INDEX

Abbott Laboratories, 181–3, 186, 187, 189,
191
Abderhalden, Emil, 98, 102
acetyl-salicyclic acid see Aspirin
Acomatol, 153
Aconite, 58
acromegaly, 92
Act to Regulate the Sale of Viruses, Serums,
Toxins and Analogous Products see
Biologics Control Act
activation, 9, 25–7, 90, 96, 100, 101
Addison, Thomas, 67
Addison’s disease, 67, 71, 72, 92
adrenaline, 65, 67, 93, 160
Advisory Council on Science and Technology (UK ACOST), 18
Agence de la Biomédecine (France), 136
aging, 90, 92
agriculture, 16, 59, 60, 63, 115
alkaloids, 75, 77, 86, 173–90
Allen, Frederick, 156
allocation, 128–32, 135–7
Alter, Wilhelm, 102
American Museum of Natural History (New
York), 174
analgesics, 173, 177, 181, 182, 183, 188, 189
androsteron, 14, 25, 96
angiogenic factors, 1
animals, 14, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23, 31, 35, 45, 47,
90, 93, 96, 178
animal-derived products, 1, 11, 22, 27, 30,
33, 37, 46, 91, 94, 96, 142, 173, 189
laboratory animals, 33, 37, 49, 53, 68, 69,
90, 91, 94, 95, 141, 154–6, 160, 168,
177, 196
transgenic animals, 31
antibiotics, 1, 16, 21, 73, 104, 193, 194, 196

anticoagulants, 18
antihypertensive drugs, 194
Antipyrin, 94
antitoxins, 2–5, 7, 9–11, 22, 23, 25, 26, 154,
195, 198
ants, 189
Apple, Rima D., 150
Arloing, Saturnin, 37, 42, 44, 45
arsenics, 7, 9, 19
Aschenbrand, Theodor, 77
Aschkinazi, Eugène, 40
ascorbic acid, 14, 96, 100–2
Aspirin, 12, 94
assay, 14, 20, 22, 50, 58, 68, 90, 94, 95,
101–3, 118, 119, 163, 177, 179, 190,
197
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 127,
131
Associations pour le Don d’Organes et de Tissus humains (ADOT, France), 130
avitaminosis see deficiency disorders

Copyright
bacteria, 1, 5, 17, 31, 33, 41, 44
bacteriology, 7, 10, 11, 26, 45, 124
Banting, Frederick, 151, 152, 154–6, 165, 168
Bard, Louis, 38, 39
Bauer, Susanne, 123
Bayer (company), 94, 143, 148, 151, 160,
163, 166, 167
Behring, Emil, 10, 36
Belladonna, 57
benefit sharing, 184–9, 191, 247
Benjamin, Harry, 92
Berg, Marc, 36
beriberi, 92, 95, 141, 142
Bernard, Claude, 13, 22, 91
Best, Charles, 151, 152, 154–6, 165, 168

– 251 –

252 Biologics, A History of Agents Made From Living Organisms in the Twentieth Century
beta blocker, 193
Betaxin, 96
bioassay see assay
biobank see collection
Biogen, 17
biological medicine, 12–4, 18, 19, 25, 34,
35, 46, 156
biologically active substances see Wirkstoffe
Biologics Control Act, 4, 5, 9, 16, 20
biomedicine/biomedical, 3, 14, 16, 19, 28,
108, 136
biopiracy, 31, 185–9, 191
bioprospecting, 176, 185, 190, 195, 196
biosimilars, 1, 2, 19, 197
biotechnology, 2, 15–19, 27, 31, 48, 97, 108,
122, 134, 161, 174, 196, 197
blood, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 20, 33, 35, 44,
45, 55, 110, 115, 118, 121–3, 126–9,
132, 133, 134, 136, 152, 155
plasma, 9, 18, 107, 126
Blum, Josef, 153
body, 2, 12–14, 17, 26–8, 30, 65, 68, 72,
77, 79, 82, 86, 89–93, 95–9, 102–10,
114–18, 121–37, 141, 150, 156, 170,
198
Böhnke-Reich, Heinrich, 11
Boston Children’s Hospital, 15
botany, 31, 49, 52, 63
Bowker, Geoffrey, 111
Boyer, Herbert, 17
brands, 96, 142, 149, 165, 171
Brandt, Christina, 97
Brown-Séquard, Charles-Édouard, 13, 91
Bureau of Biologics see Food and Drug
Administration
Bürger, Max, 170
Burq, Victor B., 79, 80
Butenandt, Adolf, 96, 98, 100, 103

