CULINARY TERMS Baton A vegetable, such as a carrot, zucchini or piece of celery – cut into a long, thin rectangle shape

. Blanch The process of plunging food, frequently vegetables, into and out of boiling water for just few seconds or minutes. Batterie de cuisine An expression commonly used by chefs to describe the essential equipment that every good cook needs for the preparation of food in the kitchen, from saucepans to knives. Beurre manié French for ‘kneaded butter’, beurre manié is a paste of flour and softened butter, usually in equal parts, which is used to thicken sauces and stews. Bain-marie It’s used for protecting dishes requiring gentle heat (such as egg-based desserts) from the fierce heat of the oven. It can also refer to a double saucepan or double boiler (a bowl suspended in saucepan half-filled with water) used for melting chocolate or thickening sauces that are prone to curdling over direct heat. Basting The process of spooning stock or fat over meat at intervals, to prevent it from drying out during roasting. Black pepper Black pepper comes from a climbing vine, the fruits of which – small round berries – ripen from green to red and finally to brown. Black peppercorns are actually berries that are picked when they’re just turning red. Blind baking A method of preparing a pastry case before adding the filling, in order to prevent the bottom becoming soggy and undercooked. The pastry is first baked with a lining weighted with beans, ceramic or glass baking beans. Bouquet garni A small bunch of herbs, classically a bay leaf, a few parsley sprigs and a few sprigs of thyme, wrapped in leek leaf or bunched with a piece of celery and tied with string. Buttermilk Buttermilk is traditionally a by-product of butter-making the liquid that’s left over after butter is churned from cream. It is now made commercially by adding a bacterial culture to skimmed milk. Calvados

Caul fat The lacy. The bark is removed. herbs or spices may sometimes be added to the court bouillon. Chiffonade Thin strips or shreds of vegetables (classically. but the extract of freshly grated coconut flesh. fresh and smoked sausages. Cinnamon This warm. Charcuterie Charcuterie is a generic term for the products traditionally sold by charcutiers (pork butchers). fatty membrane encasing the internal organs of an animal. black puddings and salamis. Capon A castrated cockerel fed a fattening diet making it particularly juicy and flavorful. vinegar. Wine. northern France. fiery hot spice ground from the pod and seeds of dried chillies. as on the top of a crème brûlée. which are soaked and ground to separate the germ and the bran/ Court bouillon A spiced aromatic liquor or stock used mainly to poach fish and shellfish. kidney-shaped bean. Cayenne pepper A red. and includes all products based on pork meat or offal. Compote A classic dish of fresh or dried fruits simmered or baked in a light syrup. sorrel and lettuce). white. Cornflour Cornflour is the finely powdered white starch extracted from maize kernels. Cloves Cloves are the dried flower buds of an evergreen tree native to eastern Indonesia.Calvados is an apple brandy made in Normandy. pâtés. dried and rolled up to make a tube. or cooking small or cut fruit or vegetables in water and sugar until they become brown and glazed. . sliced onion. Cannellini beans A small. Coconut milk and Cream Coconut milk isn’t the liquid from inside the nut. Caramelise The process of either heating sugar to a point when it melts and resets as a hard glaze. including cured and cooked meats. lemon juice. sweet spice comes from the bark of a tree native to Sri Lanka.

maltose and/or glucose Crudités Raw vegetables. leaving the other hand free to hold a drink. celery. Canapés The term ‘canapé’ means sofa or settee in French – so traditionally canapés were little platforms of pastry or buttered.Cream of tartar Cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen titrate) is a component of baking powder. served as a starter or. seasonal vegetables such as carrots. sweet peppers. cardamom seeds come from a plant belonging to the ginger family. Cardamom An aromatic spice indigenous to south India and Sri Lanka. Cumin The small. Croûtons Small cubes of bread that have been fried drained and cooled. celeriac. Coriander Coriander tends to be associated most with Asian and Central and South American cooking. Crudités might include any fresh. pungent aroma. turning it into thick syrup of dextrose. It now encompasses all kinds of bite-sized appetizers that can be eaten with the fingers. fennel. as a snack. cucumber. This thickens the cream and gives it a distinctive sharp flavor. Cashew . citrus taste and is best added to dishes just before serving in order to get maximum flavor. They’re contained in small pods about the size of a cranberry. sugar and milk and/or cream flavored with vanilla. mushrooms and radishes. fried or toasted bread for tasty things to sit on. Both the fresh leaves and the berries – which are dried and called coriander seeds – are used for cooking. thinly sliced or grated.) Crème fraîche The French version of soured cream made from pasteurized cow’s milk to which a lactic bacteria culture has been added. Corn syrup A common ingredient in the USA made by adding enzymes to corn starch. (Baking powder comprises baking soda and cream of tartar. red cabbage. The herb has a fresh. crescent-shaped seeds of a plant called Cuminim cyminum. Custard Traditional British desert sauce made with egg yolks. with a dip. It has a warm flavor and quite a strong. which are used as a spice. tomatoes.

