# Problem Set #3

(1) A DC chopper (shown in Fig. 5.3 of the hand out) operating in continuous conduction mode feeds the armature of a DC motor. The chopper input is 100 V. The motor is operating at constant speed and its armature can be modeled as having a resistance of 0.5Ω, an inductance of 4.166 mH and an EMF (electromotive force, voltage) of 20 V. The chopper is operating at 500 Hz, with a 50% duty cycle (k). Use straight-line approximations for the motor current. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of the converter and motor load. (b) Determine the average motor current. (c) Find the peak-to-peak motor current ripple as a percent of the average motor current. What value of smoothing inductance would reduce this figure to 10%? A buck converter operating in continuous conduction mode at 10 kHz has a fixed 100 V DC input and a fixed 50 V DC output. The converter delivers 500 W into a fixed load resistance. If the converter inductance is 0.5 mH and the output voltage ripple should not exceed 1% of the DC output voltage. What range of converter capacitance can the designer choose from? A small DC motor is modeled as having an inductance of 0.32 mH in series with a resistance of 2 Ω in series with an EMF. When operating at rated output speed and power, the motor has an EMF of 35 V and draws a current of 2.5 A. A DC chopper supplied from a 48 V battery drives the motor. The chopper contains a smoothing reactor which is modeled as a series combination of an inductance Ls, and a resistance Rs = 1.28 Ω. The chopper switching frequency is fixed at 4 kHz. If the motor is operated at rated conditions, the chopper output current has 10 % ripple. Assume that the chopper current varies linearly between its minimum and maximum values. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of the battery, chopper, and DC motor load. (b) For operation at rated conditions, determine: (i) the duty cycle applied to the chopper, (ii) the smoothing inductance Ls, (iii) the switch mean and RMS current, (iv) the chopper output power, (v) the chopper input power, (vi) the chopper efficiency. The switching frequency of a boost converter is fixed at 45 kHz. The input voltage is constant but known only to be in the range of 4.5 V to 5.4 V. Feedback is applied within the converter to set the switch duty cycle, k, and thus maintain the output voltage at 12 V across a load modeled as a constant resistance of 4 Ω. The converter is to operate in the continuous mode only. (a) What is the range in the duty cycle, k, which may be applied to the switch?

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(b) What possible values of the converter inductance, L, can be used to ensure continuous operation? (c) What is the range of converter input power? (5) A DC-to-DC switch mode converter consists of two stages. Stage 1 is boost converter and has a fixed DC input of 9 V. The average output of stage 1 is 15 V, which is applied to a load modeled as a pure resistance of 100 Ω. The output of stage 1 is also applied to the input of stage 2, a buck-boost converter, having an average output voltage of –24 V, which is applied to a load modeled as a pure resistance of 1280 Ω. Both stages: are operated at a switching frequency of 100 kHz, have inductor current ripple of 10 %, and have an output voltage ripple of 1 %. (a) Draw a circuit diagram showing all components. (b) Determine: (i) the average current drawn from the 9 V source, (ii) the duty cycle, k1, applied to the switch of stage 1, (iii) the duty cycle, k2, applied to the switch of stage 2, (iv) the inductance, L1, for stage 1, (v) the capacitance, C1, for stage 1, (vi) the inductance, L2, for stage 2, (vii) the capacitance, C2, for stage 2. A buck-boost converter has a fixed input voltage of 5 V. The switching frequency is 50 kHz and the duty cycle is 0.5. The load is modeled as a constant resistance of 5 Ω. (a) Find Lc, the converter inductance at the boundary condition between continuous and discontinuous mode operation. (b) Let L = 5 mH. Find Va, the average output voltage. If the output voltage ripple is 1 %, find C. (c) Let L = 5 µH. Find Va, the average output voltage.

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