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By Miss Nazneen Psychological Foundation of education: Meaning and Historical background of Psychology: Meaning: The word „Psychology‟ comes from the Greek words Psycho-logos. While ‗Psycho‘ means ‗Soul‘ and ‗logos‘ means ‗Science‘. Thus the meaning of Psychology is the ‗Science of Soul‘. We know that Psychology as an independent discipline acquired separate status very recently. Formerly it was studies as a sub-branch of philosophy. 1) The arm-chair philosophers were interested in the nature of soul. Democritus was the first Greek philosopher who argued that everything is composed of indivisible, unitary material atoms in constant motion. People are constituted of soul atom and body atom. The nature of soul was not defined in definite terms. Therefore his views were opposed by other contemporary philosophers; hence the definition of psychology as a science of soul was given up. 2) The philosophers evolved another definition of psychology as the „science of mind‟. This definition remained in vogue for a long time but the same controversy arose on the nature of mind and ultimately this definition was too discarded by philosophers. 3) we see that a human being engages himself in a number of activities from morning till evening. He is conscious of external environmental influences. Psychology was defined as the science of consciousness or immediate experiences. But later on psychologists rejected this definition too on the ground that consciousness is very negligible portion of our personality. We can not study an individual by observing his conscious activities. All these definitions were given by philosophers-psychologists prior to the beginning of experimental psychology. 4) a great revolution occurred during and after the Renaissance in the field of Psychological thoughts which helped in developing a science of psychology. Psychology was brought out from the warfare of mentalistic-mechanistic point of view. It was defined as science of behavior Psychology is the „Science of Behavior‟. Meaning of ‗Science‘:
Science maybe defined as a systematic body of knowledge which maybe verified at any time by any number of individuals under given conditions. Science is engaged in discovering those conditions and factors that determine or cause the occurrence of a particular event using scientific method of experimentation and observation.
In the same way psychology as a science uses the scientific methods to collect data about individuals and groups to analyze and predict their behavior. We try to find out new truth in psychology. We deal with the observable behavior and establish facts by objective proof or evidences. Psychology as a science helps us to understand, control and predict behavior. It uses experimental method, by controlling variable, checking and rechecking findings and stating its results in objective terms which can be verified and understood by any one in a given condition. It is established beyond doubt that psychology is a science but question arises, is it a biological science or behavioral science? Psychology as a biological science began with the study of physiology in Germany during later half of nineteenth century. In modern times psychologists are engaged to search biological determinants of motivation, memory, learning and mental disorders. We can draw the conclusion that psychology is biological science. Psychology as a behavioral science aims to study the behavior in groups. Human beings are by nature social they live in social situation from birth to death. Their personality is shaped by the interaction of external social environment. In modern psychology we study how society influences the behavior of an individual and vice versa. How individual learns in group. We know that the behavior of an individual is studied in terms of social interaction. Psychology as a social science studies scientifically cultural and social problems of the society. Psychology has successfully collected enormous data on problems of minority groups, group dynamics etc, and has devised measured to solve social problems. Thus we see that psychology is a behavioral science. Meaning of Behavior The term behavior is popularized by J.B Watson, an American psychologist who defined behavior as an action which can be seen and observed in an objective way. The meaning of behavior includes internal and external stimulation both. Behavior is observed and also measured in an objective manner. Science can be divided into two broader categories. Normative science.
Positive science. In which category should psychology be included? Psychology studies facts and describes ‗what is‘. It does not concern with ‗ought to‘ as emphasized by Normative sciences like Ethics, logic and philosophy etc. therefore it is quite proper to describe psychology as a Positive science. What kind of positive science is psychology? It is not as perfect as the sciences like physics, mathematics, chemistry etc, is. It is a behavior science which deals with the behavior of organisms. This behavior is quite dynamic and unexpected. We are not consistent in our behavior. On the other hand, physical reactions which are studied by the natural sciences are always predicted. This makes the study in natural sciences more exact, accurate and objective. Psychology has not yet attained this status of these sciences although it is trying hard to be more objective, exact and accurate. Therefore it is better to name it as developing positive science. Definition of Psychology: ―Psychology is a developing positive science which enables us to study the behavior of a living organism in relation to his environment‖. The History of Psychology: The Roots of Psychology: Philosophical Roots of Psychology Scientific Roots of Psychology The Roots of Psychology: Psychology‘s roots are in philosophy and science. When physiologists of the late nineteenth century began to use scientific methods to study the mind, psychology became an independent scientific discipline. As a science, psychology relies on objective, systematic observation as its primary source of knowledge. Philosophy relies more on reasoning. While philosophers argue about reality, scientists make predictions called hypotheses and test them in the physical world, fully accepting the possibility of being wrong. The Philosophical roots of Psychology The philosophical roots of psychology reach back to the philosophers of ancient Greece, most notably Plato (427-347 B.C) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C): who were especially
interested in the origin of knowledge. Plato, who was renowned for both his physical and mental prowess, excelling as both a soldier and an intellectual, was suspicious of the senses as a source of knowledge. He believed that our senses can deceive us, as in illusions such as the bent appearance of a straight stick that has been partially inserted into a pool of water. Plato also believed that human beings enter the world with an inborn knowledge of reality, a position called nativism. He believed that reasoning provided access to this knowledge, a philosophical approach to knowledge called rationalism. Plato used reason to study a variety of psychological topics, including- dreams, perception and mental illness. Yet, when using reasoning to retrieve supposedly inborn knowledge, even Plato and other philosophers were sometimes wrong. For example, Plato reasoned incorrectly that we see objects because they are illuminated by beams of light emanating from our eyes. Though Aristotle accepted the importance of reasoning, he was more willing than Plato to accept sensory experience as a source of knowledge___a philosophical approach called empiricism. But Aristotle, like Plato, reached some erroneous calculations. For example, because the heart seemed more responsive than the brain during emotional experiences, he believed the heart was the site of mental processes. Aristotle contributed to psychology by being one of the first thinker to speculate formally on psychological topics, as indicated by the title of his works, including “On Dreams”, “On Sleep and Sleeplessness”, and “On the Senses and the Sensed”. Following the decline of the ancient Greece, the early Christians and Medieval eras were given answers to psychological questions more often by theologian philosophers than by secular philosophers like Plato or Aristotle. The dominant western authority was Saint Augustine (354-430). As a young man, Augustine sowed his wild oats as a flower of epicurean philosophy, which proclaimed, ―Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die‖. He pursued the life style until he experienced a religious conversion at age 33_but not before making his famous plea, ―lord make me pure, but not right now!‖. Augustine wrote of his views concerning memory, emotion, and motivation in the self analysis he conducted in his classic autobiographical work Confessions. He provided insights into the continual battle between our human reason and our animal passions. Though Augustine contemplated about psychological processes, neither he nor his contemporaries used the scientific method to study them (Pratt, 11962) During the middle ages, when the Christian west was guided largely by religious dogma and those who dared to conduct empirical studies risked punishment, scientific investigations became almost the sole province of Islamic intellectuals. Perhaps the most noteworthy of these was Abu Ibn Sina (980—1037), better known as Avicenna, who kept alive the teaching of Aristotle. With the reemergence of western intellectual activity in the late Middle Ages scholars who had access to Arabia translations of the Greek philosophers rediscovered Aristotle. But most of these scholars limited their efforts to reconciling Aristotle‘s ideas and Christian teachings. One brave exception was the Franciscan friar
I am”. and psychological disorders. the first of the modern rationalists. personality. insisted that we should doubt everything unless proved self-evident by our own reasoning. Following in Francis Bacon‘s empiricist footsteps was the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704). the great French philosopher-mathematician scientist. he experimented by stuffing chickens with ice. each of us is born a black slate_ or tabula rasa_ on which are written the life experiences. though favoring empiricism instead of rationalism. This issue. once again. which holds that science should have practical applications. A compromise between strict rationalism and strict empiricism was offered by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724—1804). While rationalist like Descartes believe our knowledge primarily inborn. Descartes contributed to the modern intellectual outlook.according to Locke (borrowing from Aristotle). extending from fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries. The spirit of the Renaissance inspired Rene Descartes (1596—1650). According to Bacon. With the coming of Renaissance. Descartes had broad interests. This led to a fatal case of pneumonia. In fact. Descartes. and inventing. and verification of claims by independent empirical observations. Bacon was influenced by his contact with Arab scientists who stressed the importance of gaining knowledge through the senses. empiricists like Locke believe knowledge is acquired primarily through life experiences. But his interest in the application of scientific findings cost him his life. Among his inventions were wheelchair and a method of dying gray hair. Descartes went to the extreme of using reasoning to prove to his own satisfaction that he existed. We acquire through our senses. Descartes attributed intellectual abilities chiefly to heredity. and Locke attributed them chiefly to educational experiences. Other intellectuals. which places skepticism above blind acceptance of dogma put forth by authority that his works were put on its list of banned books. in his famous statement “I think therefore.Roger Bacon (1220—1292). intelligence. including gambling. joined Descartes in rejecting the authority of theologians to provide answers to scientific questions. traveling. Bacon urged philosophers to favor empiricism over authority. He never married. western authorities relied less on theology and more on philosophy. Kant was the ultimate “ivory tower” intellectual. Chief among them was the English politician-philosopher-scientist Sir Francis Bacon (15611626). to provide answer to psychological questions. In studying the possible use of refrigeration to preserve food. Bacon inspired the modern scientific attitude that favors skepticism. ―to be useless is to be worthless‖. He was also a founder of applied science. Thus. including language. and . which is a recurring theme in psychological theory and research. systematic observation. appears throughout this textbook in discussions about a host of topics. As a consequence. This concern with the relative importance of heredity and life experiences is known as the nature versus nurture controversy. never traveled more than 50 miles from his home.
