engineering of enterprises by business consultancy and others. the aforementioned activities with already proven performance and impact (see last external evaluation 12/2004) risk to be neglected in favour of a doubtful voucher intervention. most of the micro enterprises to be involved in the voucher systems have been limited in advance to only one offer-oriented option . The BDS component of the planned Ethiopian Engineering Capacity Building Program for example.18) "If the program goal is to stimulate demand for training among small and medium-sized enterprises. p. the "traditional" voucher model is inadequate. support advocacy on policy level..

increased income (51%) and increased employment (27%).400 micro and small enterprises per year. Marketing to a great number of individual enterprises is a really difficult approach and even ineffective for most of the consultants. technical training. NGOs should ensure that their efforts do not distort. Furthermore." Nussbaum/Miehlbradt (Donor Committee): Assessing BDS Demand and Supply in Weak or Limited Markets. If the low-level segment of the business community. after project’ s end BDS facilitators are still working on sub-city level and in seven industrial clusters of Addis Ababa as well as with Regional MSE Development Agencies (ReMSEDAs) in the Amhara and Tigray regions. depending on the level of development of BDS markets. Business consultants have been involved whenever specific support measures have been necessary (e. the micro and small enterprises. Results of the last impact study on BDS interventions: 80% of the business owners of the sample study confirmed to have improved their working conditions in terms of product diversification (27%). private and commercial structures supported about 9. are operating on a day-by-day basis without the necessary medium or long-term resources for indirect business development such as managerial training. acting as a provider should be only an interim measure. business planning. provider.because of various constraints met by its member projects in BDS implementation . Today. trade fair participation).existing and already full-paid staffs by the institutions involved. public institutions and private non-commercial membership organizations is the consequence of experiences made with the limitations of the full-commercial BDS market development approach: meanwhile the Committee of Donor Agencies for Small Enterprise Development . public and private non-profit BDS providers with subsidized structures have a role to play and can contribute significantly to develop BDS market activities: "Several participants. The revised moderate BDS Approach including commercial BDS providers as well as non-profit NGOs and public institutions Our “ BDS-Mix”including commercial business consultants as well as private and public training centres. Finally 500 BDS facilitators together with BDS providers of public. in weak markets it may be necessary for an organization to act as a provider for a limited time. In general. and an exit strategy should be part of the upfront design. Note. 2 944 start-ups and 13 048 existing businesses got entrepreneurship training The sample impact study on entrepreneurship trainings proved by interviews of former participants that 63% of start-ups have created their enterprise. Washington 12/2003 In our BDS intervention in Ethiopia until 2005 (details see chapters 2-5 and appendix) we trained about 500 BDS facilitators of public. pointed out that although the ideal is to act as a facilitator. That is why intermediary organizations like NGOs. Why Micro and Small Enterprise Owners are not willing to pay for BDS Services? Most of the business consultants are targeting medium and large enterprises because of lack of capacity or willingness of micro and small enterprises to pay for management services with rather medium and long-term impact. 86% of the existing businesses confirmed to have solved their marketing problems. development projects and public institutions are financing most of the assignments for business advice and training to micro and small enterprises. The participants agreed that the intervening organization can act as a facilitator. however. support for access to finance. that it is not evident that “ good services will find their market” .g. but facilitate. BDS facilitators and providers came from NGOs. increased turnover (67%). market development and should follow a pragmatic approach. private and commercial institutions in our “ Demanddriven 6-month BDS cycle Approach” . then even down-sized services will be difficult to sell and the acquisition work to this 8 .C. improved and secured premises (33%). or a combination of both at different stages in a program.has admitted that for emerging BDS markets. staff of local city administrations (sub-city level) .

That is why MSEs want to see immediate impact which is normally not the case with medium and long-term impact of management and marketing trainings. Is selfhelp less important than BDS? Self-help is the best way of development. They are non-profit self-help organizations and they have a role to play for services and members paid for it. These group trainings are pre-fabricated and standardized class-room training and must be sold to a certain number of small business owners in order to reach the necessary number of participants. then finally you will teach your pre-fabricated programme without taking into consideration concrete priorities and problems of individual business owners . But self-help does not obligatory mean that the business community engages private commercial BDS providers to solve their problems. That is why it is not only their right but their duty to give services to their members even without introducing third parties like BDS providers. Micro and small enterprises do not have a diversified division of labour and management like medium and large enterprises. supply management. But isn't it that in the full-commercial BDS approach services should be demand-driven.? Support of self-help organization or full-commercial BDS? In the latter discussion nobody speaks about self-help but everybody speaks about BDS. If a business organization has the capacity to solve its problems by the help of business-to-business linkage or by the help of its own qualified staff. That is why the question is not public or private but both still need a lot of capacity building in order to fulfil the expectations of the business community. In Bahir Dar town. Chambers of Commerce are the representative institutions of the local and national business communities. We think. and top management. 9 . After 20 years of work in private sector development we know that the quality of BDS provided by commercial providers often is not better than that of public institutions. Why most of the commercial BDS Services to Micro and Small Enterprises are SUPPLY-driven and not demand-driven? Most of the Micro and Small business owners individually cannot afford the high fees of a commercial consultant. Ethiopia the BDS facilitator of the Chamber of Commerce organized a meeting with more than 100 enterprises with tax problems and the taxation authority.segment of the consultancy market would be pretty time and cost intensive and never profitable for business consultants. but a manager of a medium enterprise spends the “ anonymous money” of his department. Quality of Services The Donor Committee approach outlines that quality of BDS provided by public institutions has been very low and that is why commercial providers should take over.. A sole business owner has to spend his “ own personal”money. Medium and large enterprises are organized in various divisions like staff management. it is true that services in the past have not been very efficient. Most of these divisions have their own budget for short-term and long-term interventions. public and private providers. Quality of BDS in general of both. That is why business consultants try to organize group trainings. accounting. sales management. Thus. then it should do it even if there may be a competition between the self-help activity and the BDS providers' potential offer. is very low in developing countries.that's what we call SUPPLY-driven. But not because they have been provided by public institutions.. trainings and consultancies can better be sold to medium and large than to micro and small enterprises which run their activities with a personal day-by-day budget. Perhaps you need only a certain advice? Or perhaps you need only specific assistance at the tax authority? NO! You will get class-room and group training! If you try to sell your training programme to a anonymous segment of businesses (perhaps even by advertising through newspapers)..

They managed to have an agreement that allowed the businesses involved to comply with tax regulations. D+C German Magazine for Development and Cooperation 10 .htm 65 KB Contents: The "Nucleus" approach initiating small groups of 15-20 business owners who meet regularly.br. More about the nucleus approach: Nucleus Sri Lanka: www.com. Should they step back from this activity in order to spare the private BDS market? Is the sustainability of the Chamber self-help organization less important than the sustainability of the BDS provider? Rainer Müller-Glodde / Simone Lehmann.com. even after a time period of two years they often cannot present any impact on enterprises level! At the end of the day you will not be evaluated on how many BDS providers are in the market.nucleussl.ethiopianchamber. p. 188+179.at least so long as they have been strong enough to compete with other countries. in terms of sustainability there is no argument for a BDS model limited to commercial providers. For download under www. But they compete with the market of private commercial web providers. but on the impact on the final beneficiaries: How many businesses have been supported.adamachamber. how was the impact in terms of increased turnover. For efficient Business Development Services we need a moderated mixed approach of coexistence between public.nucleosdeuberaba.bds-forum. NGOs and commercial BDS providers? One of the main claims of the full-commercial BDS approach is that only with this approach there would be sustainability. These are lessons learnt for poor countries today. revenue and employment. public business development agencies will exist as long as states and governments will exist and NGOs give their services until donors exist. Thus. Uruguay www.net/download. They have income from this activity and can employ two additional staffs for fee collection and business advisory.redpropymes.com). This selfhelp activity is moderated and assisted by business advisors. but do not develop the national economy. Some Chambers of Commerce created webpages and produced paid sub-webs for their member companies (www..”“ In most of the rich countries strong public institutions supported and protected the local enterprises .uy What is sustainable: Monopoly based on the one segment of commercial BDS providers or BDS-Coexistence of public institutions. Self-help organisations like chambers of commerce should be less sustainable than commercial BDS providers? Is there less sustainability as for commercial providers who may also disappear rapidly in a weak economic situation? Thus. A multitude of arguments may prove that BDS market stimulation is only one approach among other forms of Private Sector Development interventions. discussing their problems and undertaking activities for problem solution.com. Kandy/Berlin/Dakar 2006 The Nucleus Approach.. www.” E+Z German edition. Promotion of SME and Organizational Development of Business Associations and Chambers in Developping Countries.com Brazil www. “ Pure market strategies only result in higher profit rates. private and commercial BDS providers and business development agencies. We do not need a Monopoly for Private Sector Development but different approaches supporting each other! Projects based on the full commercial BDS approach often spend most of their time to build the capacity of BDS providers and create awareness of BDS providers’offer on enterprises level instead of help to implement concrete BDS services to a wide range of enterprises. why? In terms of sustainability.

public agencies and financial intermediaries for marketing support. Small and medium enterprises of different sectors like textile.2. Then. An action plan for to solve the problems of the business is then prepared by the facilitator with the active participation of the business owner. That does not mean that the facilitator later on shouldn't discuss his own observations and opinions. The product involves the business owner in the situation analysis and problem identification of his enterprise. businesses should be regularly visited. Commercial BDS providers should rather focus on medium enterprises that have the financial capacity to pay for BDS and that already developed a real enterprise structure with a more complex production process and an internal division of labour. with needs in management and accounting training. Steps of implementation are: Selection of businesses: The selection of businesses is not limited on narrow criteria. Problems and proposals of entrepreneurs should be detailed sufficiently in order to get concrete ideas about further actions and services to be provided. About 15 operators for each facilitator for a five-month BDS cycle are recommended. accounting. These facilitators are trained in the application of the product. The participatory demand driven BDS approach is based on the following principles: The business owner is the main actor. wood and metal works should be included if sector-orientation is one issue in the national SME development strategy. NGO and self-help business support institutions. How to put BDS into practice: The six-month BDS cycle approach The ‘ Demand driven Needs Assessment and Business Services Delivery‘is a BDS delivery method applied by BDS facilitators from public. training centres. including on-the-spot advice on enterprise level and group trainings in training centres. Demand driven BDS are based on a regular dialogue without leading questions and prefabricated service proposals but on the operator‘ s demand. The business owner should be encouraged to identify himself his main problems and proposals for solutions. But first we have to get the non-influenced opinion of the business owner himself. Discussion should be done by non leading questions and in a relaxed atmosphere. what are the prior issues needed? Example given: "Shoe maker needs new wood models for new shoe models and needs training for this. bakeries and barbers who need a more profound professional technical training. blacksmith. private. On technical and vocational training oriented structures may focus on production and service trades as carpenters. "Needs technical training" is too general: What are the main technical problems in his activity. the facilitator should document the data and results in a situation analysis overview. the facilitator links the business owners to BDS providers. technology information. BDS provider‘ s activities are only additional to the self-help action of the entrepreneur. metal workers. Regular visits to business owners After selection. but depends on the fields of intervention and services provided by the partner organisations involved: A women promotion structure will choose women entrepreneurs. Encourage the business owner to express his problems and proposals. food processing. Situation analysis and action planning After the visits and talks to operators." 11 . The phrase. your concern be introduced and regular talks about their situation and main problems be undertaken. technical and vocational training and business planning. business planning.

