This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
THE FOOD PYRAMID:
METHODS OF HEATING AND THEIR PROPERTIES CONDUCTION- is the passage of heat through a solid, or from one solid to another, provided they are in contact(e.g a saucepan on a hot plate.) CONVECTION- is the passage of heat through liquids and gases. RADIATION- is the passage of heat in straight rays from a hot object.
water - 98°C - 100°C Oil 130°C - 150°C
Blanching is a cooking method done on the stove, used to pre-cook, cook or sanitize an ingredient in preparation for another cooking method or for preservation.
5 Ways of Blanching: 1.Starting with cold water 2.Starting with warm water 3.Starting with Boiling hot water 4.Starting in Oil 5.Starting in Boiling Hot Water with Salt
165°C Poaching is a cooking method done on the stove or in the oven the objective is to gently cook portioned tender meats which is high protein foods 4 Types of poaching poaching in floating liquid shallow poaching poaching in a water bath with stirring poaching in a water bath without stirring Where do we poach: On the stove. bouquet garni. in liquid On the stove. white wine vinegar. white wine.80°C oven .65°C . spice sachet.is a poaching liquid for fish and seafood (water. in a water bath In the oven. remove them Drain water and wash bones first under running hot water and then cold water -Poaching (Chef Gerd style) stove . matignon) Poaching Liquids: Court-Bouillon Stocks Stock syrups Common problems fish having a rubbery texture due to poaching temperature is too high food discolors or breaks up due to high temperature . in a water bath In a low or high pressure steamer Court bouillon.Why do we Blanch: to clean and sanitize to destroy enzymes to extend the shelf life by freezing to improve the color of the ingredient to reduce the volume STEPS: For Bones Wash bones under cold running water Place bones into pan and cover with cold water Place Pan on stove and bring slowly to a boil Skim off impurities and fat After the bones boil for approximately 2 minutes.
Common problems in boiling and simmering overcooking undercooking not enough water to boil foods not maintaining a suitable heat so food takes longer to cook and discolors . Any scum that rises to the surface must be skimmed off to prevent it from boiling back into the liquid and affecting the quality of the food. Why is it important to start boiling with cold water temperature with salt? To cook evenly -Simmering stove. The item to be boiled must be completely covered with liquid throughout the process.-Boiling stove . the lid is usually removed during the cooking process. the lid is removed while the food is cooking. Steps for Simmering: A lid can be used to conserve energy while the heats to simmering point. Start with enough liquid to allow for evaporation The liquid level may need to be topped up during the cooking process. however. The item to simmered must be completely covered with liquid throughout the process.100°C Boiling is a cooking method done on the stove.98°C Simmering is a cooking method done on a stove the objective is to gently cook high connective tissues of meat and to reduce the liquid to enhance the flavour. the objective is to completely immerse the food in liquid and cooked at boiling point. Steps for Boiling: Liquid is brought to the boil quickly and maintained at a temperature of 100°C A lid can be used to conserve energy while the liquid comes to the boil.98°C . in a pot. Start off with enough liquid to allow for evaporation The liquid level may need to be toped up during the cooking process. Any scum that rises to the surface must be skimmed off to prevent it from affecting the quality of the food.95°C . However.
in DFF) Deep fat frying is a cooking method done in a deep fat fryer the objective is to fully immerse the ingredient in oil or fat and to cook the product evenly while the outside part is crisp (golden brown) and the inside juicy Frying mediums peanut oil ghee (clarified butter) lard (animal fat) canola oil Points to remember: Season the food before coating Shake or drain excess coating before frying Keep a spider or frying basket on hand as a safety measure . guinea fowl -Glazing stove meat . meat has shrunk because the oven was too hot during cooking Reminder: if the liquid is too thick just add a little amount of water to reconstitute the sauce Suitable foods for braising: Lamb.beef.Brown roux .-Braising oven vegetables .140°C .98°C Glazing is a cooking method done on a stove wherein butter is added in a heated pan plus sugar and liquid (stocks or water) the liquid is reduced to a syrupy consistency to give the product its shinny appearance -Deep fat frying deep fat fryer 170°C .180°C ( most of the time food is cooked at this temp.Flour Common problems loss of liquid due to high temp.165°C oven meat200°C .180°C Braising is a cooking method starting on the stove and finish in the oven it is use to cook large chunks of high connective meats and whole vegetables to tenderize in a tightly lid container to create a liquid for the sauce.furred game and pork Chicken.165°C vegetable 95°C . Ratio of liquid 2/3 liquid for meat 1/3 liquid for vegetables thickening agents .diluted cornstarch in water .duck.goose.200°C .