carcinogenicity, 91, 103
Carpenter, Daniel P., 17
cell culture, 15, 18
cells, 3, 13, 15, 18, 28, 89, 95, 97, 174, 198
egg cells, oocytes, 28, 105–13, 115, 195
reproductive cell, germ cell, gametes,
105–19
sperm, 28, 105–19
stem cell, 107, 135
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
(CDER) see Food and Drug Administration
centrifuge, 67
Chalas (company), 54
Charité hospital (Berlin), 169
Charité hospital (Lyon), 34, 38, 39, 41, 42, 44
chemistry, 2, 7, 14, 21, 47, 49, 52, 65, 67, 69,
72, 89, 94, 96, 97, 99–101, 141, 160,
174, 175, 191, 194
Naturstoffchemie, 14, 89
organic chemistry, 11, 12, 65, 69, 190
chemotherapy, 194
Chevalier, August, 52–4, 60
chloroform, 12
chromatography, 67
chromosomes, 107, 118
Ciba (company), 67, 69, 70–2
Clauberg, Carl, 99, 100
cloning, 18, 119
Clowes, Georges, 154, 156
coca see cocaine
Coca-Cola see kola
cocaine, 26, 75–87, 195
Cohen, Jacques, 41
collection, 57–9, 63, 106, 121–7, 129–36,
151, 156, 176, 177–9, 185–8, 190,
191, 196
biobank, sperm/egg/tissue bank, 106,
108–110, 113–18, 126, 127
database, 114
Collège de France, 91
Collip, James Bertram, 154, 155
Colonial Institute and Colonial Museum
(Marseille), 49
colonies, 24, 31, 48–63, 89, 92, 143, 195
Comité d’Ethique des Hôpitaux de Paris, 128
Commission de la digitale (France), 59
Conan Doyle, Arthur, 76

Copyright
C. A. F. Kahlbaum (company), 163
caffeine, 48–50, 52–4, 98
Caillavet, H., 134
calibration, 144–8, 150, 151
Calmette, Albert, 158
cancer, 17, 21, 98, 103, 116, 198
Canguilhem, Georges, 10, 98
Cannon, Walter B., 98
carbohydrate, 133, 141, 156, 170

Index
conservation, 15, 31, 52, 77, 128, 129, 137,
178, 179, 185
Constantin, Julien, 57
consumers, 2, 3, 9, 27, 30, 60, 89, 90, 92, 95,
99, 123, 143, 149, 150, 166
contamination, 2, 4, 23, 31, 39, 56, 103, 104,
110, 119
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),
31, 174, 184–8
see also Nagoya Protocol
Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species (CITES), 178,
187, 180, 185, 187
cortin, 68–71
cortisone, 1, 15, 25, 26, 31, 196
Corynebacterium, 41
Coward, Katharine Hope, 144
Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, 127
Cristallo S.A. (company), 149
crops, genetically modified, 31
cryobiology see cryopreservation
cryopreservation, 108, 109, 111, 113,
115–18
crystallization, 67, 168
Cutter Laboratories (company), 16

253

diethylstilbestrol (DES), 21
digestion, 12, 20
Digitalis, 25, 55, 58, 59
Dioscorea, 31
diphtheria, 10, 21, 23
diphtheria serum/antitoxin, 4, 7, 10, 21,
23, 25, 33–46, 163, 195, 198
Direction des Affaires Médicales (France),
127, 128
Directive 2001/83/EC (EU), 19, 20
Directive 65/65/EEC 1965 (EU), 18
distillation, 20
distribution, 10, 60, 72, 122–4, 126,
128–33, 136, 143, 158, 163
Division of Biologics Control/Standards see
National Institutes of Health; Food and
Drug Administration
DNA, 17, 106
recombinant DNA, 2, 16, 17, 31
do-it-yourself (DIY), 108, 113
dog, 68, 69
Dohrn, Max, 95, 98
Dohyfral, 144, 145, 147, 149
dosage, 4, 13, 53, 94, 103, 121, 157, 164
Druckrey, Hermann, 98
Duke University Hospital in Durham
(North Carolina), 128
dynamometer, 26, 78–81, 85–7