For other activities. the facilitator documents the situation and problems of e. Evaluation and documentation On the facilitator's level we don't ask for a rather complex M+E system that should be reserved to the development projects and organisations that are paid and adapted to this. The situation analysis overview contains the following issues (Ethiopian example see appendix 2): Situation of selected enterprises in .. Simple activities that can be managed by the business owner and the facilitator themselves may be implemented without external support. management training or initiating an advanced accounting system need making contacts to commercial BDS providers.. For this a five-month report according to the five-month BDS cycle is recommended for activity monitoring (see formats in appendix). Five month action plan . more complex services as technical and vocational training. This action-planning should be agreed with the business owners concerned.... we should run the implementation phase..The demand-driven needs assessment and services delivery to SMEs is done with the help of BDS facilitators/providers by physically presenting themselves to the selected enterprises and involving the owners in problem identification and action planning.. Common problems of businesses can be discussed in entrepreneurs’meetings that could develop to business networks or business associations... 15 operators and transfers it into a five-month action plan: After the situation analysis overview. finance institutions and other authorities should be undertaken by the business owner himself who can be accompanied be the facilitator.... Implementation of Business Services Delivery Once. The facilitator himself can provide simple advisory as initiating a cashbook or information about loan procedures and some market information. BDS-providers and facilitating agencies may be identified and encouraged for collaboration..... vocational and technical training centres... General information services are for free. But the minimum should be to record services implemented.....) Name / Activity Problem identified by the owner himself Proposal of action Self-help initiative of the business owner Additional support by the BDS facilitator / provider Business 1 Business 2 The actions agreed with the business owners concerned should be solved in the five month BDS cycle (example of Ethiopian action plan see appendix 2). but interventions like business plan and loan application writing should be provided against payment.... The necessary interventions to the municipality..... Name / Activity Products and Place / Equipment services Supply / Sales / Staff / Clients / Marketing Business Management Cost per month (Birr) Problems identified by the owner himself and his proposals of solutions Business 1 Business 2 By the help of a situation analysis overview. to . 12 . Other..... (from .... private NGOs and public SME development institutions.g.... we transform problems and solutions to the action-planning matrix and into the columns "Self help action of the operator himself" and "Additional support by the BDS provider or facilitator". the action planning is finalised.

Our support is only additional.O n e m o n t h P r e p a r a t io n a n d f iv e m o n t h s B D S I m p le m e n t a t io n N o v . P re p a r a t io n Im p le m e n t a tio n E v a lu a tio n P r e p a r a tio n Im p le m e n ta tio n E v a lu a tio n P r e p a r a tio n Im p le m e n t a tio n 2 0 Benefits. When certain services show substantial demand and an inclination of enterprises to pay for. scope The benefit of this approach among others is that it involves the enterprise owner in problem identification and action planning. etc.. It addresses problems specific to each enterprise and also pervasive among a group of enterprises and/or sub sectors. In our approach SMEs are the main actors. 13 . impact. new technology.. the provision of such services have to be left to commercial providers and hence. finance. 1 2 3 4 5 M a y 1 2 3 4 5 N o v 1 2 3 -5 . the transaction becomes business to business. Other service delivery methods usually prescribe blanket treatment like the provision of training whether needed or not.

Several administrative. Follow-up activities upon business start-ups are highly recommended to improve the impact of the initial training! The following matrix condenses situation analysis and action planning for start-ups. Main Problems Proposal of Action Self-help initiative of the members Additional Support of BDS providers 14 . address Educational level Business 1 Business 2 Business 3.. membership fees. from the point of view of a national Federation or other partners.. objective and organisational structure... The hereafter presented overview is applicable for organisational development of business associations e. Situation analysis is limited naturally on the project idea and the steps taken and to be taken to start up the business intended. In that case you will combine both.. tailors’association). But when you are working with one of these associations. Number of members/trades Objectives and Structure Achievements Problems and Weaknesses Proposals and Initiatives Action Plan with business associations Name of Organisation Association 1 Association 2 Association 3. the overview for associations in a first run and the overview for individual enterprises in a second run because the final objective of each of the business associations will be to deliver services to their members which finally are individual enterprises on the basic level. financial or marketing constraints can hinder potential entrepreneurs to create their business even in spite of all good advices received during their initial training.g.g. action planning and service delivery as shown above is recommended for business start-ups and trainees who took part in a CEFE entrepreneurship training or other start-up training. Situation analysis and action planning for start-ups Name. Situation analysis of business associations Name of Organisation Association 1 Association 2 Association 3. achievement (services to members).3. Project idea Actual situation of the project What has been done What has to be done Additional support by the BDS provider Business Associations (see overview on Malian business associations in appendix 4) Situation analysis and action planning with business associations follows a scheme similar to individual enterprises but association-specific data will be collected: number of members and type of trades. then their members will be individual enterprises (e. Situation analysis and action planning with start-ups and business associations Business Start-ups (see overview on Tunisian business start-ups in appendix 3) A similar system of situation analysis..

Impact: Tax relief resulted in savings. coached operator on records keeping. changed business site on facilitator’ s advice. helped shift for another bank with longer repayment period. Support given by BDS facilitator: Facilitated credit. Gonder Problems: Tax burden during plant commissioning.200 clients paying 3-20 birr/month secured. poor packaging and few product ranges. Lemelm Belay. inconvenient working premise. residents of Addis Ketema get cleaning services. assisted in tender winning. unattractive product presentation. Selected BDS success stories Mamit Habtie. shop organization and advertising. managed to hold increased raw materials stock at lower prices as repayment is of long maturity. linked to 1. Fatuma Mohammed. changed business site on facilitator’ s advice. employed 3 more workers. more customers. Support given by BDS facilitator: Facilitated participation in trade fairs for networking. 1. cleaning services in short supply. 15 .000 Birr. Impact: Expanded business. short maturity of loan. lack of start-up capital and working facilities. Metal works. cleaning jobs despised. Impact: 137 jobs secured with regular income. pricing. Support given by BDS facilitator: Organised the 137 youth in two groups of cooperatives. increased income. Support given by BDS facilitator: Assisted in tax relief worth 16. Hibir Municipal Sanitary Services.4. product diversification. credit facilitated by linking to MFI. Addis Ababa Problems: 137 unemployed youth (90% women). overspending and mixing income from the business to incomes from other sources due to absence of records.200 clients for marketing the cleaning services. poor market. Bahir Dar Problems: Market problems due to overpricing. agitated the youth to accept cleaning job like any other job. managed to increase production and hence sales and income. experience gaining and market promotion. Impact: Expanded product range by including spices and other processed food items. better sales and hence more income secured after the BDS intervention. Food and Spices. Edible Oil Mill. lack of working premise. Gonder Problems: Limited funds.

05. Assign facilitators for industrial zones 2. transport. loans. Follow-up of enterprises (premises. Fields of intervention of BDS facilitators (Ethiopian example) Gonder Bahir Dar Dessie Mekelle Debre Berhan Facilitators assigned for capacity building of Chambers of Commerce and BDS services for their members Businesses services for urban and rural development Services to MSEs and start-ups in Sub-cities Services to MSEs and start-ups in Zones 1. Start-up of enterprises 3. marketing.2006 Sector specific intervention Textile Leather Food Construction Business services in order to solve problems in value chains (supply. BDS of the Bahir Dar Chamber of Commerce. Facilitators assist industrial clusters for association building and business problems The BDS approach can be implemented in different fields of intervention depending on the objectives of the partner organisations involved and depending on the priorities of the national SME development strategy.5. Have a look on the appendices 5-7: BDS in industrial clusters. quality) Capacity building of Business Associations and Networking Value Chain Development Industrial Zones 1. 16 . technology. equipment. BDS with unemployed schools leavers. markets) TVET Graduates Employment Fields of Interventions for BDS Facilitators 18. Entrepreneurship training for unemployed graduates 2.

uy 17 .com. Turin 2002: Seminar Reader –Developing Commercial Markets for BDS Irwin/Schneider-Barthold.net Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce www.ghanabusiness.com. Addis Ababa 2004 Success Stories on Business Development Services Dieter Gagel.br .nucleussl.bds-forum. Organizational Development and Networking Webpages International BDS Portal www.com Adama Chamber of Commerce www. BDS for all Categories of Enterprises Dieter Gagel.net Ethiopian BDS Network www.ethiopianchamber.Nucleus Sri Lanka: www. Munich 2002: The revised BDS Paradigm.Uruguay www.start-your-business.Brazil www. Washington 2002 Business Development Services for Small Enterprises Guidelines for Donor Intervention (BDS Bluebook) Miehlbradt/Mc Vay (Donor Committee).redpropymes. Addis Ababa 2005 How to develop sustainable BDS without Radicalism? Rainer Müller-Glodde / Simone Lehmann. Addis Ababa 2003 Introducing counselling services to customers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia Dieter Gagel.References All following documents are available on the BDS-Reader CD-ROM given to the workshop participants or available for download on www.net Committee of Donor Agencies for Small Enterprise Development. Kandy/Berlin/Dakar 2006 The Nucleus Approach. Addis Ababa Monitoring and Evaluation of BDS.org More about the nucleus approach: .bds-forum.nucleosdeuberaba.com .adamachamber. Addis Ababa 2005 Toolkit for BDS-Facilitation.net Start and Improve your Business www. Promotion of SME and Organizational Development of Business Associations and Chambers in Developping Countries.com BDS Ghana www. Gagel/Fantahun/Bartels. Demand-driven Business Development Services Ethiopian BDS Network.bds-ethiopia.