its contents are in a state of flux. manipulated. Helmholtz attributed this difference in reaction time to the longer distance that the nerve impulse must travel from the foot to the spinal cord and then to the brain. This. Scientific Roots of Psychology By the nineteenth century. For example. psychologists were making more progress than philosophers in answering questions about the nature of psychological processes. Kant continually had to change restaurants. conducted similar research on brain damage in human beings. As a consequence. Paul Broca (1624-1880). arguably the greatest scientist of the nineteenth century. For example. almost instantaneously. Subjects reacted slower to a touch on the foot than a touch on the thigh. eating lunch everyday at exactly 1:00p. A clock recorded their reaction times. Helmholtz also made important contributions to our knowledge of vision and hearing. For example. He believed that the mind is not tangible. according to Kant makes it impossible to study the mind objectively. intellectuals began to look more and more to physiology for guidance. In studying nerve impulses. though the kind of language we speak (whether English or otherwise) depends on experience with your native tongue. . In one experiment he had human subjects press a button as soon as they felt a touch on the foot or thigh. in the mid-nineteenth century. popular belief. a large structure protruding from the back of the brain. caused motor in-coordination. a surgeon and anthropologist. If not.m. To avoid them.that is. This indicated that nerve impulses are not instantaneously. it can not be observed. Kant taught that knowledge is the product of inborn mental faculties that organize and interpret sensory input from the physical environment. held that nerve impulses travel the length of a nerve as fast as electricity travels along a wire---. Moreover. Helmholtz found that they took a measurable fraction of a second to travel along a nerve. he found that damage to the cerebellum. He was so renowned that he had fans from many countries who visited his hometown just to catch a glimpse of him eating lunch. Kant denied that psychology was a science. Other physiologists were making important discoveries about brain functions. He found that patients with damage to a region on the left side of the front of the brain would lose their ability to speak.maintained a strict scheduled. which is used to examine the inside of the eye. He demonstrated this in experiments on animal and human subjects. The leading brain researcher was the French physiologist Pierre Flourens (1794—1867) who studied the effects of damage to specific brain structures on the behavior of animals. assuming that psychology studies the mind. or measured directly. your ability to learn a language depends on inborn mechanism. including the ophthalmoscope. Despite studying psychological topics. His fellow Frenchman. based on reasoning. This claim was contradicted by research conducted by the German physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821—1894). other animals that can hear speech and that have a vocal apparatus would also develop language.
1859/1975). He explored Africa and drew some of the first maps of it.S. which he used to describe various tests of vision. through natural selection physical characteristics that promote the survival of the individual are more likely to be passed down to offspring. Darwin announced his theory in The Origin of Species (Darwin. lows. Moreover. and fronts. Though other thinkers as far back as ancient Greece had proposed the possibility of animals having evolved from common ancestors. Darwin was the first to propose a process that could account for it.M. ―How much change in the intensity of a light is necessary for a person to experience a change in its brightness?‖ and ―How much change in the intensity of a sound is necessary for a person to experience a change in its loudness?‖ Psychophysics contributed to psychology‘s maturation from a child of philosophy and science to an independent discipline with its own subject matter. 1954) Early psychologists were also influenced by the theory of evolution. which studies variations among human beings in intellectual. . the English nobleman Sir Francis Galton (1822—1911). who had failed to devise a way to study the mind scientifically. Psychophysics has also had important application during the past century. Differential psychology was introduced to America by the psychologist James Mckeen Cattell (1860—1944). Psychophysics enabled Fechner to quantify the relationship between physical stimulation and mental experience. Cattell was a leading psychologist of his time. Beagle. Fechner used a technique called psychophysics which had been invented by his colleague. He served as president of the American Psychological Association in 1895 and became the first psychologist to be elected to the National Academy of science. he studies meteorology and invented the concept oh highs. Galton argued that natural selection could account for the development of human abilities. the German physiologist Ernest Weber (1795—1878). Psychophysics considers questions such as. personality and physical characteristics. Darwin‘s theory had its most immediate impact on psychology t hrough the work of his cousin. Cattell coined the term mental test. which helped Scotland Yard solve crimes. because individuals with these characteristics are more likely to live long enough to reproduce. In applying Darwin‘s theory of evolution. This accomplishment would have surprised his predecessor Immanuel Kant. put forth by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809—1882).In his research. who had studied with Gilton. Galton was an eminent scientist and a man of many interests. Which described the results of research he conducted while studying the plants and animals he encountered during a five-year voyage around the world on the H. According to Darwin. he claimed that individuals with the most highly developed abilities would be most likely to survive. This led him to found the field differential psychology. hearing and physical skills that he administered to his students at the University of Pennsylvania. and he invented the practice of fingerprinting. the scientists who perfected television relied on psychophysics to determine the relationship between the television picture and the viewer‘s mental experience of qualities such as color and brightness (Baldwin. For example.
by chance the latch was manipulated. A) S-R associationst type of theory interprets learning in terms of the change in behavior of the learner brought about by association of the response to a series of stimuli. . Each one of them gives partial description. it claws and bites at the bars or wires. In this way.associationist type of learning theory. The Psychological Corporation. intelligence. II. This led him to start his own business. Thorndike: his idea and system is called ―connectionism‖. Watson and Evan Petrovich Pavlov: their idea and system is known as classical condition. A fish was placed outside the box. These theories represent broad principles and techniques of learning. “Operant Conditioning” by B.F Skinner Learning: What goes in the process of learning? How do we learn? There are various theories which throw light on the phenomenon of learning. For example one theory is good in explaining the learning process in one situation while the others hold equally good in the other different situations Trial and Error or S-R Learning theory Thorndike put a hungry cat in a puzzle box. This experiment sums up the following stages in the process of learning. ―Trial and Error‖ or ―S -R learning theories. which to this day is active in the development of tests that assess abilities.e. Burrhus Frederic Skinner is called ―Operant conditioning‖ None of these theories are said to be complete in all aspects for explaining the phenomenon of learning. it made a number of random movements. The smell of the fish worked as a strong motive for the hungry cat to come out of the box. It tries to squeeze through every opening. III. The chief exponents of this type of theories are: 1. Drive: hunger intensified with the sight and smell of the food i. In one of the random movement. The cat comes out and got its reward response. and personality. Now it was able to open the door without any error or learnt the way of opening the door. Theory of Learning. Consequently the cat made every possible effort to come out. Edward L. Each theory with its systematic body of knowledge explains the nature and process of learning. B) Gestalt field or field cognitive type of learning theory. These theories also put forth various methods of learning and suggest the teacher and learner to take proper steps for the effective learning.But Cattell fell into disrepute after being fired by Columbia University for opposing American‘s entrance into World War 1. There was only one door for exit which could be opened by correctly manipulating a latch. Modern learning theories maybe classified into two broad types. namely: A) Stimulus response. smell of a fish. John B.
Arrangements were made to give food to the dog through automatic devices. Chance success: As a result of these striving and random movements. After several trials.Goal: To get the food by getting out of the box. Block: The cat was confined in the box with a closed door. Every time when food was presented before the dog. In this reference Thorndike has written ―Learning is connecting. The activity of presenting the food accompanied with a ringing of the bell was repeated several times and the amount of saliva secreted was measured. Now it was able to open the door without any error Thorndike named the learning of his experiment as ―Trial and Error‖ He maintained that the learning is nothing but the stamping in of the correct responses and stamping out of the incorrect responses through trial and error. by chance. Random movements: the cat persistently tried to get out of the box. In trying for the correct solution the cat made so many vain attempts. It committed errors and errors before getting success. the cat. Pavlov kept a dog hungry for the night and then tied him on to the experimental table which was fitted with certain mechanically controlled devices. it tried to avoid the erroneous ways and repeat the correct ways of manipulating the latch. the ringing of the bell (an artificial stimulus) caused the dog to secrete the saliva (natural . the dog was given no food but the bell was rung. Thorndike called it ―learning by selecting and connecting‖ as it provides an opportunity for the selection of the proper responses and connect or associate them with appropriate stimuli. succeeded in opening the latch Selection: (of proper movement) gradually the cat recognized the correct opening way by manipulating the latch out of its random movements Fixation: At last the cat learned the proper way of opening the door by eliminating all the incorrect responses and fixing only right response. he also arranged for the ringing of a bell. The mind is man‘s connection system‖ Evan Patrovich Pavlov‟s “Classical conditioning” learning theory Pavlov gave birth to a new theory of learning known as conditioned response theory or simply as learning by conditioning. When the food presented before the dog and the bell was rung. It was found that even in the absence of food (the natural stimulus). On subsequent trial. Experiment: In one of the experiments. The observer kept himself hidden from the view of the dog but able to view the experiment by means of a set of mirrors. The dog was made comfortable and distractions were excluded as far as it was possible to do so. In this case also the amount of saliva secreted was recorded and measured. there was automatic secretion of saliva from the mouth of the dog.
Diagrammatic Presentation of the Experiment Natural Stimulus Natural response (Presentation of food) (Salivation) S1 R2 S2 R2 Artificial Stimulus General Alertness (Ringing bell) Experiment No 2.response) It considers the learning as a habit formation and is based on the principle of association and substitution. The baby liked it very much and was pleased to touch its fur. At school and College. the subject was the human baby of eleven months. the dog becomes habituated or conditioned to respond to this situation. In1948 he joined psychology department in Harvard University there he remained professionally . As soon as the baby touched the rabbit the baby was frightened. After some times in the course of the experiment. In this type of learning. can evoke a natural response. He watched carefully the pleasant responses of the baby. What is this process? It is a learning process by means of which artificial stimulus is able behave like a natural stimulus when both natural and artificial stimulus are presented together. a loud noise was produced to frighten the baby. As a result. When both the artificial or neutral stimulus (ringing of the bell) and natural stimulus (food) are brought together. In one of the experiment done by Watson. He enrolled at the psychology department at Harvard University gaining a PhD degree in psychology in 1931. The baby was given a rabbit to play. association plays a great role since the individual responds to an artificial stimulus because he associates it with the natural stimulus Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990) was born in Susquehanna Penensyvanian railroad town closed to the New York State border. the artificial stimulus like sound of the bell. Watson and Pavlov concluded that all type of learning can be explained through the process of conditioning. However he becomes interested in psychology after reading books by Pavlov and Watson. skinner was interested in literature and biology and considered becoming a poet and novelist. after some times natural stimulus can be substituted or replaced by an artificial stimulus and this artificial stimulus is able to evoke the natural response. several times. From these experiments. There becomes perfect association between the types of stimuli presented together. the loud noise was produced and he gave fear response. It is simply a stimulus-response type of learning where in place of a natural stimulus like food and water etc. Each time when he wanted to touch the rabbit.