Copyright

Dale, Henry, 22, 157, 169
Daly, John W., 173–83, 186–8, 190, 191
Daston, Lorraine, 78
database see collection
Datura, 57
Dausse (company), 55, 57, 59, 62
Dausset, Jean, 130
Davitamon, 142, 143, 145, 146, 148, 150
deficiency disorders, 13, 27, 89–92, 95, 101,
141–3, 198
see also vitamins
degeneration, 13, 90
derivative, 1, 9, 13, 14, 48, 53, 77, 96, 126,
180–4, 186, 188, 189, 191
desiccation, 20, 126
desoxy-corticosterone see Percorten
developmental biology, 91, 100
diabetics, 22, 142, 151–72
dialysis, 20, 132
diet, 60, 92, 93, 99, 141, 145, 151, 152, 156,
163, 168, 169, 170, 187, 189
diethylene glycol, 9

Ecgonin, 77
economy, 9, 15, 31, 102, 112, 129, 114, 123,
127–9, 131, 133, 134, 136, 137, 170, 195
efficacy/efficiency, 7, 10, 13, 14, 27, 30, 33, 35,
36, 69, 81, 86, 89–95, 97, 99, 100, 101,
103, 104, 121, 136, 143–6, 149, 150,
160, 167, 171, 177, 181, 183, 193, 196
egg cells see cells
Ehrlich, Paul, 7, 35
Eichholtz (representative), 163
Eidgenössische Technische Universität (ETH,
Zurich), 69, 70
Eijkman, Christiaan, 92
electroencephalogram (EEG), 125
Eli Lilly (company), 5, 154–6, 167
Embryo Protection Act (Germany), 117
embryo, 107, 109, 110–12, 116–18
endocrine disruptor, 21
endocrinology, 100

254 Biologics, A History of Agents Made From Living Organisms in the Twentieth Century
enhancement, 12, 26, 50, 91, 92, 118, 126
environment, 26, 30, 98, 100, 109, 110, 111,
173, 184, 185
enzymes see proteins
epibatidine, 31, 173–5, 179–91
epidemic, 10, 30, 37–41
epinephrine see adrenaline
ergograph, 82, 33, 85–7
ergosterol, 141
Escherichia coli, 17
estron, 14, 189
eugenics, 13, 99
European Agency for the Evaluation of
Medicinal Products (EMEA) see European Medicines Agency
European Medicines Agency (EMA), 18, 19
European Union (EU), 18, 20, 108
European Union Tissue Directive, 108
evaporation, 20
Eviunis, 149
Exner, Sigmund, 79
extraction, 22, 45, 46, 52, 53, 59, 115, 116,
119, 122, 154, 160, 165

French Codex, 48, 52
Freud, Sigmund, 26, 76–82
Freund & Redlich (company), 93
frog, 173–91
Dentrobatidae, 175, 178
Epipedobates anthonyi, 173, 176, 178,
179, 186–8
Phyllobates aurotaenia, 174
Phyllobates terribilis, 176, 186
Fuld, Ernst, 158, 160, 162, 163, 169
Fuld, Heinz, 165
Funk, Casimir, 93, 141
Galison, Peter, 78
gametes see cells
Gaudillière, Jean-Paul, 15, 34, 70, 96, 140, 189
gender, 13, 90, 105, 107, 108
gene therapy, 18, 197, 198
Genentech, 17
General Board of Health (UK), 10
genetic engineering, 16–18, 28
see also recombinant DNA; proteins;
crops; animals
genetically modified organisms (GMO) see
crops; animals
genetics, 97
germ cell see cells
glands see organs
Goris, Armand, 53–5
Gorter, Evert, 143, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150
Grafe, Erich, 170
growth factors, 1, 17, 18
guinea-pig, 35, 36, 46
Gutzeit, Karl, 170