...... Powerpoint presentation on BDS implementation ......... 2........ 3........................................... 10............................. 5................ 6.........34 BDS of the Bahir Dar chamber of Commerce...................38 Table of contents of BDS-Reader (CD-ROM) for participants ...Appendix 1..........37 Impact and sustainability of ICT based BDS portals . Ethiopia......................19 BDS approach with situation analysis overview and action plan – Ethiopian example ...36 Internet based BDS portals and learning platforms........ 8.. BDS Portals and Business Information Services................................32 Powerpoint on support for self-employment of TVET graduates ......................... 4............................ 7........39 Lessons learnt on BDS.......................................................40 18 ...................... 11............................................30 Powerpoint on BDS in industrial clusters ..22 Situation analysis and action planning with start-ups – example of Tunisia......... 9.29 Situation analysis and action planning with business associations – example of Mali..............

Steps to put BDS into practice Permanent dialogue with the business owners Leather works Trader Food processing Regular visits to the businesses n Agree upon a 5-month action plan for self-help activities of the business owner and additional support by the BDS facilitator.net Steps to put BDS into practice. qualification. agree upon his self-help part and your additional support. n Each facilitator selects 15 business owners in his region for the implementation of a 5-month action plan in order to deliver Business Development Services. taxes. number of rooms. 7 19 . Problems and solutions must be detailed! „Marketing“ is not enough. machines.. 3 n Tailor workshop n Carpenter Auto-mechanics 4 Regular Visits to Businesses ! n Situation analysis Nam e / Activity / Location Products/ Services Supply / M arkets Sales / Clients Marketing Staff / Business m anagem ent Costs per m onth Problems and solutions identified by the business operator R egular visits to the businesses involved are necessary in order to solve the problems identified. staff and social security contributions. but if necessary.. „ R egular“means at least once per w eek.Business Services Delivery A participatory approach to promote SME operators 6/2002 Dieter Gagel mail@gagel. maintenance Problem s and solutions: identified by the operator himself without suggestions by the facilitator. above all with the adm inistration and other businesses. nomber and quality. Services that cannot be managed by the facilitator himself. Encourage the business operator to express his problems and proposals. Try to answ er the business owner if possible. Contact facilitating agencies and BDS providers in order to agree upon support for the action plan. address.Needs Assessment . furniture etc . middlers Marketing: Promotion actvities. BDS are based on a regular contact with the business owners and services are based on the business‘ demand. Not only talks. publicity. condition Products and services: offered by the operator Supply: Raw and working materials. advertising Staff: Number and functions. availability. activity Location: Location. 7 n Name and activity: Name.Action Planning . but don‘ t w aste the time of the operator. water. machines. Equipment: Tools. electricity. Listen and work off your questions without hurrying. 2 n n n 1 .. observations are very useful too! W hen actions are identified. P roblems are not solved by doing a situation analysis and action plan. but don‘ t try to solve immediately his problems or to find immediate solutions. suppliers Sales: Situation of sales. You have to go into action and contact other partners and administration in order to realize the solution. may be implemented by other BDS providers (facilitator makes contacts). Talks are confidential. Sit down and have time.. Write a situation analysis overview of these 15 businesses and note their problems and proposals. even 3 visits per week are useful if necessary to solve a problem. clients. school education Business management: Bookkeeping? Recording? Receipts? Costs per month: Rent. 5 n 6 How to talk to the business operator? n Interview guidelines n n n n n n n n n n The situation analysis has 3 aspects: n n n To warm up with the operator To understand his w ay of thinking To get data for action (and not data for data) n n n n n n n Introduce yourself and your concern.Appendix 1: . dimensions. tools.

On the spot advice can be an additional demand driven tool in a comprehensive BDS system: n The field approach allows the operator to express his real needs on the spot and to demonstrate it. Production run and workshop organization should be optimized in the workshop. but support in other fields of intervention can solve this secondary problem.. what kind of services? n n n Based on the self help initiative of the operator. can be implemented by other BDS providers (facilitator makes contacts). according to the human resources and financial capacities. see overview next page. n The facilitators can observe on the spot the situation and problems of the operator concerned. water. 13 What kind of services?. specific problems with authorities etc. 16 20 . Vocational training in cut and design for tailors.) 12 n n Accounting training courses often are without impact..Is „ Lack of finance“ really the problem? n Insufficient qualification Low material or equipment quality Cannot. Management training for medium entreprises. It‘ s up to the facilitator to get to the bottom of this problem: Other problems in other fields of intervention may cause the lack of finance (ask him: „ Why do you have a lack of finance?“ ). But training courses tend to be offer-oriented and do not always meet the real needs. 14 Group support or group trainings are possible if a certain number of businesses have the same or similar problems: n n n n n Several carpenters need training in maintenance of tools and machinery. The carpenters of a certain region are not allowed to collect wood in the local area. electricity costs High transportation costs Inefficient use of working materials Labour costs Material costs 9 10 Action planning Name / Activity Problem identified Self help initiative of the operator Additional support by the BDS provider Negociate with microfinance institution on extension credit (spare parts shop) for automechanics workshop Improve your tools and machines: on-the-spot advice to woodworker workshops in contact with skills development centres Information on trade fairs on regional and national level. n Certain problems cannot be solved in group training (operator doesn‘ t want to speak in a group with competitors... In that case. n n . 8 Market problems Sale on credit n „ Lack of finance“ High costs Management problems High production costs No business plan No accounting No stock listing n High rent.. On the spot advice to initiate a simple accounting system will be more concrete and you can better control it in practice. Possible and realistic. don‘t want. Services that cannot be managed by the facilitator himself. Necessary. Auto-mechanics of one region need spare parts store for better supply. financial support will not necessarilly help the operator. according to the problems identified and the priorities of the operators.. conditions for participation for several regions Make contacts with training centre for a vocational training on new technologies for metal workshop Set-up of a purchasing central in the X region for electricians and plumbers Possible services provided Trainings and on-the-spot advice in basic bookkeeping for small and medium businesses Negotiate with the local administration in Bahir Dar in order to redefine taxation procedures Organize company reengineering consultancy for businesses in order to strengthen their competitiveness 12 Training courses or on the spot advice? n Examples for on the spot advise instead of courses n n Training courses are often the only method used by BDS providers. no incentive for savings No own savings and funds Funds used for private purpose Bad location Rude competition No marketing (advertising) Insufficient buying power Low product quality Most of the operators see the „ Lack of finance“ as their main or only problem. Training for maintenance of tools and machines with the operators‘ own equipment and in their workshops will be more effective.

address educational level Business idea Actual situation of the business project What has been done W hat has to be done 24 n n Business start-ups often meet problems that couldn‘ t be solved or taken in consideration during the initial training. Identification of major problems by the business owners themselves One month Preparation and five months BDS Implementation Nov. Self-help actions and additional support by the BDS providers Facilitation 2.net International BDS Portal.bds-forum.. Theory and practice of BDS with case studies and examples.net Toolkit on how to start/improve your business www. because an analysis of an existing business is not yet possible. Regular talks with the businesses 5. The overview for start-ups combines the situation analysis and the action planning in one matrix.bds-ethiopia. Documentation and common impact evaluation by the business and facilitators Discussion Advice 4.. Common formulation of proposals and actions 19 20 Situation analysis and action planning for start-ups n Situation analysis and action planning overview for start-ups Nam e. 23 Additional support by the BDS facilitator/provider Situation analysis of self-help Associations Name of organisation Number of members and trades Mission and structure Services provided Problems and weaknesses 27 Action planning for self-help Associations Organisation / Group Problem identified Self-help initiative of the group 28 Proposals and projects Additional support by the BDS provider 5-month report on BDS delivery Facilitator: Organization: Date: Period: Webpage-links to BDS n Name of Owner/ Support Services identified Services implemented (see action plan) Business Results and comments (reasons for failure) www. 1 2 3 4 5 May 1 2 3 4 5 Nov 1 2 3-5. www. Thus.The Business Services Delivery Cycle 1.net Ethiopian Business Development Services Network (EBDSN) 29 n n Facilitator‘ s additional comments: 21 21 . an effective follow-up system for start-ups is essential for a better impact of the initial training.start-your-business. Preparation Implementation Evaluation Implementation Evaluation Preparation Preparation Implementation 3.

After the BDS cycle. The self-help action of the operator and the additional support of the facilitator or other BDS-providers will be agreed. In the next 5 months.bds-ethiopia. By making contacts with other BDSproviders and technical centres he will solve those problems that are beyond his own capacity. 600 businesses can be supported in 2 cycles per year with 20 BDS facilitators (2x 20 facilitators x15 enterprises) 3. of the Addis Ababa City Administration. EBDSN.net German Technical Cooperation 22 .net www. The problems and solutions given by the operator (see last column of situation overview) will be transferred to a 5-month action plan (see annex).Appendix 2: Approach: Business Development Services to Entrepreneurs .html . of Chambers and NGOs supporting business owners to solve their business constraints in two 6-month BDS cycles per year.bds-ethiopia.000 businesses can be supported in 2 cycles per year with 100 BDS facilitators In the last year we supported 9.net/documents.Example of Ethiopia – Each of the BDS facilitators visits 10-15 business operators and undertakes talks about their situation and main problems. each facilitator has to implement his action plan and solve the problems identified. For more information on our BDS approach see : www. BDS-Facilitators of Regional Development Agencies.net/approach. one month is for evaluation of the first and preparation for the next 5-month cycle.html www. The data will be documented in a situation analysis overview (see annex).400 business owners with 500 BDS facilitators in two 6-month cycles.bds-forum. Ethiopian Business Development Services Network www.bds-ethiopia.