a system of light or sound produced at the time of delivering a pallet of food in the food cup. placed a hungry rat in the box.active until his death in 1990. stimulus response mechanism. The lever press response having been a rewarded. For conducting the experiments with rats. operant conditioning differs a lot from the classical conditioning advocated by Watson and Pavlov. It must wait for something to happen for responding. Skinner put forward his theory of operant conditioning for learning not only the simple responses like pressing of the lever but also for learning the most difficult and complex series of responses pressing of the lever or latch but also for learning the most difficult and complex series of responses. The presence of a stimulus for evoking a response is essential. Thus. The darken sound proof box mainly consists of a grid floor. In each of such instances. In classical conditioning the organism is passive. He may often manipulate the things in the environment with his own initiative. For recording the observation of the experiments. It was a much modified form of the puzzle box used by Thorndike for his experiments with cats. he designed a special apparatus known as Skinner‘s Box. the dog waits for food to arrive before salivating. The child expresses fear when he hears a loud noise. a light or a special sound is produced and a small pallet of food or small drops of water is released into the food cup. the behavior is said to be initiated by the environment. It is arranged so that when a rat (hungry or thirsty) presses the lever the feeder mechanism is activated. In this way ultimately the rat learned the act of pressing the lever as desired by the experimenter For doing experiments with pigeons Skinner made use of another specific apparatus cal led ‗pigeon box‘. in one of his experiments. He is made to behave in response to the stimulus situations. Although classified and included in the category of conditioning. The pigeons were so highly trained that they could guide a missile right down into the smokestack of navel destroyer Skinner‟s Experiments regarding „ operant conditioning‟ B. the organism simply responds. A pigeon in this experiment had to peck at a lighted plastic key mounted on the wall at head high was subsequently rewarded by receiving grain. Skinner revolted against ‗no stimulus no response‘ mechanism in the evolution of behavior.sound acted as a cue or signal indicating to the rat if it respond by going to the food cup. it will be rewarded. The behavior can not be emitted in the absence of a cause. He had been conditioning pigeons to pilot missiles and torpedoes. The rat was rewarded for each of his proper attempts for pressing the lever. The most outstanding difference lies in the order related with the initiation and response i. During World War II Skinner participated in a government research project. a lever and a food cup. With the help of such experiments.F Skinner conducted a series of experiment with animals. was repeated and when it occurred. He argued that in practical situation in our life we can not wait for things to happen in the environment. it was again rewarded which further increased the probability of the repetition of the lever press response and so on. . the lever is connected with a recorder system which produces a graphical tracing of the lever pressing against the length of the time the rat is in box. To begin with. the subject has no control over the happening. Man is not a victim of the environment.e. the result of which were not made public until 1959. In this experiment pressing of the bar in a desirable way by the rat could result in the production of a click. Skinner.
it ‗operates‘ on the environment and in turn environment responds to th e activity. pushing a lever. are classified as positive reinforcers. These conclusions made Skinner begin a series of experiments to find the consequences of the rewards in repeating and maintaining behavior. etc. it is not always essential that there must be some know stimulus or causes of evoking a response. rewarding or not. water etc. Electric shock. The occurrence of such behavior was named as operant behavior and the process of learning. etc Reinforcer and Reinforcement. a child. Skinner thinks to two kinds of reinforcers—positive and negative. Thorndike concluded that the rewards of a response (like getting food after chance success through the randomized movements) lead to the repetition of an act and the strengthening of S-R associations. From where Skinner got the cue for such ideas in a question that can arise at this stage.g raising its head. or an individual ‗does‖ something ‗behaves‘ in some manner. Definitely it was from the studies and observations of an earlier psychologist named Thorndike. Skinner thinks of two kinds of reinforcers_____Positive and Negative. he concluded that ―behavior is shaped and maintain by its consequences‖. that plays the part in learning such behavior. The concept of reinforcement is identical to the presentation of a reward. loud noise etc. largely determines whether the behavior will be repeated. most of our responses could not be attributed to the known stimuli. Quite often. A reinforcer is the stimulus whose presentation or removal increases the probability of a response re-occurring. The organism itself initiates the behavior. Here rewards are unpredictable and keep the players well-motivated thou Operant: Skinner considers an operant as a set of acts that constitutes an organism‘s doing something e. Electric shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus the removal or withdrawal of which increases the likelihood of a particular behavior. A reinforcer is the stimulus whose presentation or removal increases the probability of a response reoccurring.. etc are said to be negative reinforcers. was named by him as operant conditioning Some concepts used by Skinner for bringing out his theory of learning---------. maintained or avoided. Food. Based on the findings of his experiments. a loud noise. A dog.Therefore. food and water are classified as positive reinforcers.g. Reinforcer and Reinforcement: The concept of reinforcement is identical to the presentation of a reward. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus the introduction or presentation of which increase the likelihood of a particular behavior. How the environment responds to the activity. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus the removal or withdrawal of which decreases the likelihood of a particular behavior. walking about. pushing a lever. are said to be negative reinforcers is the reinforcement operation schedule of gambling devices. Through his experiments. Operant: Skinner considers an operant as a set of acts that constitutes an organism‘s doing something e. It is operated by the organism and maintained by itself. . raising its head. walking about. for propagating his famous trial and error theory of learning.Operant conditioning. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus the introduction or presentation of which increase the likelihood of a particular behavior.
The Science of Soul. for example. a student may be rewarded for every correct answer he gives to questions or problems put by the teacher. Operant conditioning refers to a kind of learning process where a response is made more probable or more frequent by reinforcement.The schedules of Reinforcement: Skinner put forward the idea of planning of schedules of reinforcement of conditioning the operant behavior of the organism. All these definitions were given by philosophers-psychologists prior to the beginning . Psychology acquired separate status very recently. the ‗science of mind‘. The child solves five sums and he gets a chocolate. every 3 minutes or every 5 minutes. might be given a pallet of food after a certain number of level presses. Good marks and promotion may come at unpredictable time. Defining Operant Conditioning. Later on philosophers give another definition of psychology. How many times he has given correct response during this fixed interval of time does not matter. In this case reinforcement is intermittent or irregular. it is called a variable reinforcement schedule. it is only on the expiry of the fixed interval that he is presented with some reinforcement. 4. the behavior that is not necessarily associated with a known stimuli. but the more often he raises his hand.g. Psycho‘ means ‗Soul‘ and ‗logos‘ means ‗Science‘. It helps in the learning of operant behavior. Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule: In this schedule the organism is rewarded for a response made only after a set of interval of time e. The difference between the two types of conditioning Classical respondent conditioning Operant conditioning RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY Introduction Meaning and Historical background of Psychology: The word ‗Psychology‘ is derived from Greek word Psycho and logos. Variable Reinforcement Schedule: when reinforcement is given at varying intervals of time or after a varying number of responses. try and try again slogan. For example. 2. 3. A rat. the more likely he is to called upon by the teacher. For example the card game and gambling. Formerly it was studied as a sub-branch of philosophy.. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule: In this schedule the reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses. 1. In classroom teaching learning VR schedule operates when student is not allowed to reinforce each time he raises his hand to answer a question. The individual does not know when he is going to be rewarded and consequently he remains motivated throughout the learning process in the wait of reinforcement. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: It is hundred percent reinforcement schedules where provision is made to reinforce or reward every correct response of the organism during acquisition of learning.
Roots of Psychology The roots of Psychology could be traced back in philosophy and science. one is concerned with human ends and the means of promoting them. good and bad. One question. as James Mill implied in the early nineteenth century. Educational psychology helps the teacher in doing so. It enables the teacher to teach where . who were familiar with the history of psychology and continuing. the other with understanding and knowledge of human experience and actions. Some psychologists called psychology as a branch of education. Why We Study Psychology In Education It is very essential for a teacher to teach his students according to their mental abilities. It is the fact that we are dealing with two different fields. Scientific Roots of Psychology By nineteenth century. ―Educational Psychology is the systematic study of the educational growth and development of a child". psychologists were progressing than philosophers in answering questions about the nature of psychological processes. could be used and applied constructively to a practical field like education. some other psychologist Disagree with them.of experimental psychology. Today it is acknowledged widely that psychology has influenced education in the past. which is divided within self. right and wrong (Imam Ghazali) Stephen. Education and psychology Education is a process which enables the individual to distinguish between true and false. Psychology as ‗Science of Behavior‘ Today psychology is scientific methods of collecting data about individuals and groups to analyze and predict their behavior. links between psychology and education. When physiologists of the late nineteenth century began to use scientific methods to study mind. They defend it with the comparison of historical and contemporary relationship between education and psychology. which is frequently asked that a field like psychology. However. later on Psychology became an independent scientific discipline.
A train teacher could understand the problem and eradicate it.and how? It helps us in the following ways. Psychology effect education in every filed of teaching learning process. education psychology is the foundation of education. One psychologist said that I did not understand how a teacher could teach with out the knowledge of education Psychology. Psychology had changed the spirit of education and it gives new meaning to learning in classroom. what the possibilities are and why the child is not learning. a teacher could not understand the psychology of the child and his problems. Psychology gives education the theory of individual differences that every child has different mental ability and learns with different pace. to measure his achievements • With the help of psychology teacher understand the weakness of his students and with the help of psychology he find solution for that problem • Psychology bring change in the attitude of the teacher toward his students • Psychology introduce new mental test through which teacher evaluate the students • Psychology produce new theories of learning for better education • With the help of psychology teacher learn to modify the behavior of a students • Psychology teach teacher why a Child behaves in a certain situation differently than other • What teacher need to do to change a negative behavior to a positive one Untrained Teacher • Without proper training. Today in modern era. · Psychologist suggest use of different methods in teaching learning process to achieve better result · Psychologist emphasis on Motivation and readiness in class room · Psychology introduce new theories of learning in education · Psychology emphasis on activity base teaching learning process · Use of Visual Aid in teaching learning process · Psychology is the study of human behavior while Education is the process of modifying human behavior so both deal with human behavior in different ways. Psychology also changed the old concept of education where only upper class had the ability and right to learn. · Educational psychology deals with educational problems · General psychology deals with different problems other then education Psychology and teacher • Psychology enhance the vision of teacher to understand the mental status of his students • Psychology help teacher to evaluate his student. . Relationship between education and psychology Education and psychology are interdependent.
society and emotions. which stimulate the constructive potentialities of the students and which is prepared according to their needs. Education Psychology and Guidance and Counseling Many students have many problems in education. Education process is also the result of educational psychology.Educational Psychology and Curriculum A good curriculum is that. therefore curriculum should be flexible for all the learner in the class room Education Psychology and Evaluation Educational psychology has introduced different types of tests and examinations and derived scientific measurement for intelligence. they will like it and will learn it easily. which have to be guided. • What to teach and how to teach? • Prepare the curriculum according to the needs of the students and society • Preparing curriculum from easy to difficult approach • Psychology stress on individual difference. Educational Psychology and Method of Teaching: If the teacher teaches his students according to the interest and mental development of the students. The teacher should teach according to their mental level. The curriculum should be according to the mental level of the students. Audio visual aids in the educational Processes are also the result of educational psychology. • Evaluation of child IQ (* Intelligence test ) • Evaluate the factor of slow learning in the class room situation • Personality test • Attitude and interest Test • The Stanford-binet scale of intelligence test The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a standardized test that assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults aged two to twenty three years. Personality education etc these tests disclose the weak points of aptitude of the students and for this purpose help from statistical principles has been taken. Psychology bring new methods of Evaluation in education. determining the presence of a learning disability or a developmental delay. Psychologist provide guidance in such conditions and for this purpose child guidance clinics have been opened in school in developed countries What are the duties of Guidance Counselor? .