done in a spit or in the oven.220°C) Finish 180°C Spit roasting start 220°C Cook 180°C Roasting is a cooking method. EN PAPILOTTE.Common Problems: Food doesn’t brown Food over cooked Food browns before it is cooked Food is soggy -Oil not hot enough -Fryer overload -Oil too hot -Temperature too low -Oil old or contaminated -Food covered after cooking -Baking oven 130°C . Common Problems: Food tough and dry due to -Overcooking -Temperature too high -Meat not basted enough or not turned in the oven -Should have been barded or larded -Cut of meat not suited to roasting. Basting.is where a small amount of fat is poured thinly over the food during roasting. . The edge of the greaseproof paper is paper is brushed with egg white and folded over to seal in the juices. the product is then placed in the middle then the parchment paper is folded to look like an empanada then the edges are crumpled to seal it in. Tender meats are cooked in a spit. -Roasting oven (starts 200°C .235°C Baking is a cooking method done in an oven were food is subjected to the action of dry heat. the objective is to cook a product with a dough or a crust Exception: cooking en papillote – buttered parchment paper is cut into a heart shape.refers to the cooking of food in a hot oven in a buttered and sealed envelope or bag made of alfoil or greaseproof paper(parchment paper) cut in the heart shape. The Objective is to cook it crispy outside and juicy inside.
Teflon pan the objective is to caramelize or until translucent and to create a dish with a sauce. electric griller.98°C Stewing is a cooking method.meats of a tougher nature are suitable for stewing Common problems stock is too dark meat is tough sauce is greasy -roux overcooked or stew burnt during cooking . infrared griller the objective is to cook tender portioned meat by smoking it and to make a grill marks to give juiciness.190°C Grillingis a cooking method. done on a stove. The objective is to cook ingredients at simmering temperature in one pot fully submerged in a liquid.meats can be marinated prior to stewing . done on a gas griller.200°C Pan frying/sautéing is a cooking method. Traditional stews civet goulash navarin salmis ragout Points to remember: -food needs to be cut into an even size . stainless steel pan. ingredients are cut into small sizes or portioned.undercooked or cooking temperature is too high -fat lest on meat -stew not skimmed adequately . done on a stove. Stewing stove 95°C . all the ingredients are served together as one dish. charcoal griller.Surface of meat burned -Temperature too high -Some edges overexposed to heat -Not trussed properly Suface of meat not browned -Oven temperature not hot enough -Grilling Grill 240°C . texture and color Basting liquids water quick marinade Reminder: you need to preheat the griller first Pan frying/ sautéingstove 165°C .
120°C Steamingis a cooking method done on a stove or a steamer. Gratinating oven 240°C Salamander 280°C Gratinatingis a cooking method done in an oven or a salamander to create a crust. to brown food. allow time for the inside pressure to reduce to a safe level before opening stand at the hinged side of the doors of steaming cabinets when opening them. whole or portioned Fruit-Dried only Vegetables-Most vegetables Seafood-any type Puddings-sponge puddings Pressure steaming: Meat.any tough cuts Offal-tongue and oxtail Poultry-boilers Vegetables-frozen Safety points check safety valves regularly for blockages or corrosion when operating pressure steam doors. to increase the flavor and aroma to the dish .-stew left standing for too long before service Steaming stove -100°C Steamer. or lids.the natural taste of food are preserved -the cooking process is faster -very nutritional way of cooking because no fats or oils are used.sirloin) Poultry-any type. The objective is to gently cook tender meats items or fish/seafood/vegetables with a lid Disadvantage no pan drippings Advantages . Food suitable for steaming: Atmospheric steaming: Meat-tender cuts( fillet. were food is cook in an atmospheric or high pressure steamer with no direct contact to the liquid.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.