No advertising. 250 B Transport 200 B Promotion 330 B Material 1.000 B to buy equipment. shoe repairing Supply: Leather from Addis leather factory. Prospect strategic location 2. Sales: Seasonal. 5 B Water 5 B Material 520 B Total income 655B Products: Leather products: (Headgear. 2. 200689 Room dimension 220 m2 (both for production and sales) Equipment: Electrical dough machine (40. shoes). Lack of training in management and bookkeeping. Sometimes shortage of raw materials. Clients: Tea rooms. Lack of appropriate working premises 2. hotels. increase variety of products 3. Tel. No payment for family members for their work Management: No planning. High participating costs at exhibitions and trade fairs. wooden shoe models (m/f) 110 B each. restaurants. 2. Problems: 1. sculptures. few clients. 2. Supply: Producers in Mekele. Get training in management and accounting. 3. Getachew G/Mariam Shoe maker Location: Along the main road and nearer to a market place Tel. 3. Staff / Cost per month Business Management (Birr) Staff: 2 owners (brothers) 4 labourers with education of grade 4 to 6. Higher pricing is not a solution.1 Lease more space for shop extension.2 Open branch shops 4. No accounting and record keeping Costs: Rent: 500 B Electr. Lack of management and accounting skills 3. quality products Costs: Rent: 6 B/month (municipality) Electr. Selling of imported shoes. has business card. households Marketing: Established and known since 35 years. has strategic location along the main road and has signboard. All workers without formal training Management: No business plan No accounting system No records of cash payments Staff: Owner with 6th grade. silver from other regions. plastic soles from Addis. High house rent and small shop. good sales mainly in summer. Better to improve marketing. Management: No bookkeeping.260 B Income is not clear. Technical training for models and new techniques. has started his job in 1994.1 Improve product quality. 2 apprentices paid 2 Birr/day each. 3 middle men Marketing: Participates on exhibitions and bazaars.340 Salaries 600 Taxes 420 Maintenance 100 Problems identified by the owner himself and his proposals of solutions Problems identified by the owner himself: 1. cotton) Ivory Staff: th Owner (12 grade complete) 2 family members (grade 3 and 10). Location: Along Mobil road near Ethio Star Hotel Equipment: Has Shelves. accessories. Proposals of the owner himself: 1. no shortage Clients: Individuals coming for conferences. Addis and Bahir Dar. 200498 Equipment: 1 seaming machine 1 sewing machine. advertising and sales (see action plan). 3. 5 shoe models. belts. Good location nearby main road. ornaments) Textile products (silk. -Facilitators remark: 1. 3.Situation analysis of selected enterprises in Bahir Dar (7/2002) Name / Activity Place / Equipment 1. Look for a credit fund of not less than 5.000 B. tourists. Wood products: (statuettes.000 B). local leather from peasants around B. electrical and manual sewing machines 7. scissors. Negotiate with tax authorities for reduced rate 2. 15 B Tel.2 Modernise the baking machines (electrical). Gondar. Lack of equipment such as compressor for spraying colours. necklace. Lack of training for new models Proposals: 1. Fairs participation with smaller stand and arrange products vertically. Axum souvenir and handicraft shop Shop has several branches in Mekele. music instrument) Silver products (rings. Bakery Location: Main road. all with low quality 3. Insufficient work premises Proposals by the owner himself: 1. snapping machine. Increasing selling price to cover the high costs. Keble 04. Cost Rent: 105 B Elect. 4. Over taxation 2. product displaying departments (boxes) Products/Services: Local and traditional shoes and sandals for men and women. tray and shelves Products and services Products: Different types of bread and cakes Supply / Sales / Clients / Marketing Supply: East Africa Industrial Group in Addis. 204 Water 40 Tel 90 Material 11. Market problem 4. No proven lack of record keeping and business management skills 23 . middle men. Dar Sales/clients: Households in Bahir Dar and some visitors Marketing: No advertising but participated on Expo 98 in Bahir Dar. good display. Firewood baking furnace. Haje Adgoi. no real records Problems: 1. 2. 3.

but now available in Bahir Dar.5 B Electr. 5. bakeries. shelves for cosmetics Shop was initiated with support of the office of Women Affairs Services: Men's hair cutting with varieties of styles. plywood. mainly youth and children. heater. Shaving services. Shop is old and lets in flood and rain 2. scissors. Credit on convenient term. 5. High monthly payment to the municipality for the signboard 4. cart. Insufficient skill training in hair dressing 7. Lack of sufficient working capital. Staff: Owner with technical school education. Upgrading skill training. doors. Working with eye and ear protectors Management: Bookkeeping exists Costs/ month: Rent 20 B Electr. hair curling. (not to be dependent on their families). 3 barber chairs. textile factory workers. 2. Shortage of capital to produce in bulk and make more sales on credit. (3 women working together) Men hair dressing Location: Nearby the main road. Kebele 15 Equipment: 3 form works. Cannot afford maintenance cost of some Items. mirrors. Getting credit. angle iron. Berhanu Jembere Products: Electric stoves and metal works Electric stoves and metal products such Tel 201004. Tigist Tefera Production of energy saving stove Tel 206421. shelves Product: Firewood conserving stove made of cement blocks. Insufficient income (working only for daily consumption) Planning: Wants to change the business next year and diversify services (providing weighing scale service) and change location. Maintenance by local electronic and welding workshops. Sales: Only 2-3 clients per day. hotels. consults organisations and offices Staff: 3 young women working in partnership. grills. Skills: Insufficient hair cutting training for 3 month by a local barber. The cost of putting a signboard along the main road is found costly. 24 . serving tea. Fluctuating and arbitrarily set of tax rates 2. Proposals: 1. 12th grade and 10th grade complete. telling friends and neighbours about services. Appropriate technology introduced by GTZproject Costs/month: Rent 100 B Water 30-40 B Tel 80-90 B Personal 2 B per piece Transport 10 B for cement. 2. small signboard. display box. 14 years of experience 3 employees of 10th grade with technical know how through on-the-job training. Intervention to municipality to get land. production and stock at home. Change the location. Proposals: 1. No accounting. Work place. Almaz and Aleme. Also some services to women such as make up. She used to plan her daily activities. sales on credit. has work premises with 30m2 Equipment: Has hair cutting machines. tax 50 B Income tax 90 B Personnel 700 B Net profit 1200B Problems: 1. 200 B Tel. Costs: Rent 6. chairs. conditioning and colouring Supply: Working materials were initially from Addis. Shortage of capital (no collateral to pledge and get credit). exhibitions. top plane. 2. 6. Bad location 3. Marketing: Leaflet. cement is from local traders (40 B/sack) Sales: individual local food producers. 6. Kebele 4 as windows. Emebet. Supply: Red ash is from local municipality(260B/truck). Marketing: Participates in exhibitions. red ash transport 260 B Problems: 1. 175 B Munic. Marketing: Good shop presentation. Tax should be on the basis of bookkeeping. Staff: th Women owner 12 grade complete with training in stove production. 2. 60 B Water 5 B Maintenance 8 B Benefit: income to cover daily consumption costs. table. sales on orders Supply: Clay from Addis. Management: cash book. shaving machine. 3 female labourers paid 2B per piece. aluminium sheets from Bahir Dar Sales: Clients are members of defence forces. Problems: 1. no signboard. Cultural biases towards women barbers (men hesitating to go to a women barber) Proposals by the women themselves: 1.4. Credit should be granted without collateral on the basis of business profitability. Spare parts available from local electronic shops.

chairs Staff: Owner is designer and manager. Bad working conditions in woodworking department (dust and noise). Marketing: 5 show rooms on the main road Supply: Cosmetics and car decorating items are from suppliers in Addis. Lobby for reduced tax rate and postponement of the differed amount 8. Products: Curtains. grills. 4 welding machines. Proposals: 1. Secure Loan from commercial bank. 2. Problems: 1. no cash book Cost/month: no rent Electr. furniture. doors. Obtain premise from municipality with the assistance of ReMSEDA 2. Applies for premises for shop 2. Staff: Owner. Management: no accounting system Costs/month: Rent 400 B Salaries 450 B Electr. Insufficient knowledge of bidding procedures.250 B Maintenance 4. saws. Market competition. scissors. 500-700 B Salaries 10. Proposals: 1. Workers and apprentices are not properly trained. 5th grade. Household and Office Furniture Location: 600 m2 open compound on the main road + show rooms Equipment/tools: 7 operating machine. Market problem Proposals: 1. High and accumulated tax rate 3. Lack of work premises 2. ---Problems: 1. 200-600 B Tel.000-1. 2 irons. table. hotels. Has some stock of metal and wood Sales: individual clients and offices. windows.000 B Tax 1. Getahun Abebe. Business cards are in use. 3 grinders. Look for space to rent 2. windows. Supply: wood and metal from local market. Damtie Gebeyehu. main road. Gettu Andarge Bicycle maintenance and sales Location: 270m2 compound. Technical training for workers and apprentices. 3. Wants to get production area outside the town and keep show room downtown. 6001. ---Problems: 1. shatters. Hire bookkeeper 2. ---3. 150 B Transport 420 B Maintenance 60 B 9. Lack of working premise. 3. 120 B Transport 770 B Material 90532B Personnel 2150B Net profit 4062B Problems: 1. receipt voucher. Proposals: 1. tailor 12th + skill training Assistant designer: 250B 2 tailors (f) 200B 3 for finishing Management: Stock control sheet. show room is from the family Elect. Insufficient working capital 3. Alemtsehay G/Medihin Decoration work Location: Kebele 06 Equipment: 1 Sales counting machine and 4 shelves Products: doors. Axum) no specific marketing practice. Small shop with high rent 2. Salaries 200. guard Management: no planning. 5 technicians 5-6th and 12th grade. shelves cabinets and wood products such as beds. lack of support from line ministries. 6 assistants. households on cash basis Marketing: Samples provided to institutions and hotels. 2. Lack of facilities by local authorities.000. 6m 2 2 Sewing machines. 3. shelves Cost/month: Rent: own working place. No accounting system is applied.000 B Products/Service Sale of flowers and cosmetics car decoration Staff: Owner and one lady worker Cost/month: Rent: 200B Electricity: 150B 25 . 5 of them female. by order and on the spot. Tel 201064 Set of bicycle maintenance tools Service: Supply: Huda Abdulahi Selling and repairing Yusuf Import + Export bicycles Company in Addis Sales: Individuals and institutions found locally and in Tigray region (Shire. 3. Curtain and mat works Location: Small shop on the main road. mats Supply: Working materials and accessories from Addis Sales: Institutions. 10. Pro forma Staff: Owner has 8 years experience 30-40 workers. cutters.7.