Educational Psychology and Development of Personality To build up the personality of an individual is the aim of education. emotional and social problems. To lead them to a successful life and eradicate their psychological problems. Different topics have been highlighted by psychology. the personality and mental ability of an individual can be divided into different stages i. improper food. Mental retardation is created due to bad environment.e. From the meaning of learning. during these stages the mental maturity is at different stages. Different methods of teaching are used at different stages. This is impossible without proper knowledge of psychology. If these principles are not regulated the students can not adjust themselves in the society. Educational Psychology and Children of Special Attention Physically disable students have many educational.• Psychologist emphasis that every schools should have a guidance counselor • To evaluate problematic child and rectify his problem • To prepare reports on the mental state of such students • To provide help to the teacher to understand students behavior • One psychologist says I don't understand how a teacher could teach without the knowledge of education psychology Educational Psychology and Different Stages of Growth According to growth. Educational Psychology and Mental Health Educational psychology has pointed out the factors affecting mental health of the Students. To study the stimuli and responses of personality demerits and their causes in personality and reforms of personality is impossible without proper knowledge of psychology. which have made the process of education very easy. Educational Psychology and Social Adjustment Educational psychology has shown factors effect in social adjustment and indorsed principles which lead a man to adjustment of the society. Educational Psychology and Learning Learning is the basic topic of educational psychology. child hood and adult hood etc. and emotional and social needs. Psychologists consider that if the reaching process is according to these different stages it will be easily learnt. up to the laws of learning. Psychologist helps them to become a useful part of the society. interesting and pleasant. . To produce hygienic mental conditions is the work of only a psychologist.
D. problem solving and good citizenship. even perhaps computers. they are able to be manifested in various systems. In the school. Its core idea is that mental states (beliefs. While functionalism has its advantages. Educational psychology is also helpful by supporting the curricular as well as co-curricular and extracurricular activities in schools. they are said to be realized on multiple levels. Since mental states are identified by a functional role. Educational psychology also has a great role in helping the students through various types of guidance and counseling. etc. (1904) The Chicago school. emotional or Physical development. Psychological Bulletin. claiming that it is an insufficient account of the mind. 1. students can face a number of problems related to their social. leadership. (1967) Progressive Education from Arcady to Academe • James. Foundation of education. being in pain. in other words.Educational Psychology and School Organization According to psychologist a school must have.) are constituted solely by their functional role — that is. Titchener argue that such a functionalist analysis is incomplete without a Thorough investigation of the mental structure and functions. (1990) Gender and Higher Education in the Progressive Era • Muhammad Iqbal. sensory inputs. . A. democratic environment to help the students to develop balanced personalities. developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviourism. Titchener arguments formulate a coherent goal and helped functionalist due to which psychologist became interested in the function of mind. 1-5. they are causal relations to other mental states. so long as the system performs the appropriate functions. decision making. desires. Graham. Functionalism formed as a reaction to Titchener theory of structuralism. and behavioral outputs. Reconstruction of religious thoughts in Islam • P. Gordon. cooperation and healthy competition. D. W. Peshawar • L. Theories of functionalism Functionalism is a theory of mind in contemporary philosophy. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Numan. there have been several arguments against it. The social environment in school can be an effective tool to allow the students to develop a number of qualities such as self confidence.
retain. Rather than focusing on the elements of consciousness. Principle of functionalism in psychology • Functionalist oppose the search for the elements of consciousness as futile • Functionalist believed that the mind has the function of helping us to adapt to the environment. Functionalists were interested in the ―function‖. Mind Mind is a complex processes like a computer. process and organize. judgment.Titchener was against functionalism but during describing his theory of structuralism. function of memory. Functionalism also emphasized individual differences. Contributed to the foundation of functional psychology in the US. which had a profound impact on education. acquire. ―Individual differences‖ become a valued part of mental research. • They want psychology to be broadened to include research on animals. psychology. Evolution is based on individual differences and the survival of adaptive features. Functionalists focused on the purpose of consciousness and behaviour. ―Adaptation‖ becomes a popular approach to measuring intelligence. not pure science. They want to understand the function of the mind. Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner. the mental abilities of adapting to an environment William James William James commonly considered the father of U. children. he explains in detail functionalism too. Functionalism was heavily influenced by the work of William James and titchener Functionalism‘s Roots Functionalism was rooted in Darwin‘s theory of evolution. but he did not develop his own ideas into an independent ―school‖ of study. and atypical humans • Functionalist believed that the needs and motivations of the organism should be understood if some one wants to understand behaviour . the way it helps us to adapt • Functionalist wants psychology to be practical. Before him functionalism was loosely formulated between empiricism and the common–sense Mentalism of the Layman.S.
Nature selection: it is the adaptation to natural selection. Variation: Biological.• Functionalist are more interested in what makes people different from each other than in what makes them similar • They are willing to use a wide variety of methods of study In 1906. which leads naturally into the problem solving . • Functionalism influenced the educational system. to adapt to a certain environment for the survival of the self. Major Functionalist Thinkers • William James • John Dewey • Harvey Carr • John Angell Strengths of Functionalism • Functionalism Influenced behaviourism and applied psychology. John Dewey as Functionalist • Progressive education: founded experimental Elementary school in his university for the development of education • the duty of school to give children. she argued. but also the opportunities to practice in real life in the form of games or any other activity base task. not only an insight into the social importance of such activities. she thinks Structuralism and functionalism were not so different. especially with regards to John Dewey‘s belief that children should learn at the level for which they are mentally prepared. Adaptation of organism Functionalist approach adaptation of organism to environment is deep rooted in the Charles Darwin theory of natural selection which explain the origin of species by organic evolution Charles Darwin theory of mental selection 1. social and mental variation among the species Struggle for existence: Every specie on the face of this planet struggle for their existence 3. Mary Whiton Calkins published an article in Psychological Review asking for reconciliation between these two schools of thoughts. since both are principally concerned with the conscious of self.
Why and what mental operations also called input-output psychology · Functionalism is the psychology of adjustment of the organism to its environment (to solve the problem) · Functionalism is interested in mind-in-body and interested in the physiological level of mental events · American empirical psychology: Empiricism is a theory of knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from experience Strategies of Functionalism for psychological research • Tolerant and critical and enjoy freedom: a functionalist researcher is critical in thinking and tolerant in nature. Angell defence of functionalism · How. So as body has a heart. he is tolerant to Method and Content . • Therefore. 3. Social Solidarity: For example. Division of Labour -Education teaches individual skills necessary for future occupations. This is a most important function in advanced industrial society with its complex division of labour.. • The originator of the functionalist perspective. the teaching of history provides social continuity 2. the Family and the Economy etc. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) argued that the main function of education is the transmission of society's norms and values in three mains areas: 1.• Dewey emphasized on child interest and his motivation to solve the problems • Functionalism emphasized on individual Differences (capacity) in mental abilities (Darwin theory of variation) • Francis Galton and james Cattel functional psychologist work on mental abilities and how to measure with mental tests • It starts a movement of mental testing on the school level and classifying children in different intellectual groupings Functionalism in sociology • Functionalism: Functionalists see society.. Society has Education. to understand the education system we must consider how it functions to contribute to the healthy maintenance of the whole social system. He is ready to accept any information obtained by introspection or by objective observation from either source mental test or case study. as being structured like a human body with many interrelated parts that functions together to maintain a healthy whole. liver etc. lungs. we learn to co-operate with strangers and to be self-disciplined. Social Rules: At school..
• Robinson Recognized individual differences in his law of Individual differences and composition • McGeoch and irion also agree with him • With increase in age = increase in learning abilities due to organic maturation and second changing in psychological conditions (transfer and motivation) Capacity and Class Room • Functionalist suggest different method of teaching. because some children will easily learn from one method and some from other method • Functionalist also emphasised Teaching according to the pace and capacity of the . learn with different pace. Today functionalism is dedicated to the experimental method. • Children with Different mental level. Melton (1950)Dashiell‘s Diagramof problem solving • (1) How problem arise block by (2) • (3) solve the problem through varied Behaviour • (4) proceeds on his way to (5) • If the process repeated again the (4) response recurs in Less time Thus the learning process is the discovery of the adequate response to a problem situation and the fixation of the satisfying situation-response relationship (Melton) · Motivation · Initial discovery of the adequate response · Fixation and elimination · Transfer of training and retention Capacity • Functionalism particularly emphasized on individual Differences (capacity) and mental abilities of the individual (Darwin theory of variation) • Dewey emphasised on individual differences and established an experimental school for this purpose to confirm his viewpoint.• Functionalist is an experimentalist: in today world functionalist is an experim entalist.