Copyright
Faculty of Pharmacy (Paris), 52
Falta, Wilhelm, 170
fats, 104, 133, 141, 151, 170
Federal Task Force on Organ Transplantation and the American Society of
Transplant Surgeons (US), 132
fermentation, 22
fertilizer, 59, 60, 63
filtration, 20
Fischer, Emil, 97
fitness, 90
flavonoids, 3
Food and Drug Administration (FDA, US),
4, 16–18, 24
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
(CDER), 18
Division of Biologics Standards, 16
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (US), 4, 9, 16
Fordism, 115
Forschungsinstitut für Fortpflanzungsbiologie,
99
Foucault, Michel, 12
fractionation, 126
France-Transplant (FT), 130

Haco (company), 68–70
Hayden, Cori, 185
Health Ministry (France), 125, 132
health, 1, 3, 10, 12, 14, 21, 26, 27, 30, 37, 39,
44, 60, 73, 79, 90, 93, 95, 96, 99–102,
104, 112, 116, 128, 129, 132, 133, 136,
137, 143, 150–3, 169, 193
Healy, Kieran, 131
Heckel, Edouard, 49–53
hepatitis, 18
herbals, 1, 3, 11–13, 15, 18, 30, 31, 47–9,
54, 55, 59, 62
Herzog, Joseph, 94

Index
Hirschmüller, Albrecht, 78
Hitler, Adolf, 99
Hoechst (Farbwerke) (company), 41, 42, 44,
152, 154, 159–61, 163, 164, 167
Hoffmann-La Roche, 27, 93, 99, 101
Hogle, Linda, 105, 114
holism/holistic, 12, 13, 101, 103, 156, 170
Holmes, Sherlock, 76
homeopathics, 13, 34
Hôpital des enfants malades (Paris), 40
Hopkins, Frederic Gowland, 92
hormones, 1, 3, 13–15, 17–19, 21, 22, 23,
25, 27, 31
follicle hormone, 93
steroids, 69, 70, 96, 99, 103, 104, 141,
142, 196
see also growth factors
Horrock, Sally, 140
Hotel-Dieu (Paris), 126
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), 130
Hydrastis canadensis, 58
hygiene, 11, 13, 26, 30, 39, 40, 95, 99, 102
Hygienic Institute, University of Rostock,
101
Hygienic Laboratory of the Public Health
Service see National Institutes of Health
hypertension, 128, 181, 198
hypoglycaemia, 155, 162

255

Insulin Committee (Toronto), 151–7, 159,
161, 163, 166–8, 170, 171
insulin, 1, 14, 17, 18, 25, 29, 96, 103, 142,
151–72, 193, 196
insurance, 132, 166, 169, 170, 171
interferon, 17, 18, 21, 25, 28, 29
interleukin, 17
intracytoplasmic morphologically selected
sperm injection (IMSI), 111
intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),
111
irradiation, 104, 141, 149
Joanin, P., 55
Joslin, Elliott, 156, 170
Julius, Hendrik Willem, 150
Kamminga, Harmke, 139, 140
Katsch, Gerhardt, 170
Kay, Lily, 97
Kendall, Edward C., 68
Klemperer, Georg, 167
Knebel, E., 50
Knoll (company), 93
Koch, Robert, 10, 44, 194
kola, 24, 47–63
Coca-Cola, 48, 62, 76
Kollath, Werner, 101, 102, 104
Korwek, Edward L., 9, 20
Kötschau, Karl, 12
Kraft, E., 82
Krehl, Ludolf von, 158, 167
Krogh, Schack August Steenberg, 160
Kühn, Alfred, 90
Kuhn, Richard, 96
Kühnau, Joachim, 95