contact the finance institution. fill the loan application form and secure fund 2.4 Buy electrical stove. 2. 2. BBS.Action plan for Business Development Services (BDS) in Bahir Dar 7/2002 Name / Activity of enterprises 1.4 Get own tourist guides to bring tourists to the shop 2. 26 . Identify and contact training centres or private trainers and link him with them. Organise business management training. 7. electrical and manual sewing machines 7. 3. 2.2 Calculate amount of fund required for raw materials and tools. 2. do priorities. Assist the owner to negotiate with the administration 2.3 Buy most necessary tools according to the set priority 3. Assist the owner to improve his shop by contacting carpenters and providing advice on designing. Axum souvenir and handicraft shop 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. Look for training facilities in new models and use of tools/equipment. conferences. Assist the owner with talks to the tax authorities Assist to implement simple accounting system.1 Assist the owner in search for strategic location 1. 2. Lack of appropriate working premises Lack of equipment such as compressor for spraying colours. Getachew G/Mariam Shoe maker 1. 3. offices. Additional support by facilitator/ BDS provider 1. ---Assist in contacting the municipality and others for appropriate location Negotiate with the municipality for tax-free sign board advertisement ------Identify public or private training institutions and link the operator with them Advice the operator to have separate saloons for men and women hair dressing. radio or local newspapers 3. 7. 3. 7.3 Identify suppliers of tools/machines and provide information on prices. Haje Adgoi Baker 1. Participate in training of management and accounting. 6. 4. Emebet. Problem identified by the owner himself Over taxation Lack of management and accounting Marketing problem Insufficient size of work premises Proposal of action Self-help initiative of the business owner 1.1 Save money and open savings account 2. 3. Lack of training on how to develop new models.6 Look for funds to advertise on media 3. signboard) 2. High house rent and small shop High participating costs at exhibitions and trade fairs Lack of training in management and bookkeeping. Get business management training (IYB.1 Open new sales shops. 2. Almaz and Aleme Men hair dressing 1. CEFE training according to his market plan. 2. 1.3 Contact trade fairs and exhibition promotion agencies and negotiate for reduced participation fee 2. 5. 6.5 Sell through street vendors 2.2 3. 4. Change location with affordable rent and place 2. get loan procedures and assist him in filling out loan application forms 2. 5. Negotiate with the tax authorities. 4.1 Publish and disseminate posters and brochures to hotels. 1. 3. 1.2 Contact with credit institution. wooden shoe models (m/f) 110 B each. 3.2 Improve product variety and quality. 4. Shop is old and lets in flood and rain Bad location High monthly payment to the municipality for the signboard Cannot afford maintenance cost of some Items Lack of sufficient working capital.000 B. Improve working shop to attract more customers (shelves.2 Provide information on printing of posters and brochures Look for trade fair promotion agencies specific to smallscale operators Provide information about advertising on TV. 2. Insufficient skill training in hair dressing Cultural biases (men hesitating to go to a women barber 1. Lease more land. 6. CEFE).1 Encourage him to save money 2. 4. 4. 5.2 Prepare photos and texts to be put on the WebPages of Ethiopian BDS network 2. ---Apply to the municipality for other opportunities of securing appropriate location Dealing with municipality. 1. 4. and airport. 3. 1.1 2. 3. Make follow-up and provide advice on market problems. Women Affairs and others about financing of signboard advertising ------Look for training opportunities in men and women hairdressing Also engage in women hairdressing. 3.3 Look for skilled manpower.

2 Make contacts with bank for extension of credit. 2. 1. Tigist Tefera Production of energy saving stoves 1.1 Improve savings 2.2 Advise the operator to open a savings account and improve savings 2.2 Make contacts to banks. get procedures and loan application forms. 1. Advise on selection of cost effective and appropriate rental houses 2.4 Assist in negotiations with bank.2 3. in collaboration with the local Chamber of Commerce and other resource persons.1 Get information from tax authorities for accounting requirements and assist owner to improve bookkeeping system 1.3 Contact office and project employees to buy her products with improved leaflet 1.1 Assist operators in writing business plan 2.4 1. invite bank officials to visit operator's business 2. Fluctuating and arbitrarily set of tax 1.1 Assist in the enhancement of negotiation capacity upon talking to officials 2. assist in filling the loan application forms. Small shop with high rent Lack of promotional support from line ministries Insufficient knowledge of bidding procedures 27 .2 Advice on analysis of production capacity. Berhanu Jembere Electric stoves and metal works 1. get procedures and loan formats. Work place.3 Negotiate with bank to get credit on the basis of good business performance in stead of physical collateral 2. 2.2 Negotiate with tax authorities to charge on the basis of of collateral. 1. 6.2 Open savings account 2. 3. 1. Lack of working premise Insufficient working capital Stiff market competition.3 Organise workshop on "How to win tenders". 8. Negotiate with municipality to provide the operator with premises ---Help the operator to produce leaflets Help the operator to make Photo documentation ------Make contact with micro-finance institution.6 2. 3.1 Encourage more savings 2. assist in filling them 2. 1. Facilitate acquisition of land from municipality or from private individuals through use of brokers 2.4 Solicit better premise from private individual or apply to government for a plot of land Establish good personal contact with influential officials Invite promotional institutions to visit work premises Solicit information on bid procedures Try to meet the necessary bid requirements Inform Chamber of Commerce to assist in the bidding process Try to get all the information necessary to win bids. 2. 7.1 Apply to the local municipality for better location 1. income and expenditure to show to tax authorities Shortage of working capital due to lack 1.5.4 Improve workshop presentation.2 Provide information on tender procedures 3.3 Install bookkeeping system according to the requirements of credit institutions. Identify appropriate location from municipality or private land lords 2. ---1.3 1. the above records 2.3 3. 2.6 Participate in bazaars and exhibitions 2. Curtain and mat works 1.1 3. Apply for credit on convenient term to produce on stock and sale on credit.3 Make contact with bank.4 Advertising her products outside Bahir Dar through photo documentation 1. 2.5 Advice on workshop organisation. 1.3 Assist in implementing standardised record keeping system. 2. get loan procedures and loan application form.1 2.5 Contact individuals through telephone and person 1.5 1.2 3.2 1.1 Write a business plan 2. 1. sales situation and opportunities (business plan) 3. 3.2 Set up a shelter for product exhibition.2 Assist in negotiations with tax authorities for reasonable charge 2.1 Assist in establishing photo documentation and leaflet. sales and stock at home Shortage of capital to produce in bulk and make more sales on credit. Getahun Abebe. Gettu Andarge Bicycle maintenance and sales 1. 2.1 Improve cash book and keep separate records of rates. assist her to fill loan application forms. 3. production. 1.

Assist in selection of a bookkeeper Identify training centres and trainers and link training for workers and apprenticeship programme. 10. Assist to improve working conditions by providing information on safety procedures. 2. 2. No accounting system is applied Workers and apprentices are not properly trained Bad working conditions in woodworking department (dust and noise). Lack of work premises High and accumulated tax rate Market problem 1. Look for training to enhance the skills of workers and apprentices Improve working conditions of workers. Advice the operator on selecting premises with good location Bring all operators with similar tax problems and create a forum where the operators.9. 28 . 1. 3. the chamber and tax authorities discuss the problem. Household and Office Furniture production 1. 3. 3. 2. Alemtsehay G/Medihin Decoration work 1. Hire skilled person for bookkeeping and to assist in its implementation. Damtie Gebeyehu. Look for rented house with affordable price Contact Bahir Dar Chamber of Commerce to lobby for tax rate reduction and extension of payment of over due tax Add more service out lets 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 2. 3. Assist the operator on how to make market assessment before opening other sales outlets.

Abdelkader Mnasri Educational level: Senior technician in accounting. Gafsa town 1. REJEB Lazhar 7. (1) After receipt of the credit. Project has been studied on the CEFE Approval of the bank and the course from 31/10/2000 to 25/11/2000 investment office (SICAR).A Hydrogeology Computer training for children Photo laboratory Receipt of the credit allowance. Intervention in order to accelerate the installation of the telephone line (1) Contact the bank in order to solve the problem with the supplier. Equipment has been ordered. (2) Assist to obtain the final approval. Deposit of the owner's contribution which is 4% of the total project costs.example of Tunisia Name and address Educational level. Intervention of the financing institution in order to accelerate the administrative procedure. Submit the estimate to the bank. year accounting + training in computer science Accounting and computer training Project has been studied and submitted to the bank. CEFE from 21/08/2000 to 15/09/2000 CEFE from 31/10/2000 to 25/11/2000 Receipt of the credit allowance. Approval of the credit committee. Equipment supply. CEFE participant from 15/08/2000 to 15/09/2000 Intervention at the regional office of commerce in order to accelerate the administrative procedure. Submit the dossier to the bank. Family can give her a credit for the photocopier. Approval obtained from the regional commission. DASSI Lassaàd Educational level D. Waiting for the receipt of the approval. (1) Advice for the strategic location. Insufficient credit for photocopier. Signature of the contract. Installation of a telephone line. Deposit of the owner's contribution. Raouf Zaibet Educational level: Senior technician in Kinesitherapy 2.Appendix 3: Situation analysis and action planning for start-ups . Wannassi Aida Educational level 1st year secondary. Furniture of the studio. Provision of the equipment. year secondary + training in auto mechanics Diagnostic of vehicle motors (coût total=16000D) Approval of the credit committee. Centre of Kinesitherapy children treatment Import of the equipment from France. (2) Building contractors 29 . (3) Support her efforts for obtaining the photocopier (1) Advice for the strategic location. (1) Advice for the strategic location. Approval obtained. (2) Check the strategic location of the business (3) Support to submit the dossier to the bank and the investment society. Tozeur town 1. Needs in intensive training for handling of the diagnosing machine. (2) 2-Chouchane Faouzia 6. (2) Project idea Actual situation of the project What has been done What has to be done Additional support by the BDS facilitator / provider Kebili town 1. (1) Advice for the strategic location. Credit approval of 3500 DT. Receipt of the licence.E. and submitted to the fund agency. organize an intensive short term technical training (2) Advice for the strategic location. Signature of the contract and the repayment scheme. Estimates are to be updated. 2. Deposit of the owner's contribution. Administrative problems with the supplier (estimate is not correct).