• Practice help in the class room environment to strong this bond of association between elements etc Class Room and practice • Show the picture of cat to students and repeat again and again so the students associate them with each other. Insight is the extreme case of transfer of training according to McGeoch & Irion 1952. Forgetting Forgetting Forgetting . which are associated with each other.students Practice • Long term Retain happen when the bond is stronger between two elements. Functionalists discourage rote memorisation. meaning full material memorise easily as illustrate in the above example Motivation • Woodworth emphasised on the motivation and give core importance to it in learning by using different means to motivate the students • Reward is a very good motive for students in class. it not only encourages the students who get the reward but also encourage the fellow students in the class • Interest and Activity base teaching also motivate the student in learning process Understanding • Functionalist emphasis on meaningful material in learning process because meaningful material is easily learned than meaningless material • Use Visual aid for better understanding of learning material Transfer • The effect (use) of old learning in new situation is called transfer of training.
1-5. why this lesson in interesting and important Teacher reviews the previous learning of the students Teacher Motivate the students through questions . (1967) Progressive Education from Arcady to Academe HITAS can be used to judge the teaching performance of teachers in school.jokes and story Teacher relate new information to previously attained knowledge Teacher breaks down the lesson in small segments Teacher gives information step by step and slowly Teacher Gives several examples to teach main points of the 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 . W. (1990) Gender and Higher Education in the Progressive Era • P. one cant recall the original one. (1904) The Chicago school. BIBLIOGRAPHY • James. Gordon. Graham. • L. one could recall it easily. instead he remember other things which is identical to the old one and when the bond is stronger again between these two elements. college and universities for the sake of improvement in the quality of teaching. HITAS can also be used for the evaluation purposes of trainee teachers. due to weak bond between two element. situational see the above graph • Forgetting accord according to functionalist. Psychological Bulletin.Maximum Minimum Medium Similarity Similarity Similarity • Theory of forgetting interference theory • Association between two elements etc words. (HITAS) Hafiz Inam Teaching Assessment Scale Name : Subject: w S# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Lesson: Center: Lo High Statements Preparation of Lesson plan Preparation of AV aids and presentation Teacher states the objectives of the lessonto students Teacher tells. 1. A. ideas.
Juan Vives (1492-1540) proposed induction as the method of study and believed in the direct  observation and investigation of the study of nature.Johann Pestalozzi. He suggested that the school should be located away from disturbing noises. Vives emphasized the importance of understanding individual differences of the students   and suggested practice as an important tool for learning. classified and judged the methods of education centuries before the beginnings of psychology in the late 1800s. Philosophers of education such as Juan Vives. He used object teaching. He was one of the first to emphasize that the  location of the school is important to learning. Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827) emphasized the child rather than the content of the school. and Johann Herbart had examined. the air quality should be good and there should be plenty of food for the students  and teachers. He spoke out against the method of rote memorization as the method for learning and suggested direct observation  as a better way of learning. which means when teaching the teacher should  . He also supported the education of women.11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 lesson Teacher gives clear explanations to teach main points of the lesson Teacher gives distinctly and slowly Teacher repeats the main points of the lesson Teacher demonstrates personal enthusiasmfor the lesson Teacher closes the lesson with a briefsummary Teacher interacts with students Teacher manage the classroom time Teacher utilizes the classroom time Teacher asks questions about any ambiguity in the presentation Teacher asks question to at last to judgethe students understanding Teacher‘s command over subject matter Teacher uses of AV aids Teacher uses of board Teacher‘s voice clarity Teacher demonstrates ability to communicate Teacher‘s eye contact with students Teacher demonstrates democratic attitude Teacher gives equal attention to all the students Teacher‘s class control Teacher uses verity of teaching strategiesfor students understanding Teacher exhibits confidence in teaching ability Teacher provide feedback and corrections 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Before 1890[edit source | editbeta] Modern educational psychologists are not the first to analyze educational processes. Friedrich Froebel.
Review material that has already been learned by the teacher 3. This created an expansion of elementary schools and secondary schools. He was the first to establish an elementary school.proceed gradually from the concrete objects to the abstract and complex material. From 1840 to 1920 37 million people immigrated to the United States. educational psychologists recognized the limitations of this new approach. Present the new material. They are 5 steps that teachers should use are: 1. He thought that teachers should consider the students existing mental sets. Relate the new material to the old material that has already been learned. Johann Herbart (1776-1841) is considered the father of educational psychology. Prepare the student for new material by giving them an overview of what they are learning next 4. which  combined work and play to teach children responsibility and cooperation. Darwinism influenced the beliefs of the prominent educational psychologists. by using its originality‖. He also was interested in the education of poor children. He believed that the relationship between the teacher and the child was important in providing a basis for the education of the  child. Teachers should also realize the importance of habit and instinct. An intermediate inventive mind must make that application. and association of ideas. James is the father of psychology in America but he also made contributions to educational psychology. and teaching is an art. 1890-1920[edit source | editbeta] William James The period of 1890-1920 is considered the golden era of educational psychology where aspirations of the new discipline rested on the application of the scientific methods of observation and experimentation to  educational problems. when presenting new information or  material.        2. He believed that  learning was influenced by interest in the subject and the teacher. . what they already know. Show how the student can apply the new material and show the material they will learn next. 5. The pioneering American psychologist William James commented that: Psychology is a science. published in 1899 and now regarded as the first educational psychology textbook. The increase in immigration also provided educational psychologists the opportunity to use intelligence testing to screen immigrants at Ellis   Island. He also addresses important issues such as attention. Herbart came up with what is now known as the formal steps. James defines education as "the organization of acquired  habits of conduct and tendencies to behavior‖. In his famous series of lectures Talks to Teachers on Psychology. They should present information that is clear and interesting and relate this new  information and material to things the student already knows about. Friedrich Froebel (1782-1853) is the founder of the kindergarten movement. Even in the earliest years of the discipline. memory. He states that teachers should ―train the pupil to  behavior‖ so that he fits into the social and physical world. and sciences never generate arts directly out of  themselves.
not just to improve the general intelligence. In this experimental method he advocated for two types of experiments. The test became known as the Stanford-Binet and was one of the most widely used tests of intelligence. Binet also emphasized that practice of material was important. Thorndike’s research with Robert Woodworth on the theory of transfer found that learning one subject will only influence your ability to learn another subject if the subjects are similar. He contributed word dictionaries that were scientifically based to determine the words and definitions used. His later work was on programmed instruction. He based teaching practices on empirical evidence and measurement. He made all the problems more realistic and relevant to what was being studied. The Binet-Simon test was the first intelligence test and was the first to distinguish between “normal children” and those with developmental disabilities. learning is an automatic process and all the principles of learning apply to all mammals. The dictionaries were the first to take into consideration the users maturity level. In his longitudinal study of gifted children. Terman found that gifted children become gifted adults. in which he attempted to apply the experimental method to educational psychology. His biggest contribution to testing was the CAVD intelligence test which used a mulitdimensional approach to intelligence and the first to use a ratio scale. 5. contributed arithmetic books based on learning theory. Alfred Binet published Mental Fatigue in 1898. Binet strongly supported special education programs because he believed that “abnormality” could be cured. This is when he began to look for a way to distinguish children with developmental disabilities. mastery learning and computer-based learning: He ] . 4. Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) supported the scientific movement in education. Binet believed that it was important to study individual differences between age groups and children of the same age. He developed test that were standardized to measure performance in school related subjects. was interested in using intelligence test to identify gifted children who had high intelligence. The law of effect states that associations are strengthened when it is followed by something pleasing and associations are weakened when followed by something not pleasing. Thorndike was one of the first to say that individual differences in cognitive tasks were due to how many stimulus response patterns a person had rather than a general intellectual ability.3. He also believed that it was important for teachers to take into account individual students strengths and also the needs of the classroom as a whole when teaching and creating a good learning environment. In 1904 he was appointed the Minister of Public Education. experiments done in the lab and experiments done in the classroom. This discovery led to less emphasis on learning the classics because they found that studying the classics does not contribute to overall general intelligence. In 1916 Lewis Terman revised the Binet-Simon so that the average score was always 100. He also found that learning is done a little at a time or in increments. Thorndike developed the theory of instrumental conditioning or the law of effect. who became known as the Termites. He also integrated pictures and easier pronunciation guide into each of the definitions. T Terman. unlike Binet. He also believed that it was important to train teachers in observation so that they would be able to see individual differences among children and adjust the curriculum to the students.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) developed the theory of cognitive development. much that now requires personal instruction could be managed by print. In his book The Process of Education Bruner stated that the structure of the material and the cognitive abilities of the person are important in learning. The theory stated that intelligence developed in four different stages. an educational psychologist. He also believed that learning was constrained to the child’s cognitive development. 6. John Dewey (1859-1952) had a major influence on the development of progressive education in the United States. 1. The stages are the sensorimotor stage from birth to 2 years old. Most of the research on Piagetian theory was mainly tested and done by American educational psychologists 1920-Present[ The amount of people receiving a high school and college education increased dramatically from 1920 to 1960. The progressive movement in the United State took off at this time and led to the idea of progressive education. He believed that the classroom should prepare children to be good citizens and facilitate creative intelligence. Piaget influenced educational psychology because he was the first to believe that cognitive development was important and something that should be paid attention to in education. He also thought that education should be student-oriented not subject-oriented.If. 2. the preoperational state from 2 years old to 7 years old. He states that students learn by doing. developed tests for combat trainees and instructions in combat training. Jerome Bruner was the first to apply the cognitive approaches in educational psychology. He was the one who introduced the ideas of Jean Piaget into educational psychology. From the 1960s to present day educational psychology has switched from a behaviorist perspective to a more cognitive based perspective because of the influence and development of cognitive psychology at this time. and so on. the concrete operational stage from 7 years old to 10 years old. explore and experiment. John Flanagan. He believed in an active mind that was able to be educated through observation and problem solving and inquiry. Board of Education. and formal operational stage from 11 years old and up. by a miracle of mechanical ingenuity. He also stated that material should be relative to the student’s own experience. He pushed for the creation of practical class that could be applied outside of a school setting. He also believed that how the subject was structured was important for the students understanding of the subject and it is the goal of the teacher to structure the subject in a way that was easy for the student to understand  ] . In 1954 the work of Kenneth Clark and his wife on the effects of segregation on black and white children was influential in the Supreme Court case Brown v. "The material furnished by way of information should be relevant to a question that is vital in the students own experience. For Dewey education was social that helped bring together generations of people. 7. He emphasized the importance of the subject matter. Because of very little jobs available to the teens coming out of eighth grade there was an increase in high school attendance in the 1930s . In his 1910 book How We Think he emphasizes that material should be provided in way that is stimulating and interesting to the student and it encourages original thoughts and problem solving. a book could be so arranged that only to him who had done what was directed on page one would page two become visible. He advocated for discovery learning where teachers create a problem solving environment that allows the student to question.