Copyright

IG Farben (company), 96
immunology, 122
immunosuppressiva, 122, 124, 129, 132
impotence, 92, 93
in vitro fertilization (IVF), 107, 109–12,
115–17
incubator, 107, 110, 111, 117
industry, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 23, 27,
29, 47, 54, 57, 58, 60, 63, 66, 75, 89, 90,
96, 99, 101, 102, 104, 139, 140, 142,
143, 147, 148, 153, 155, 157, 159, 161,
163, 165–72, 183, 195
infectious diseases, 17, 23, 30, 194
infertility, 105–8, 111, 116
insemination, 108, 113
Instituto Ecuatoriano Forestal y de Áreas
Naturales y Vida Silvestre (INEFAN,
Ecuador), 186
Insulin Committee (Germany), 29, 157–71

laboratory, 7, 12, 25, 27–9, 33, 41, 43, 50,
52, 53, 55, 56, 62, 63, 66, 67, 70, 73,
75, 76, 79, 85, 92, 95, 99, 106–11, 116,
117, 133, 141–5, 153, 154, 174, 189,
190, 193, 196, 198, 199
Lackenbach, Fred, 4, 5
Lafay, Bernard, 126
Landecker, Hannah, 108
Laquer, Fritz, 94
Laqueur, Ernst, 68, 71, 94, 142
Latour, Bruno, 39, 90, 107

256 Biologics, A History of Agents Made From Living Organisms in the Twentieth Century
League of Nations see World Health Organization
Lederberg, Joshua, 17
Leiden University Hospital, 145
Leo XIII, 75
levigation, 20
Liebig, Justus, 12
Liek, Erwin, 12
Lindberg, Jesper, 113, 114
Linder (representative), 163
Loewe, Walter S., 95
Lombroso, Cesare, 76, 85
Lüscher, Gottfried, 68
maceration, 20
McAfee, Kathleen, 185
McCollum, Elmer, 92, 141
MacLeod, John, 151, 154, 158
macromolecules, 20, 103
Madaus, Gerhard, 13, 49
Madsen, Thorvald, 24
Maier, Karl, 102
Mantegazza, Paolo, 75
Marey, Etienne-Jules, 85
Mariani, Angelo, 75
market/marketing, 4, 5, 9, 10, 12, 15, 19,
21–4, 27, 29, 47, 48, 52, 54, 56–8,
60–3, 70–2, 93, 95, 99, 100, 106, 107,
110, 113–15, 117, 123, 124, 127–9,
135–7, 140, 142–4, 147–50, 153,
157–60, 162, 164–7, 171, 172, 180,
181, 189, 195
Marseille Chamber of Commerce, 49
Martin, Louis, 36
Massengill & Company (company), 9
materia medica, 11, 12, 47–9, 52, 53, 55, 62
measles, 7, 15
Medical Research Council (MRC, London),
146, 163
Meister, Lucius and Brüning (company), 41
Meng, Heinrich, 13
menstrual disorders, 93, 99
Merck (company), 77, 78, 93, 96, 100, 102,
142, 143, 148, 159, 160, 163, 181, 187
Mestern, Armand, 162
Metabolin, 153
Meyer, J. de, 165
mice, 95, 107, 177

micro-organism, 15, 16, 21
microbe see bacteria
microscope, 38, 41, 109, 111, 113, 117
minerals, 11, 12
Ministerio de la Producción (Ecuador), 186
Ministry of Commerce and Industry
(France), 57
Minkowski, Oskar, 158, 159, 162–4, 167–9
mites, 189
Mittasch, Alwin, 97
model organism see animals
modernity, 27, 61, 78, 90, 93, 97, 104, 199
molecular biology, 17, 28, 97, 100
monoclonal antibodies see proteins
Mortensen, Bjarke, 113, 114
Mosso, Angelo, 76, 82, 83
Mosso, Ugolino, 76, 82, 84, 85
Müller, Friedrich von, 158, 169
Murray, George, R., 13, 91
Museum of Natural History (Paris), 52, 57
Myers, Charles, 174–7, 186
myxoedema, 13, 91, 92