Alphabetisation programme. tailors. Bookkeeping. Tailor women: training in textile cut. hair dresser. Metal and wood workers. Technical and management trainings. Savings and credits program. electricians. 250FCFA/month membership fees. Collaboration between crafts and trades. Planning to get space for shop. Tax advisory services. Market problem without advertising. Tailor associations in Lafiabougou (ATTM) and District 2 (CAFO) CAFO: 44 members. Plot in suburb far from market and clients. Tailoring training centre. Intensify the training programmes. Problems and Weaknesses No headquarter. 30 . Further training in batik. blacksmiths and wood carvers. Proposals and Initiatives Build headquarter.Appendix 4: Situation analysis of business associations (crafts and trades) in Mali Name of Organisation National Federation of Artisans and Crafts of Mali (FNAM) Number of members and Trades 48 member associations: metal and wood works. ATTM: new association for self-help. car mechanics. tailors (women). Publish presentation handbook. Build an expo space for furniture products. multi-professional association for concertation and experience exchange. Get licence for sign board. shoe makers. painters. car mechanics. Started crafts and trades savings and credit MFI. wood and metal works. Publish newsletter. food processing. car mechanics. Fashion show. Lack of sector-specific organisation. weekly meetings Objectives and Structure Representation of interest on national and regional level. 3-250 members per association About 50 paying members. Advocacy and lobbying. 23 in the regions. ATTM: 30 members. Insufficient capacity to extend training programs to other regions. Qualification for better products and competitiveness CAFO: regularly fees and participating on trade fairs. painters 100 FCFA fees per week. jewellery. Creation of Chamber of Crafts and Trades. 500FCFA/month membership fees. plumbers. Experience exchange and national interventions like trade fair organisation Achievements Proposal of new tax law approved by Government Tender participation. leather works. ATTM: Organized fashion show at the French Cultural Centre Formal training programmes for apprentices and owners in collaboration with Swisscontact. Training needs for wood works and tailoring. ATTM: Organize fashion show for marketing. crafts and trades of Kati town 150 members of the construction sector. weavers. car mechanics and metal works CAFO: two-monthly meetings for common activities and membership fees. and technical trainings. literacy campaigns. Lack of common centre for big offers and tenders. Tailoring and batik 250 members. ATTM: Young association without experience. AMAPRO newsletter. Regular membership fees. social affairs. Artisans and Crafts Association – District 4 Business association for concertation and experience exchange managing a common plot obtained by the municipality. tailor women. construction sector. Trade-fair organisation. 25 associations in Bamako. Savings and credits MFI on the plot. Expo space for tailoring and wood works. Weak membership fees. Extend activities to the Segou region. Strengthen collaboration with members by hiring a BDS facilitator and develop services for the members. workshops and shops. men and women. expo space in town and training in French CAFO: Got plot from municipality and want to build training centre. Lack of premises for car mechanics and metal workers. Further training in fabrication of soap. potters. Lack of planning capacity and organisational development. business management. additional activity in solar drying food processing. Weak management. blacksmith. no newsletter. AMAPRO Car mechanics and metal works Association of workers. Since 1991.

000 FCFA. Organize statistical survey of the Federation. printing procedures with print office. Create redaction committee. Inform on all administrative procedures and assist for estimate. French language course. ATTM: Young association without experience. Lack of premises for car mechanics and metal workers. Make statistics of the federation in order to publish presentation handbook for potential partners. Cost sharing of 25% for solar drying training. Employ BDS facilitators for services to members. Identify trainer. Identify newsletter finance for 6 months. Training needs for wood works and tailoring. Organize fashion shows in French Cultural centre and Lafiabougou hotel. Organize radio announcement. estimate and work organization. Increase participation fees for trainings in other regions. Cost sharing of 25% for training. 31 . Make training programme with trainer co-finance training. Organize lay-out. link to partners like Swisscontact. Self-help initiative of the members Contribute own funds of 790. Select participants Additional Support of BDS facilitator /providers Project contribution for headquarter 200. Build an exposition space for furniture. Make list of distribution. Revise loan dossier. Make training programme together with trainer. shop.000 FCFA plus own work. Revise estimate. Design formats for statistical survey. Revise leaflet. Select BDS facilitators and submit work contract. Tailor associations in Lafiabougou (ATTM) and District 2 (CAFO) AMAPRO Car mechanics and metal works Market problem without advertising. Link to partners for participation on technical training programmes for apprentices and shop owners. Leaflet for women tailoring training centre. Make estimate. Proposal of Action Build headquarter with offices. Identify contents of the next 3 newsletters. Get licence for expo sign board. contribute with own funds and work. Discuss programme with trainer and participants Co-finance training. Ask for premises with municipality. Collect data for leaflet. Train and follow up BDS facilitators. organisational development and activity monitoring Weak membership fees because of weak services to members. Ask for newsletter licence. Artisans and Crafts Association – District 4 Plot in suburb far from market and clients. Negotiate with French centre and hotels. exposition space and guest house to generate own funds. no newsletter for national information. Self-organized by tailor associations. Assist for meetings. Organize training in textile cut and design. Collect fees for material costs and contribute with work for construction. Central plot and workshop. Distribute leaflets in district. Lack of planning capacity. select participants. Central workshop for tailors. crafts and trades of Kati town Lack of sector-specific organisation. Identify partners. Lack of common centre for big offers and tenders. Women member lack training for soap fabrication. Assist for intervention to municipality. Estimate and technical lay-out of newsletter. Insufficient capacity to extend training programs to other regions. Write and publish leaflet. Publish national newsletter. Organize national distribution. make estimate. select participants Cost sharing of 25%. Ask for loan with MFI Ask municipality for premises. Association of workers. Assist for tax-free sign board to municipality. Training for solar drying food processing. Weak management. Revise dossier and contact solar training centre Segou. Contribute with 25% to training fees. select part.Action Plan with Business Associations (crafts and trades) in Mali Name of Organisation National Federation of Artisans and Crafts of Mali (FNAM) Main Problems No headquarter for national concertation.

wood Weaving Metal. wood Enterprises 41 25 41 15 18 24 164 Persons 876 349 477 196 766 171 2.Appendix 5: BDS in Industrial Clusters Addis Ababa Micro and Small Enterprise Development Bureau Ethio-German Micro and Small Enterprises Development Project What is a Cluster ? A cluster is a sectoral and geographic concentration of enterprises facing common opportunities and threats: Weavers. Cereal. pre cast beam Metal. spices. Rent sales rooms near potential clients. hollow bloc Metal. Publicize location and products. means identified with the demand-driven’ business owners. pre-cast beam producers. wood. Assign salesperson. 7 Major problems of Clusters and Proposals of Solutions Cluster 1: Kolfe/Keranyo – Metal and wood work Cluster (Airtena) Major Problems Joint Solutions 1. Transport and supply facilities. they identified common problems of the clusters and specific problems of the enterprises involved. Contact government and NGOs for additional support. capital is tied-up Major Problems … Summary of Common Problems of Clusters Infrastructure problems: Joint Solutions Cluster 4: Gulele –Weavers’ Cluster Major Problems 1. Bad road condition to secure raw materials and deliver finished products to the market 2. garment producers in the textile sector. 21 BDS facilitators have been assigned in the 7 industrial zones. Apply for credit of MFIs. 4. Insufficient working capital 11 32 . make contributions and construct the road. Power problem 2. Shortage of working capital 4. wood. Situation Analysis and Action Plan are done in collaboration with the enterprises. Shortage of raw materials Contact EEPCO for power Facilitators assist weavers to access training facilities of respective training centers. ‘ injera’ and similar item processors in the food sector. wood. Together with the enterprises involved. 3. hollow bloc Metal. Hollow bloc producers. Lack of business management and record keeping skill 3. Link enterprises to projects. Services were ‘ demand. Business advisors (facilitators) are stationed in each of the clusters. tailors. Use of advertisement. Business advisors discussed proposals of solutions and linked enterprises to other service providers to solve the problems. location and equipment. Product development. Minimize production costs. 2. Increase product quality. Housing development office is not taking products on time. Bad location for marketing products Establish road development committee. Thus. hollow bloc. Link cluster members to MFIs. Markets and marketing. payments are delayed – Lack of coordination of common facilities 15 3. – Roads not properly constructed for some of the clusters – Insufficient electric and water supply – Insufficient sanitation facilities Market problems: – Inaccessibility of clusters to buyers (location) – Competition from non-clustered enterprises – Clusters are not promoted to the general public Administrative problems: – No functional cluster associations and bank account – Customers not taking finished products on time. metal and wood workers in the construction sector. Access to finance… 3 Business Development Services (BDS) to Selected Clusters 21 BDS facilitators are assisting 7 clusters: Sub-city Nifassilk/Lafto Bole Kolfe/Keranyo 2 sites Arada Gulele Yeka Total Cluster activity Metal. Business Development Services (BDS) to Industrial Clusters in Addis Ababa City Administration Teklu Kidane Ethio-German MSE Development Project Addis Ababa September 2005 1 2 What is Clustering? Clustering is to bring the enterprises of the same sector together in order to find sectorsectorspecific solutions for common problems such as: Premises. Lack of technical training 5. signboard and business card Negotiate for the amendment of the agreement Establish savings account.835 6 Approach and Steps of Business Development Services in Clusters 1. owners 6. On-the-spot technical advise Negotiate with the office to take finished products and effect payments on time 8 3. Non-respect of contract agreement by housing project 4. 5.