adaptation. The categories are receiving phenomenon. set. comprehension application. 4. organization. analysis. which influenced his view as schooling as a cultural institution. The program explored human evolution and social behavior. valuing. The 7 categories of the psychomotor domain are perception. He developed taxonomy of educational objectives. affective. Internationally. In the early 1960s Bruner went to Africa to teach math and science to schoolchildren. He was interested in the influence of culture on education and looked at the impact of poverty on educational development. which was an educational program that combined anthropology and science. Man a Course of Study. and psychomotor. ] ] Bloom believed in communicating clear learning goals and promoting an active student. Nathaniel Gage is important in educational psychology because he did research to improve teaching and understand the processes involved in teaching. and internalizing values. In 1963 he was the editor of the Handbook of Research on Teaching. responding to that phenomenon. Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999) spent over 50 years at the University of Chicago where he worked in the department of education He believed that all students can learn. and origination. movement and coordination and has 7 categories. He also found that students differ in process of problem solving in their approach and attitude toward the problem. It is divided into categories that are on a continuum from easiest to more complex. complex overt response. Bruner was also influential in the development of MACOS. He thought that teachers should provide feedback to the students on their strengths and weaknesses. The affective domain deals with emotions and has 5 categories. guided response. He also was influential in the founding of the Stanford Center for Research and Development in teaching. The handbook helped set up research on teaching and made research on teaching important to educational psychology. synthesis and evaluation. . which not only contributed important research on teaching but also influenced the teaching of important educational psychologists. The cognitive domain deals with how we think. 3. The objectives were divided into three domains: cognitive. which became an influential book in educational psychology. The categories are knowledge or recall. mechanism. that also goes from simplest to complex. The psychomotor domain deals with the development of motor skills. The taxonomy is considered to have a greater influence internationally than in the United States. The taxonomy provided broad educational objectives that could be used to help expand the curriculum to match the ideas in the taxonomy. He found that they differ in understanding the basis of the problem and the ideas in the problem. the taxonomy is used in every aspect of education from training of the teachers to the development of testing material. He also helped with the development of the head start program. Bloom also did research on college students and their problem solving processes.
Negative Reinforcement In this a particular behavior strengthens or increases in the hope that a negative consequence can be avoided. Examples in Everyday Life Examples in Children There are certain operant conditioning behavior examples in the classroom as well as in a home set up that you can observe in children. he will behave in a particular way. While positive and negative reinforcement help in increasing or strengthening a particular behavior. For example avoiding turning in late for class so that the teacher does not shout is a great way to understand child behavior and the varied changes that are brought about. Positive Punishment In this. a particular behavior pattern decreases so as to avoid dealing with something unpleasant after. A child learns to clean his/her room after being rewarded with TV time. a child might stop throwing tantrums after his favorite toy is taken away after each tantrum. For example. a lift in a building makes a lot of noise so a person decides to take the stairs. Here are a few examples. every time he cleans it. Here are some examples. A person decides to take a different route on his morning walk to avoid a garbage dump and therefore increases his running speed and the distance that he covers. This concept can be further explained by breaking it down into 4 sub-parts. For example. to either encourage or discourage that consequence. Negative Punishment In this. the child is made to sit separately and no one is allowed to talk to him. Such that external stimuli lead to certain behavior. (Positive reinforcement) After hitting a classmate. a student will continue to do his homework because he knows he is rewarded with a candy by his parents or teachers if he completes it. (Negative Punishment) .What is Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is the process of learning behavioral patterns which are based on certain stimuli from the environment. Here is how it goes. Taking the stairs helps avoid the negative behavior of dealing with the noise. Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement occurs when a particular behavior strengthens or increases due to the hope of experiencing a positive behavior. (Negative Reinforcement) A person stops teasing his fiance about an issue after she gives him the silent treatment. This is a great way of dealing with behavior problems in children. For example. This is a great example of positive reinforcement in the classroom. A human being knows the kind of consequences that a particular behavior will lead to and therefore. a particular behavior pattern decreases so that a positive stimulus or object is not removed after. Examples in Adults Operant conditioning does not stop in childhood itself but is something that can continue throughout a person's life. Such that the child never ever hits any classmate again (Positive punishment). because learning of behavior does not end at any particular age. positive and negative punishment help in decreasing or discouraging it.
You put up an umbrella to avoiding getting wet in the rain. An "A" on your well written paper. Feeling good after working at a soup kitchen. You get up and walk out. Break the law to go to jail so you can get free meals. You clean up your room so your mom will stop nagging you about it. more likely to take the little white pill next time my head hurts You put on your seatbelt to stop the annoying "dinging" noise in your car. Farfooch places his tentacles into a clamutz whenever he gets the chance. who increases the behavior (smiling. Mouthing off to receive a super wedgie because you think super wedgies are fun.buzzle. I enact this one in class---pretend to choke a student (someone I know well from a previous class if possible!) and ask them to say things to get my hands off their neck. However. You receive an award for writing short stories.) Premack Principle You receive a kiss for bringing your girlfriend flowers. Put gas in your car so you can move about town. etc. free healthcare. Interesting concept. (Clarify: Parent is more likely to use time-out in the future) This can be done live. the child child reduces their misbehavior. Enjoying giving a party where everyone seems to be having a great time. NEEEE. You open a window in your home. you decide it's the worst movie you've every seen. talking etc) A service dog is allowed to play tug as a reward for correctly identifying the location of a hidden item (drug. On the planet Zygomoplic. If a parent places a child in time-out when they misbehave. Negative reinforcement (assume behavior increases as a result) o o o o o o o o o o If I yell "You're the king of the world!" my brother will let me up off the floor. food.These operant conditioning examples show us a pattern which dictates that most behavior patterns that we learn. whenever Farfooch places his tentacles into a clamutz. You receive a sticker for wearing your ID to class.html Positive reinforcement (assume behavior increases as a result) o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o I get a cookie after I finish my reading assignment. and a roof over your head. 10 minutes in. You and your friend go to see a movie. If they ask . he receives a drasselpac.that good feeling Give your child dessert when they eat their vegetables. NEEEEEEE" repeatedly. (Assume the same laws of learning apply on Zygomoplic as on earth). smoking a cigarette brings a dopamine release in the brain . Stand over them and in your most annoying voice say. Stand in front of a student and tell them they'll have to do something to make you stop making an annoying sound. you aren't happy with the noise from the traffic outside. are not merely as a result of our thoughts and conscience. eventually they will say---you are the best teacher in the world--more likely to repeat if I choke them again * take a certain white pill and headache goes away. in class. Making a goal in basketball after using correct form. isn't it? Read more at Buzzle: http://www. Smile at other person. You get your allowance only after you complete your weekly chores. You decide to turn on the radio to listen to music and drown out the sound of the traffic. but due to the fact that there are negative and positive stimuli in the environment that influence the way in which we act and behave. Getting pleasure from a stimulating conversation with a great colleague. You receive a merit raise at work for doing your job well. "NEEE.com/articles/operant-conditioning-examples.
Stretching to avoid a sports injury. The parent's behavior of giving into the kid is negatively reinforced by the removal of the tantrum and the disapproving stares of the other people. . when Farfooch placed his tentacles into a blamutz. AND NOTHING GOOD HAPPENED! Lesson: Reinforcement has nothing to do with whether the behavior is good or bad. Getting a super wedgie for mouthing off to your older brother.o o o o o o o o o o o o o o you stop. to avoid a sports or recreational injury. pads. Student's cell phone rings in class. Child begins to Scream and Kick. Put gas in your car to avoid a break-down. You get sick from drinking too much vodka so moderate your drinking in the future. . Farfooch doesn't place his tentacles into anymore blamutzes. Teacher answers phone and talks to the caller. Parent gives in and buys the kid a candy bar. stop instantly. Tim thinks he is sneaky and tries to text in class. etc. He is caught and given a 4 hour Saturday detention. Reinforcement happens when the behavior increases in probability as a result of contingent stimuli. . Someone frowns when you tell a joke. Snapping your wrist with a rubber band when you bite your fingernails. Parent and Child in Grocery store. smoking a cigarette makes the craving for nicotine go away wearing sunglasses to avoid/remove the glare of the sun flushing the toilet right after hurling chunks you decide to tell Jack Bauer (tv show 24) everything he wants to know to get him to stop torturing you Eating a meal you don't like in order to avoid hurting the "cooks" feelings. Telling my friends how to play a game who then tell me to mind my own business! Eating an entire batch of chocolate cookies in one sitting and feeling sick to my stomach. hopefully embarassing the student. You receive a detention for being tardy to class.negative reinforcement. .voila . Receiving a ticket for speeding in your car. Do it again. he receives a trasselpac. Taking out the garbage to quiet a nagging significant other. (Assume the same laws of learning apply on Zygomoplic as on earth). Hurting your head when you don't duck in a low doorway. Other people stop look and go back to thier business. Positive punishment (assume behavior decreases as a result) o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o I run into a pole while texting. . desireable or undesirable. Tasting bitter nail chemical when you try to bite your nails. Ducking your head to avoid hitting it on a low doorway. Child's tantruming behavior is Positively Reinforced by receciving what he asked for (candy). Studying for an exam reduces stress. and time how fast they ask you to stop. Jail . Kid stops screaming. The teacher yells "stop talking!" in the middle of the lecture to the class and all the other students glare at the offenders. They should ask much faster . Wearing a helmet.Being forced to live in a small smelly room. Removing a super wedgie to eliminate discomfort Being nice to your brother to avoid super wedgies Follow the laws to avoid jail. Child asks for a candy bar and parent says "no". Everone else in the lines looks in a disapproving manner at the Parent. An employee's inappropriate behavior at work stops after being criticized by a supervisor. On the planet Zygomoplic.