Duxelles A mixture of chopped mushrooms cooked in butter with onion (or shallots) and thyme. Descaling fish Removing the scales from a fish is best done by first cutting off the fins and then holding on to the tail and scraping away the scales the ‘wrong’ way – from tail to head with a large knife. anchovies or coffee beans) used to flavour and enhance foods. this is a small steep-sided metal mould about 8cm (3.It grows on a small tree. Dariole Also known as a Madeleine tin. Dropping Consistency The consistency required of cake mixes where the mixture isn’t soft enough to fall easily off the spoon but slides off reluctantly after a few seconds. almonds. Celery seeds They have a bitter taste.2in) tall. stock or other liquid to a hot pan or roasting tin in which food has been roasted or sautéed. used for straining soups and sauces. Chinois A fine metal conical strainer with a long handle. Florets . Emulsify An emulsion is a stable suspension of fat and another liquid. used for making Bloody Marys. syrups and liqueurs but the cashew nut as much more widely used. They’re used in bread making and in egg and fish dishes. Essence or extract These are concentrated flavourings (for example from vanilla pods. The ‘pear’ can be used for juices. with flared sides (narrower at the bottom than at the top). or cashew pear. Egg wash Beaten raw egg. used for glazing pastry or bread to give it a shine when baked. Deglaze To deglaze is to add wine. To emulsify is to combine fats (such as butter or oil) with a liquid (such as vinegar or citric juices) into a smooth and even blend using an emulsifier (such as an egg yolk) which binds to each set of ingredients and prevents them from separating. Celery seeds are ground with salt to make celery salt. sometimes mixed with water and a little salt. dangling beneath a fleshy stalk known as the cashew apple. and can also refer to synthetic flavourings.

and used as a setting agent for sweet or savoury jellies and pudding fillings. Flour Flour is made from finely ground cereal. marjoram. sage. such as wheat. rye. Griddle A flat cast-iron pan traditionally used for breads and scones. giving the resulting butter a nutty. Grècque (à la) ‘À la grècque’ means with the addition of a dressing of tomatoes. meat and fish. rosemary and summer savory (some recipes also call fro lavender and dried orange peel. Gelatine comes in powder form or in leaves and is tasteless. white or balsamic) and salt and pepper to which various flavourings can be added such as a herbs. oregano. giving dough its elasticity and strength. Gelatine A product derived from the bones of animals. thereby separating the milk solids. thyme. More recently griddles tend to have a ridged surface and are used for cooking vegetables. wine vinegar (red. The clarified butter (the butter is slowly melted. Gratin A gratin is any dish that’s topped with cheese or breadcrumbs mixed with knobs of butter. in particular wheat. caramel-like flavor and aroma. oats. barley.Florets are the small. It’s a key factor in the success in all kinds of baking because it’s gluten that absorbs liquid. rice. Gram flour Flour made from ground chickpeas. Gluten Gluten is a mixture of two proteins present in cereal grains. Ghee A form of clarified butter used in Indian cookery. . honey or chilli. which sink to the bottom of the pan. bay. Herbes de Provence A mixture of heady herbs from the south of France made up of any combination of basil. lemon juice and olive oil. from the golden liquid on the surface) is simmered until all the moisture evaporates and the milk solids begin to brown. among other flavorings). then heated in the oven or under the grill until brown and crisp. mustard. individual flower stems that make up the heads of vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower. French dressing Also known as vinaigrette (French for ‘little vinegar’) this is a fairly thick salad dressing made from a mixture of olive oil. and maize (corn). fresh herbs.

All margarine contains as much fat as butter. carrot and celery – and sometimes bacon and herbs. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) An additive made from sodium salt crystals and used to enhance the flavor of food. Sea salt is produced as the sea washes over rocks and then recedes with the tide. liqueur. . but some are lower in cholesterol and saturated fats. chunky cubes of bacon (smoked or unsmoked) used to flavor dishes such as quiches. Julienne Vegetables or citrus zest shredded or cut into thin matchsticks or very fine shreds. Margarine Margarine was invented in the 1960s by a French chemist as a cheap replacement for butter. and to allow the ingredients to absorb the flavors of the liquid. or coffee either by pouring on boling water and allowing the water to take on the flavors before drinking hot. frequently in the belief that it’s a healthier option than butter. as whole crystals ground. meat or vegetables in a highly seasoned and flavored liquid (the marinade) usually containing oil. this syrup is very popular in the USA and Canada. Maple syrup The bolied-down sap of the maple tree. especially in oriental cuisine. Nowadays its bought as a product in its own right. wine. spices. or sugar syrup) to soften of take away bitterness. this means to soak raw. Mirepoix A mixture of diced vegetables – usually onion. Macerate Similar to marinating. Marinate To steep fish.Infuse To extract the flavor from herbs. Lardons Lardons are small. brandy. Lyonnaise (à la) À la lyonnaise describes various dishes. leaving pools of water. characterized by the use of chopped onions cookied in butter until golden and often finished off with vinegar and sprinkled with chopped parsley. herbs and spices. usually sautéed. wine or lemon juice. Maldon sea salt An exceptional sea salt that comes from the Maldon area of Essex. tea. leek. The sun evaporates the water and leaves the salt in the form of crystals that can be used in cooking or preserving. in order to tenderize and add flavor. dried or preserved fruit or vegetables in liquid (usually alcohol.

especially mussels.Marinière (à la) A method of preparing shellfish or other seafood. . The fish is coated in seasoned flour. by cooking them in white wine. fried in butter and served with some more melted butter with the addition of a squeeze of lemon juice and a few freshly chopped herbs. Meunière (à la) This method is traditionally used to prepare whole trout and fillets of sole. usually with onions or shallots.

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