Production and marketing management training with Chambers.Bole sub city . hand tools. . information on loan conditions 3.Workshop management and safety measures through collaboration with TVET institutions and FeMSEDA . Far from clients 2.power 800 . look for training Responsible for action Members of the Cooperative Additional support by the BDS facilitator 1.no promotion 20 Example of Action Plan for Nisir Wood Cooperative Five month Action Plan of ‘ Nisir’ Wood and Metal Cooperative Name of ente.Development of cluster directory/product catalogues .Product development and quality improvement with the help of the Standards Authority .Assisting enterprises to competitively tap private markets in addition to government projects Name Date estab.nearby residents Marketing: .Business planning and record keeping with facilitators 19 Next Steps … Example of Situation Analysis of Nisir Wood Cooperative Situation Analysis of ‘ Nisir’ Wood and Metal Cooperative Markets and Marketing: . managerial and record keeping skills Insufficient supply of machines Lack of information on suppliers. utilities. Far from clients 2.water 20 .Establishment of common supply facilities for raw material and machines .Introducing enterprises to existing regulations such as taxes.Kiosks Supply: -retailers in Merkato & Kera Sales: -in bulk and retail Clients: . Nisir wood and metal works Coop. for weavers) .Doors . standards and quality… 18 Training.Summary of Common Problems on Enterprise Level Enterprise specific market and marketing problems Insufficient size of production premises Non-availability of raw materials in close proximity Lack of technical./month) Costs: -Staff 1600 .trans. Lack of working capital 3. assist BusPlan preparation.Welding machine. driller. 300 . apply for credit 3. diversify clients 2. to be involved . Diversify clients 2. . e. transport… ) (Br.rent 128 Problems identified by enterprise members 1. business skill 1. assist in simple market research 2.Establish cluster associations of cluster enterprises. power and water services – Ask Kebele for proper sanitation facilities. on-the-spot advise and other assistances to clusters in the area of: . Business skill Solutions 1. cutter Product Service Supply/Sales /Clients/Marketing Fixed costs (staff. Gerji. Business plan and apply for credit 3. wood file.Bole subcity. markets. laws and regulations Lack of technical advise on product quality Next Support Activities Entry points for cluster development Infrastructure: – Ask for intervention of Kebele/Sub-city for better roads to the clusters and within each cluster – Improvement of telephone. on-the-spot advice.Information on local and international market opportunities (e.g.government .Nov. Location. K14/15 . Lack of working capital 3.Furniture .Enhancement of cluster management capacity . Look for training 21 .Nisir wood and metal works coop. toilets – Construction of proper office for BDS facilitators within the clusters (in collaboration with cluster projects) – Construction of display and sales rooms (enterprises themselves) 17 16 Next Steps … Next Steps … Administrative procedures: . 2000 . NGOs and FeMSEDA . Equip. Problems Self-help identified by initiative of the enterprise enterprise 1.AdCSI 22 33 . tax. contact sub-city for training Support inst. rent.Windows . define responsibilities and establish action plan .g.

• took After the initial entrepreneurship training. the participants with the help of facilitators obtained the following services • created their own enterprises: the 36 TVET graduates formed three enterprises each consisting of 12 members • got certified by the sub-city cooperative agency as private cooperatives 6 qualification test that enables them to participate in tenders for construction works for government offices. The Gullele sub-city in Addis Ababa with the EthioGerman MSE and TVET Projects initiated a 6-month activity to assist 36 TVET graduates from the construction sector without employment to become self-employed.C :Birr 238.000 for operation and to purchase raw materials to construct 10 tailor’ s shops and street side shops Agar O.. • prepared business plan. l 10 11 34 . • the three enterprises thus created are the following 5 Business Development Services for Existing Enterprises Access to Premises l l l l Access to Credit All the enterprises have obtained loan of varying amounts from Addis Credit and Savings Institution Ralcon :Birr 48.000 for micro leasing stone creasier for three years l l All the three enterprises have accessed work premises from Gullele sub-city. An enterprise is entitled a minimum of 4m2 area per person the size of the area to be allocated for an enterprise varies depending on the activities the enterprises pay Birr 2/m2 as rent for the premise.Appendix 6: BDS with unemployed School Leavers Ethio German Micro and Small Enterprise Development Programme Ethio-German TVET Programme Background l Support on Self-Employment of TVET Graduates Peter Tefera MSE Development Project Addis Ababa September 2005 There are many unemployed youth and even unemployed graduates in Ethiopia.I. l 1 2 Approach The implementation of the 6-month activity was organized in three phases: Phase I: Entrepreneurship Training Phase II: Start up of businesses Phase III: Business Development Services (BDS) for the existing enterprises 3 4 Implementation of Entrepreneurship Training The focus of the entrepreneurship training was mainly on: Business idea generation Screening of feasible and profitable business ideas Preparation of business plans Triggering the entreprenurship capacities of the participants Start-up of Businesses l start up ..000 for operation and to purchase materials such as hollow-bloc production machine Medina :Birr 37.000 out of which 38.000 was for operation and the remaining 200.

000 with Gullele Sub-city for the construction of a food processing workshop It has entered and completed construction of 4 shops and 12 tailor’ s shops Negotiation is underway between the enterprise and Awash Construction S. l l l l l 36 unemployed TVET graduates have becom e self-employed. Facilitators linked Ralcon to a technology center called Negash Machinery and Metal Works PLC. A sanitary works contractual agreement with Kolfe Keranyo Sub-city Housing Development Project for a ground plus four building.Access to markets Access to markets… The three enterprises have signed and even com pleted contracts with different institutions. BDS facilitators should help the enterprises to be able to mobilize and effectively use their own funds and respect their credit repayment schedules. alum inum works. Am ong these are included the following: l Ralcon had signed a contract worth of Birr 7000 with Gullele Sub-city in order to build a food processing workshop and another contract with the Housing Developm ent Project Office for the production and supply of hollow blocks. They are also able to hire additional employees. The graduates have started securing regular income. office layout and other trainings related to their respective businesses. sanitary works on GTZ’ s Low Cost House Development.I. l Access to markets… l l Medina has signed a contract worth of Birr 7. hollow bloc production. The trainings are on such areas like electricity. for subcontracting finishing works 15 l l l Agar O. The Addis Ababa City Administration has got m ore labour resources for its construction programm e. record keeping. Local comm unities have started accessing affordable services from the three enterprises. Product development and quality improvement. E. Marketing: Graduates should be assisted to look for new additional market outlets in the private sector. 12 13 Access to markets.C has constructed 10 tailor’ s shops It is currently constructing a road with a cost of about 40. l It also secured new private and government markets since recently. Facilitators assisted the new start-ups to make an experience exchange tour to existing similar businesses in Addis Ababa which enabled the startups to familiarize themselves and understand existing situations.000 Birr for Gullele Sub-city and also building a latrine in the same Sub-city The enterprise has also started producing gravel around Akaki with a machine it micro leased 14 Technical Training Technology transfer and Experience exchange l Facilitators have also helped som e members of each enterprise to receive skills upgrading trainings in technical centers. electronics and electric installation..C. construction of latrines with a cost of Birr 3000 in Gullele Sub-city. business plan preparation. which enabled the former to visit latest machines and equipment.g. l 16 17 Impact l l l l Next steps Assist the graduates to improve their internal management.. managerial and entrepreneurial training such as management. 18 19 35 .

inform ation dissem in ation. Kebele 04 Tel. ILO and Amhara Women Entrepreneurs Association 4. Kebele 04 Mirror works •Assist to create linkages with suppliers of mirror in Addis Ababa •Assist to access better business location •Provide assistance on how to participate and win bids •Linkages with suppliers of mirror effected •New business location secured •The operator consulted on how to participate in bids •Business premises secured •She became BDS coordinator for OSA. G. translation service s. B D S s e rv ic es… ice B us in e ss S up p or t A c tivities Id en tified S up p or t A ct ivities R e alized •S e cure d lo an form A m h ara C red it a nd S a ving s asso ciation •S e cure d w o rk p rem is es by jo in ing o th er sim ila r e nterp rise s (A ss ocia tion ) •T he p rob lem o f p rem is es no t so lve d •T ax pa ym en t e xten ded Ach iev em e nts • The C ham ber ha s th ro ugh its m em bers be en su cce ssfu l in review in g tax a sse ssm e nt as a result of w hich so m e 33 3 bu sinesses ben efited fro m tax re ductio n. Bahir Dar. 9. N. 058 220 53 53 Pastry and restaurant 6. s m a ll. Kebele 13 Tel. M. Bahir Dar. • The cha m ber gives re gularly services (ad voca cy. D. put Zoom on 150% or print out Business Development Services by Bahir Dar Chamber of Commerce Business Support Activities Identified Support Activities Realized BDS services… Business 3. Kebele 06 Household and office furniture workshop Support Activities Identified •Assist him to join other groups to secure work premises from the municipality •Assist him to get training in specification and product designing Support Activities Realized •Association of wood and metal workers created •Secured premises with •Secured a two-month training in designing and costing from the Bahir Dar University. lo bbying and re pre sentation. M. K ebe le 0 6 S ta tion er y an d cu tle ry s ho p •F ac ilita te a cce ss to p rem ises •N eg otia te w ith the ta x a utho rity to p ostpo ne p aym e nt of a ccrue d tax an d ren ew the lice nse o f the o pe rator 36 .p r iv a te s e c to r r e la tio n s h ip . K ebe le 0 5 H ou se ho ld a nd o ffice fur n itur e w o rk sh op •F ac ilita te a cce ss to loa n from m icro fin an ce in stitu tion •F ac ilita te a cce ss to p rem ises 1 0. K. M . Kebele 04 Metal works •Assist the operator to get loan from micro finance institution •Assist in solving the problem of premises BDS services… Business 5. M. T. T. H. • The cha m ber h as lo bbied up to th e level o f the re gio na l gove rn m ent for the re ductio n o f re nts and ta riff fo r utilities.Appendix 7: BDS with the Bahir Dar Chamber of Commerce B a h ir D a r C h a m b e r o f C o m m e r c e V is io n T h e V is io n o f B a h ir D a r C h a m b e r o f C o m m e rc e is to s e e a v ib r a n t p r iv a te s e c to r th a t cr e a te s a d d itio n a l j o b s to th e u n e m p lo y e d a n d c o n tr ib u te to w a rd s p o v e r ty a lle v ia tio n in E th io p ia . To read tables. Kebele 16 Tel. A. Bahir Dar. M i s s io n • T o s tr e n g th e n th e p r iv a te s e c to r th r o u g h su p p o rt s e rv ice s • To assu re th e q u a lity and e ff ic ie n c y of b u s in e s s m a n a g e m e n t b y p r o v id in g re le v a n t tr a in in g s a n d B u s in e s s D e v e lo p m e n t S e r v ice s ( B D S ) to m ic r o . K. 058 220 10 65 Household and office furniture workshop Support Activities Identified •Negotiate with the tax authority to postpone payment of accrued tax and renew the license of the operator •Facilitate access to product design and cost calculation training from Bahir Dar University •Negotiate with the tax authority to postpone payment of accrued tax and renew the license of the operator •Facilitate access to training Support Activities Realized •Tax payment extended and the license is renewed. This helped her to secure additional income 2. S. Faculty of Engineering •The operator got the loan from ACSI MFI •The problem of premises solved by joining other similar enterprises (Association) 1. Bahir Dar. S. 058 220 14 88 Gold sm ith and hotel service Support Activities Identified •Assist him to get training for one of his staff •Train him and his staff in keeping records and paying tax Support Activities Realized •One of his staff got training recordkeeping training for 5 days in collaboration with Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce •Training in taxation provided for 3 days by the Bureau of Finance and Economic Development of Amhara region •Loan secured from the Development Bank of Ethiopia •Tax payment extended and the license is renewed. T. T. B a hir D ar. Bahir Dar. Kebele 05 Metal works •Assist the operator to get loan •Negotiate with the tax authority to postpone payment of accrued tax and renew the license of the operator •Accrued tax penalty canceled •Training in record keeping and business counseling provided by the Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce and the BDS facilitator respectively. Kebele 06 Tel. Bahir Dar. BDS services… Business 7. A . M e d iu m a n d la r g e p riv a te e n te r p r is e s • T o a d v o c a te f o r th e cr e a tio n o f c o n d u c iv e e n v ir o n m e n t f o r d o m e s tic in v e s to r s • A d v o c a c y fo r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e p r iv a te s e c to r a n d f a c ilita tio n o f p o s itiv e g o v e rn m e n t. B a hir D ar. Bahir Dar. •The operator got training in product design and costing 8. sup port to business a sso cia tio ns). 058 220 59 86 Café and restaurant •Assist in securing business premises with reasonable rent •Assist to participate in BDS training workshop organized by the GTZ. M. M.