You come in late after curfew and your parents take away your car keys. . Zachary is very naughty one afternoon. . Dog jumps on you when you return home. You turn your back on the dog and ignore him. Negative punishment (assume behavior decreases as a result) o o o o o o o o o o o o o I got grounded because I came home past curfew.teachpsych.See more at: http://topix. Teacher takes a student's cell phone away in class. Losing your driver's license after getting a DUI.org/w/page/36140077/Operant%20Conditioning%20in%20the%20Classroom#sthash.dpuf .o Your sister whacks you upside the head for getting in her personal space. Jail . so his mom tells him he cannot go on a camping trip with his best friend that weekend. Refuse to be affectionate toward your partner when they forget your anniversary. An employee is consistently late for work.remove freedom to do as you please Teenager loses their cellphone for talking back to mom.o8YsWDM4.remove privacy Removing video game play time Repo man takes a car for failure to make loan payments. Removing door from bedroom hinges after child slams it in anger. The employee therefore loses the right to listen to music while working.
Any person who. Any person who uses a revoked or suspended certificate of registration. Any person who practices the teaching profession in the Philippines without being certified in accordance with the provisions of this Act. g. or fraudulent evidence of any kind to the Board or any member thereof in obtaining a certificate of registration as teacher. Penal Provisions The following shall be punishable by a fine of not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. The penalty of fine or imprisonment or both. f. no person shall practice or offer to practice the teaching profession in the Philippines or be appointed as teacher to any position without having previously obtained a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional license from the Commission. and Any person who violates or who abets the violation of any of the provisions of this Act.00) or imprisonment of not less than six (6) months nor more than five (5) years or both at the discretion of the court. Any person who represent or attempts to use as his own certificate of registration that of the other. uses or advertises any title or description tending to convey or conveys the impression that he is a teacher without holding a valid certificate. d.000. c. in connection with his name. shall also apply to any school or school official who shall cause or be responsible for the Commission of any of the above-enumerated acts. . a. as provided in the section.000. otherwise assumes. e.Board of Professional Teachers Inhibition Against the Practice of the Teaching Profession Except as otherwise allowed under this Act. b. Any person who gives any false.00) nor more than twenty thousand pesos (P20. Any person who impersonates any registrant of the same or different name.
adapted and offered to fit local needs. Section 3. The school shall be the heart of the formal education system. the field offices which shall implement educational programs. Purposes and Objectives. Governance of basic education shall begin at the national level it is at the regions. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: Section 1. It is where children learn. productive and patriotic citizens. CULTURE AND SPORTS AS THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. schools and learning centers herein referred to as the field offices . Schools shall have a single aim of providing the best possible basic education for all learners. projects and services developed. (d) To ensure that schools and learning centers receive the kind of focused attention they deserve and that educational programs. projects and services take into account the interests of all members of the community. (c) To make schools and learning centers the most important vehicle for the teaching and learning of national values and for developing in the Filipino learners love of country and pride in its rich heritage. . It shall be the goal of basic education to provide them with the skills.This Act shall be known as the "Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001. projects and services in communities they serve.The purposes and objectives of this Act are: (a) To provide the framework for the governance of basic education which shall set the general directions for educational policies and standards and establish authority. (b) To define the roles and responsibilities of and provide resources to. Such education shall also include alternative learning systems for out-of-school youth and adult learners. The State shall encourage local initiatives for improving the quality of basic education. Short Title. The State shall ensure that the values. divisions. . Declaration of Policy.where the policy and principle for the governance of basic education shall be translated into programs. Schools and learning centers shall be empowered to make decisions on what is best for the learners they serve. ESTABLISHING AUTHORITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY. needs and aspirations of a school community are reflected in the program of education for the children. 9155 August 11. seIf-reliant." Section 2. . 2001 AN ACT INSTITUTING A FRAME WORK OF GOVERNANCE FOR BASIC EDUCATION. RENAMING THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.REPUBLIC ACT NO. out-of-school youth and adult learners.It is hereby declared the policy of the State to protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality basic education and to make such education accessible to all by providing all Filipino children a free and compulsory education in the elementary level and free education in the high school level. knowledge and values they need to become caring. . accountability and responsibility for achieving higher learning outcomes.
At the end of each level. It encompasses early childhood.For purposes of this Act.is a school that offers a complete basic education in one school site and has unified instructional program. skills.is a lifelong process of learning by which every person acquires and accumulates knowledge. It is a venue for face-to-face learning and activities and other learning opportunities for community development and improvement of the people's quality of life. . (f) Integrated School. the terms or phrases used shall mean or be understood as follows: (a) Alternative Learning System -is a parallel learning system to provide a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction. the learner needs a certification in order to enter or advance to the next level. systematic educational activity carried outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to a segment of the population.is any organized. at play and from life itself.is the systematic and deliberate process of hierarchically structured and sequential learning corresponding to the general concept of elementary and secondary level of schooling. (i) Learning Facilitator . Section 4.(e) To enable the schools and learning centers to reflect the values of the community by allowing teachers/learning facilitators and other staff to have the flexibility to serve the needs of all learners. (d) Formal Education . (g) Learner . .is the key learning support person who is responsible for supervising/facilitating the learning process and activities of the learner.is any individual seeking basic literacy skills and functional life skills or support services for the improvement of the quality of his/her life.is the education intended to meet basic learning needs which lays the foundation on which subsequent learning can be based. at work. (f) To encourage local initiatives for the improvement of schools and learning centers and to provide the means by which these improvements may be achieved and sustained.is a physical space to house learning resources and facilities of a learning program for out-of-school youth and adults. and (g) To establish schools and learning centers as facilities where schoolchildren are able to learn a range of core competencies prescribed for elementary and high school education programs or where the out-of-school youth and adult learners are provided alternative learning programs and receive accreditation for at least the equivalent of a high school education. elementary and high school education as well as alternative learning systems four out-of-school youth and adult learners and includes education for those with special needs. . Definition of Terms. (c) Cluster of Schools . (e) Informal Education .is a group of schools which are geographically contiguous and brought together to improve the learning outcomes. It encompasses both the nonformal and informal sources of knowledge and skills. (j) Non-Formal Education . attitudes and insights from daily experiences at home. (b) Basic Education . (h) Learning Center .
is an educational institution. accountability and responsibility for ensuring access to. National Level In addition to his/her powers under existing laws. relevance and excellence of the education given to meet the needs and aspirations of an individual and society. (c) The principles of accountability and transparency shall be operationalized in the performance of functions and responsibilities at all levels. Principles of Shared Governance. A. promoting equity in. (4) Monitoring and assessing national learning outcomes. Duties and Functions.School Head . task and responsibility inherent in the office and for which it is principally accountable for outcomes. and improving the quality of basic education. division and school levels. (b) The process of democratic consultation shall be observed in the decision-making process at appropriate levels.School . .The Secretary of the Department of Education shall exercise overall authority and supervision over the operations of the Department. (5) Undertaking national educational research and studies. (3) Promulgating national educational Standards. Governance. usually located in a building or a group of buildings in a particular physical or cyber site. . undertaking educational operation with a specific age-group of pupils or students pursuing defined studies at defined levels. local government units and nongovernmental organizations for effective governance. Culture and Sports shall henceforth be called the Department of Education.is a person responsible for the administrative and instructional supervision of the school or cluster of schools. and (d) The communication channels of field offices shall be strengthened to facilitate flow of information and expand linkages with other government agencies. culture and sports shall be as provided for in Sections 8 and 9 hereof.(k) Quality Education . Section 7.The Department of Education. private and public. It shall be vested with authority. the Secretary of Education shall have authority. and (m) . (I) . CHAPTER 1 GOVERNANCE OF BASIC EDUCATION Section 5. accountability and responsibility for the following: (1) Formulating national educational policies.(a) Shared governance is a principle which recognizes that every unit in the education bureaucracy has a particular role. receiving instruction from teachers. Section 6. Arts. Feedback mechanisms shall be established to ensure coordination and open communication of the central office with the regional. (2) Formulating a national basic education plan. Powers.is the appropriateness. . .
and (7) Enhancing the total development of learners through local and national programs and/or projects. the budget to support the regional educational plan which shall take into account the educational plans of the divisions and districts. physical and fiscal resources of the regional office. (10) Evaluating all schools division superintendents and assistant division superintendents in the region. (9) Hiring. in coordination with the regional development council. . needs and expectations of the communities they serve. duties and responsibilities shall be governed by law. placing and evaluating all employees in the regional office. Regional Level There shall be as many regional offices as may be provided by law. (II) Planning and managing the effective and efficient use of all personnel. There shall be at least one undersecretary and one assistant secretary who shall be career executive service officers chosen from among the staff of the Department. the regional director shall have authority. (3) Developing regional educational standards with a view towards bench-marking for international competitiveness. The Secretary of Education shall be assisted by not more than four (4) undersecretaries and not more than four (4) assistant secretaries whose assignments. professional competence.. planning. (4) Monitoring. selection and training of all staff in the region and divisions. (6) Ensuring strict compliance with prescribed national criteria for the recruitment. including professional staff development. accountability and responsibility for the following: (1) Defining a regional educational policy framework which reflects the values. administrative and fiscal services. (2) Developing a regional basic education plan. evaluating and assessing regional learning outcomes.(6) Enhancing the employment status. (7) Formulating. welfare and working conditions of all personnel of the Department. (5) Undertaking research projects and developing and managing region wide projects which may be funded through official development assistance and/or or other finding agencies. Each regional office shall have a director. Consistent with the national educational policies. (8) Determining the organization component of the divisions and districts and approving the proposed staffing pattern of all employees in the divisions and districts. B. except for the position of assistant director. an assistant director and an office staff for program promotion and support. plans and standards.