org Ghanaian business information www.net Business information services and BDS strategies. Lessons learnt. Dutch Cooperation 37 . Business case studies www.bds-forum.net All about BDS theory and practice.com Business portal of the National Federation of Artisans and Crafts www.Appendix 8: BDS Portals and Learning Platforms www.ghanabusiness.com BDS and Value Chain Development.bds-ethiopia.mali-business.business-ethiopia.start-your-business.net Learning module on enterprise creation 3 www. Case studies of several countries www.

In fo rm a tio n a n d L e a rn in g P la tfo rm ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 3 Business Inform ation Services Business Information Services: Business Planning. Activity and Impact Monitoring 4 ¡ 5 M e d ia M ix : In te rn e t – C D -R O M . donors and not the business owners because latter do rarely use Internet. Accounting and Cost calculation. C a sh b o o ks. Standards and Q uality. C o s t calcu latio n . P a rtn e r O rg a n iz a tio n s jo in t in th e E th io p ia n B D S N e tw o rk fo r c o o rd in a tio n a n d e x p e rie n c e e x c h a n g e . A c c o u n tin g . Leather. B u s in ess P lan . In te rn e t B D S P o rta l w w w . BD S Success Stories. mail@gagel.s pecific Info on Textile. 6 7% o f su p p o rted an d in terview ed b u s in e sse s h ave in c rea sed tu rn o ve r. Start and Im prove your Busines s ¡ Target Groups Target Groups are intermediaries like business consultants and advisors. Food processing and Construction Strategies on Private Sector D evelopment. Information is trickled down to the enterprise level by business advisors and BDS facilitators when supporting the enterprises.c o m ). Supply. Addis Ababa 2005 38 . F in an cial p lan . In fo r m a tio n o n T a x a tio n .a d a m ac h a m b er . n ow e m plo yed by the C h am b e r a nd fin a nce d b y a dve rtis in g c om pan ies o n w e bp age .net. C o s t c a lc u la t io n . • Direct target groups are not business ow ners (w ith less Internet use) but intermediaries like business consultants. information via intermediaries trickles dow n to enterprise level and the w hole country. G ender. 9 10 Th e B D S P ortal ha s be en ta ke n ov er by th e E th io pia n C h am be r o f C om m erce .P rin tm e d ia • O u tre a c h a n d Im pa c t ¡ B e c a u s e o f lim it e d u s e o f In te rn e t b y b u s in e s s o w n e rs . BDS facilitators. • Produce w ebpage w ith simple htm l code that can easily be updated by local low -cost personal and partners.Example of Ethiopia B u s in e s s D e v e lo p m e n t S e rv ic e s . Lessons learnt Library/D ow nload: Sector studies. CD-RO M. Im port-E xport.et h i o p i an c ha m be r. Law s and Regulations. B DS. • By M edia m ix of Internet. Im p o r t E x p o rt. in co m e a n d em p lo ym en t (im p act o f B D S in clu d in g th e P o rtal). Presentation of Partner Organizations and BD S providers Finance: Loan conditions of M FI and Banks Sector . E x te rn a l ev alu atio n resu lts: 7 1% o f B D S fa cilitato rs u sin g th e B D S P o rtal in fo rm a tio n service s. e sp e cially A cc o u n tin g . B u s in e s s P la n n in g . Trade Fairs. F o r b u s in e s s c o n s u lta n c y s p e c ific in fo r m a tio n lik e B u s in e s s P la n s u n d L o a n A p p lic a tio n F o r m s a r e p r in t e d b y o ffic e p rin te rs . L o an C o n d itio n s o f M F I / B an k s.b d s -e t h i o p ia . 8 • ¡ • ¡ S us tain a bility ¡ Lessons Learnt • Efficient Internet BDS P ortals must be based on concrete BDS structures on the ground and business advisors using information in daily business consultancy w ork on enterprise level. C apacity Building and Netw orking. 6 5 00 B D S facilitato rs (200 5) u s in g reg u la rly th e B D S P o rtal p lu s 1 2. h a s b e e n p rin te d a n d s o ld v ia E th io p ia n b o o k s h o p s . partners and donors.000 visito rs p er m o n th fro m E th io p ia (50 % ) an d ab ro ad (50 % ). Taxation. W e b p a g e is c o p ie d a ll 6 m o n t h s o n C D R O M a n d d is tr ib u te d to B D S f a c ilita to r s a n d p a rtn e rs u s in g in fo rm a tio n o n e n te r p ris e le v e l.Appendix 9: Impact + Sustainability of ICT based Business Development . T ra d e F a irs e tc .c om a nd w w w . M a r k e t in g . Marketing. Entrepreneurship training. fina nc ing the upd ate v ia a dve rtis in g c om pan ies o n its ow n w eb pa ge (w eb pa ge s d eve lop ed b y G T Z p ro je ct w w w . Tenders. C o nten ts are u pd ated b y fee d ba ck of N e tw o rk m e m b ers . ¡ ¡ Dieter Gagel.0 0 0 m ic ro a n d s m a ll e n te rp ris e s p e r y e a r. Garm ent. N e tw o rk in g a n d Le a rnin g P la tfo rm 3 0 n a tio n a l P a rtn e r O rg a n iza tio n s w ith 5 0 0 tra in e d B D S F a c ilita to rs s u p p o rtin g a b o u t 9 . PR SP. Im prove your Business Association. B D S P ortal is ba se d on s im p le w eb c od e a nd c an ea s ily be up da te d b y fo rm e r p ro je c t s ec re ta ry.n e t . members of the BDS network. Printed Handbooks and sales in bookshops.

Trade Fairs. Business planning. Standards and Quality.Appendix 10: The BDS reader available on Internet: www. Import-Export. Ghanaian.bds-forum. Marketing.net/bds-reader.htm BDS Theory: Basic document of the International Donor Committee for SME Development. Revised BDS approach of the Ethiopian/Tunisian/Malian experience BDS Practice: Introduction to demand-driven BDS BDS in industrial clusters BDS support to self-employment of TVET graduates BDS with start-ups in Tunisia BDS with business associations in Mali BDS Toolkit: How to put BDS into Practice BDS success stories Capacity Building of business associations and Chambers of Commerce: Improve your business association BDS of the Bahir Dar Chamber of Commerce Ethiopian Business Directory Membership statistics Ethiopian Chamber webpage Internet Portals and Learning Platforms: Ethiopian. Malian. Bookkeeping and Cost calculation Monitoring and Evaluation of BDS: Activity and Impact monitoring for projects and partner organisations 39 . Tunisian Internet BDS portals Monthly email-based BDS newsletter Business Information handbooks: Taxation.

business owners will be encouraged in a participatory manner to identify their main problems by themselves and to formulate proposals of solutions. but cannot replace concrete talks and assessments on individual business level which finally will guide us to concrete business services delivery. Advisory or business consultancy systems have to be prepared by a concrete needs assessment on individual business level.70x10x3 = 2. Some services will even have to be provided by public structures. BDS newsletter. Individual needs assessment results can be generalized on group or sector level. An effective BDS system with course and training activities should be completed by a direct advisory or business consultancy system on business level. This will be a better way to carry out a business services delivery system responding on the real needs of operators. But in this case.100 operators per year).400 businesses per year. because course systems often focus on standard and supply driven services and less on tailor made demand driven services. Direct target groups are not business owners (with less Internet use) but intermediaries like business consultants. But there will always be services that will never attempt a 100% cost recovery but only cost sharing. e. Lessons learnt on Internet based BDS Portals and Learning Platforms Efficient Internet BDS Portals must be based on concrete BDS structures on the ground and business advisors using information in daily business consultancy work on enterprise level. 40 . CD-ROM. o All German chambers of trades keep a business advisor busy who gives individual and concrete advises to the businesses of their regions.Appendix 11: Lessons learnt on Business Development Services (BDS) Often the business owners' problems cannot be solved by a limited classroom training system.g. In this needs assessment. partners and donors. With a larger number of facilitators or BDS providers. Direct advisory services can give us an idea about the concrete problems of micro and small enterprises (MSE) instead of studies and analysis that give us an idea about sector problems in general. information via intermediaries trickles down to enterprise level and the whole country.: o 70 facilitators of the Tunisian manpower agency advise 10 enterprises each in a three month action plan . BDS should be market oriented in terms of cost sharing and cost recovery of its services. By Media mix of Internet. So we have to accept that BDS cannot only be developed with commercial business providers but also with other private non-profit organisations with diversified financing (cost sharing services plus donor funded activities) as done by private NGO. group advisory and sector approach have been identified and implemented bottom-up and not top-down. BDS facilitators. this system can have an outreach impact rather wide. Individual needs assessment and BDS deliveries are not necessarily limited in effectiveness and outreach. Produce webpage with simple html code that can easily be updated by local low-cost personal and partners. printed handbooks and sales in bookshops. o 500 Ethiopian BDS facilitators supported about 9. they are useful and can give us an idea of the main sector problems in general. Sector studies can provide a lot of data on the MSE sector.

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