both teaching and non-teaching personnel. physical and fiscal resources of the division.(12) Managing the database and management information system of the region. planning. plans and standards the schools division superintendents shall have authority. (5) Ensuring compliance of quality standards for basic education programs and for this purpose strengthening the role of division supervisors as subject area specialists. ancillary and other support services. The schools district supervisor shall be responsible for: (1) Providing professional and instructional advice and support to the school heads and teachers/facilitators of schools and learning centers in the district or cluster thereof. (2) Planning and managing the effective and efficient use of all personnel. accountability and responsibility for the following: (1) Developing and implementing division education development plans. and learning centers. and (8) Performing such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities. administrative. (13) Approving the establishment of public and private elementary and high schools and learning centers. (7) Supervising the operations of all public and private elementary. including school heads. C. A schools district shall have a schools district supervisor and an office staff for program promotion. Schools District Level Upon the recommendation of the schools division superintendents. including professional staff development. . fiscal. the regional director may establish additional schools district within a schools division. and (14) Preforming such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities. School districts already existing at tile time of the passage of the law shall be maintained. secondary and integrated schools. D. (4) Monitoring the utilization of funds provided by the national government and the local government units to the schools and learning centers. (3) Hiring. placing and evaluating all division supervisors and schools district supervisors as well as all employees in the division. Division Level A division shall consist of a province or a city which shall have a schools division superintendent. Consistent with the national educational policies. legal. at least one assistant schools division superintendent and an office staff for programs promotion. except for the assistant division superintendent. (6) Promoting awareness of and adherence by all schools and learning centers to accreditation standards prescribed by the Secretary of Education.
who may be assisted by an assistant school head. (4) Developing the school education program and school improvement plan. projects and services which provide equitable opportunities for all learners in the community. goals and objectives of the school. and (3) Performing such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities. (5) Offering educational programs.(2) Curricula supervision. projects and services. improving ad expanding school facilities and providing instructional materials and equipment. vision. School Level There shall be a school head for all public elementary schools and public high schools or a cluster thereof. and parents-teacherscommunity associations. Such donations or grants must be reported to the appropriate district supervisors and division superintendents. (2) Creating an environment within the school that is conducive to teaching and learning. (8) Recommending the staffing complement of the school based on its needs. shall be both an instructional leader and administrative manager. The school head. and (12) Performing such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities. physical and fiscal resources of the school. A core of nonteaching staff shall handle the school's administrative. (6) Introducing new and innovative modes of instruction to achieve higher learning outcomes. bequests and grants for the purpose of upgrading teachers' learning facilitators' competencies. E. plans and standards. which shall formulate and implement a system of promotion for schools decision supervisors. (9) Encouraging staff development. at the appropriate levels. The Secretary of Education shall create a promotions board. gifts. (7) Administering and managing all personnel. Consistent with the national educational policies. the school heads shall have authority. accountability and responsibility for the following: (1) Setting the mission. The establishment of integrated schools from existing public elementary and public high schools shall be encouraged. fiscal and auxiliary services. nonacademic personnel of public schools. schools district . (11) Accepting donations. (10) Establishing school and community networks and encouraging the active participation of teachers organizations. (3) Implementing the school curriculum and being accountable for higher learning outcomes. The school head shall form a them with the school teachers/learning facilitators for delivery of quality educational programs.
merit and performance rather than on the number of teachers/learning facilitators and learners in the school. National Historical Institute.All functions. The program for school arts and culture shall remain part of the school curriculum. jointly promulgate the guidelines on the allocation. secondary and integrated schools. Abolition of BPESS. programs and activities of the Department of Education related to sports competition shall be transferred to the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC). The Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS) is hereby abolished. CHAPTER 3 ABOLITION OF THE BUREAU OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCHOOL SPORTS Section 9. The Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Budget and Management shall. including the plantilla positions they occupy. The qualifications. distribution and utilization of resources provided by thenational government for the field offices. are hereby transferred to the PSC without loss of rank. presently detailed with the PSC. . CHAPTER 4 SUPPORT AND ASSISTANCE OF OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES Section 10. schools division superintendents and assistant schools division superintendents shall be made unless file appointee is a career executive service officer who preferably shall have risen from the ranks. The Secretary of the Department of Education shall ensure that resources appropriated for the field offices are adequate and that resources for school personnel. Cultural Agencies. No appointment to the positions of regional directors. The Secretary of the Department of Education. The personnel of the BPESS. taking into consideration the uniqueness of the working conditions of the teaching service. salary grade. Section 11. 8. . All other BPESS personnel shall be retained by the Department. CHAPTER 2 TRANSFER OF CULTURAL AGENCIES SEC. status of employment and welfare and benefits of school heads shall be the same for public elementary.The Komisyon ng Wikang Pilipino. assistant regional directors. . and school heads. subject to civil service laws and regulations. The program for school sports and physical fitness shall remain part of the basic education curriculum. shall issue appropriate personnel policy rules and regulations that will best meet the requirements of the teaching profession taking into consideration the uniqueness of the working conditions of the teaching service. within ninety (90) days from the approval of this Act.supervisors. school desks and textbooks and other instructional materials intended are allocated directly and released immediately by the Department of Budget and Management to said offices. Promotion of school heads shall be based on educational qualification. Records Management and Archives Office and the National Library shall now be administratively attached to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) and no loner with the Department of Education.
. entitled' An Act Providing for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. 9054. executive orders. in the issuance of audit rules and regulations that will govern the utilization of all resources as well as the liquidation. districts. other parts or provisions hereof which are not affected thereby shall continue to be in full force and effect.The Regional Education Secretary for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) shall exercise similar governance authority over the divisions. as amended"'. Rules and Regulations. .This Act. recording and reporting thereof.The Secretary of Education shall promulgate the implementing rules and regulations within ninety (90) days after the approval of this Act: Provided. Effectivity Clause. part or parts thereof. . Separability Clause. schools and learning centers in the region as may be provided in the Organic Act.Section 12. are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. any portion or provision of this Act shall be declared unconstitutional. Amending for the Purpose Republic Act No. Governance in the ARMM. Section 17. Section 15. shall take effect fifteen (15) days following its publication in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation. . inconsistent with the provisions of this Act. That the Secretary of Education shall fully implement the principle of shared governance within two (2) years after the approval of this Act. shall take into account the different characteristics and distinct features of the department's field offices. without prejudice to the provisions of Republic Act No. CHAPTER 5 FINAL PROVISIONS Section 13. rules and regulations.All laws. Section 16 Repealing Clause. entitled "An Act to Strengthen and Expand tile Organic Act for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. decrees.6734. . . its organizational set up as well as the nature of the operations of schools and learning centers. Section 14. The Commission on Audit.If for any reason.
3. Share intellectual control with students. the form of presentation (poster. not situations where there is really only one possibility. Provide opportunities for choice and independent decision-making. powerpoint presentation.g.and how to manage their time during a day or lesson. but often it is. many of these involve some form of formal or informal negotiation about parts or all of the content. To be effective.). from this photo. rather than reading it or hearing it. tasks or assessment. model etc.'Here is a photo of the ruins of Machu Pichu. role play. It can be achieved in many ways. comments and suggestions regularly influence. . 2. Building a sense of shared ownership is an effective way of achieving high levels of student interest and engagement. Another complementary approach is to ensure that students' questions.Principles of Teaching 1. Look for occasions when students can work out part (or all) of the content or instructions. the level of demand (do more routine tasks or fewer more demanding ones). closed tasks: e. Students respond very positively to the freedom to make some decisions about what or how they will work. It can also involve much longer open-ended tasks: e. Learning is almost always better if students work something out for themselves. 'if the units of density are grams per cm work out the formula by which we calculate the density of a substance from the volume and mass of an object made of that substance'. about the Incas and their fate'. This is not always feasible of course. work out as much as you can. initiate (or terminate) what is done. It can involve short.g. These may include choices about which area of content to explore. the choices need to be genuine.
increased wait-time. Building trusts in the teacher and other students and training students to disagree without personal put-downs are essential to widespread display of good learning behaviours. even in classes where such learning is widespread. question-asking. The (student) conception that they can learn from other students ideas. Promote talk which is exploratory. Provide diverse range of ways of experiencing success. The classroom dynamics can reach new. comments and questions develops more slowly than the conception that discussion is real and useful work.Es are all helpful. Encourage students to learn from other students' questions and comments. rather than student to teacher. as our research shows. 5. for example. 6. This sort of talk fosters link-making and. Publicly recognising and praising good learning behaviours is useful here. Success via interactive discussion. role-plays and tasks allowing high levelsof creativity often results in greater confidence and hence persistence in tackling other written tasks. Teaching approaches such as delayed judgement. tentative and hypothetical.O. . promotion of 'What If' questions and use of P. Raising intellectual self-esteem is perhaps the most important aspect of working with low and moderately achieving students. commonly reflects high levels of intellectual engagement. We underestimated the very high levels of perceived risk that accompanies many aspects of quality learning for most students. 8. 7. a classroom environment that supports risk-taking. to wait for the teacher's answer to appear than to suggest one yourself. Use a wide variety of intellectually challenging teaching procedures. The classroom becomes more fluid and interactive.4. It is much safer. very high levels when ideas and debate bounce around from student to student.
if not most students. Rather. students (including primary students) commonly do not link activities and do not make links to unifying. they see their role as completing tasks and so they focus on what to do not why they are doing it. Having a rotating student monitor of a short list of good learning behaviours can be very helpful. Regularly raise students' awareness of the nature of different aspects of quality learning. Students typically have no vocabulary to discuss learning. Many. . 11. This is a key aspect of learning how to learn. for example failing to link school work to relevant out-of-school experiences. Use teaching procedures that are designed to promote specific aspects of quality learning. 9. 10. Much teacher talk. The variety in (8) is not random and one basis for selecting a particular teaching procedure is to promote a particular aspect of quality learning. 'big ideas'. do not perceive schooling to be related to learning key ideas and skills. Grammar and Technology reinforces this perception. short debriefing about some aspect of the learning that has just occurred. Hence they need to be varied frequently to retain their freshness. it is very helpful to build a shared vocabulary and shared understandings by regular. one is that teaching procedures that counter passive learning and promote quality learning require student energy and effort. students' awareness of the big picture: how the various activities fit together and link to the big ideas.There are at least two reasons for this. For these reasons. The other is that variety is another source of student interest. in part by devising a range of teaching procedures to variously tackle each of a list of poor learning tendencies. particularly in skills based areas such as Mathematics. One of the origins of PEEL was the belief that students could be taught how to learn.
Students (and sometimes teachers) typically see assessments as purely summative: something that teachers do to students at the end of a topic.12. It also includes teachers ensuring that they are assessing for a range of aspects of quality learning (eg if you want students linking different lessons then reward that in your assessment) and for a wider . Promote assessment as part of the learning process.Building the perception that (most) assessment tasks are part of the learning process includes encouraging students learning from what they did and did not do well as well as having students taking some ownership of and responsibility for aspects of assessment.
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