Copyright

Nagoya Protocol, 188
National Convention for Revising the Pharmacopoeia (US), 4
National Institute for Medical Research
(London), 25, 108
Division of Biological Standards, 25
National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic
Diseases (NIAMD, US), 174
National Institutes of Health (NIH, US), 7,
8, 16, 173–6, 183, 190
Division of Biologics Control, 7
Hygienic Laboratory, 5–9, 23, 24
National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA,
US), 130, 132, 134, 135
naturalness, 2, 27, 29, 30, 63, 90, 104, 121
nature, 2, 5, 14, 21, 22–4, 30, 31, 34, 38, 48,
62, 63, 65–7, 69, 85, 87, 90, 106, 110,
119, 121, 160, 185, 189, 191, 195
Neue deutsche Heilkunde, 14
neuramöbimeter, 79, 81, 86
neuromuscular paralysis, 181
NeuroSearch (company), 189
nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR)
agonist, 181–3
Niemann, Albert, 75

Index
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 85
non-governmental organization (NGO) see
reform movements
Noorden, Carl von, 158, 169
Novocain, 94
nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers
see spectrometer
nutrition, 13, 50, 90, 92, 95, 98–102, 104, 141
O’Dwyer tube, 40
oocytes see cells
opium, 40, 55
opotherapy, 45
Oppenheimer, Carl, 94, 97
Organ Procurement and Transplantation
Network (OPTN, US), 134
Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO,
US), 130
Organon (company), 68–72, 141–50
organotherapeutics/organotherapy, 13, 19,
26, 30, 91, 92, 94, 107
organs, 3, 11, 14, 18, 23, 27, 28, 46, 52, 92,
94, 98, 121–37, 195
endocrine organs, 13
glands, 13, 14, 62, 67, 91, 92, 93, 142,
165, 196
heart, 122, 125–9
kidney, 122, 125, 126, 131
liver, 11, 122, 125, 126, 135
lung, 122, 128
pancreas, 122, 142, 151–4, 158, 160,
164, 165, 172
Oudshoorn, Nelly, 147

257

Pemberton, John Smith, 75
penicillin, 15
pepsin, 12
Percorten, 71, 72
Peroud (Professor), 38
Perrot, Emile, 52–62
pharmacology, 3, 7, 52, 62, 66, 94, 95, 175,
193, 194, 198
pharmacopoeia, 4, 5, 11, 23, 24, 33, 47, 48,
59, 62, 63, 189, 195, 198
Pharmacopoeia Germanica, 11
Philips, Anton, 144, 147–9
Philips-Van Houten, 144
physiology, 11, 13, 14, 27, 48, 49, 89, 90, 96,
99–102
Pieters, Toine, 17, 28
plant extracts see herbals
plasma see blood
poison, 9, 11, 31, 98, 99, 104, 173–91
Polge, Christopher, 108
polio, 15, 16
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 197
precariousness, 29
precipitation, 20, 67
preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD),
111
preparation, 7, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 22, 24, 25,
28, 29, 46, 47–9, 52–6, 62, 63, 67, 68,
72, 93, 94, 101, 110, 116, 117, 119,
140–50, 153, 157, 158, 163–7
preservative, 16
prevention, 4, 9, 10, 13, 20, 23, 100, 149
progesterone, 14, 25, 70, 71
Progynon, 96
prophylaxis, 3, 10, 14, 27, 35, 42, 90
proteins, 1, 3, 7, 12, 17, 18, 20, 103, 141,
170, 174, 197
enzymes, 1, 2, 12–16, 22, 48, 53, 62, 89,
97, 98, 101–4
monoclonal antibodies, 1, 17, 18, 31, 35
recombinant proteins, 1, 2, 15, 17
see also growth factors
Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources
and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of
Benefits Arising from their Utilization
see Nagoya Protocol
psychoactive drugs, 73, 193

Copyright

Parke-Davis & Co. (company), 77
Parry, Bronwyn, 180, 187
Pasteur Institute, 10, 37, 41, 158
Pasteur, Louis, 97, 194
patent, 7, 14, 23, 27, 48, 55, 62, 67, 70, 72,
124, 135, 142, 149, 151, 153–5, 158,
162, 165, 173, 185, 191, 198
Patet, Pierre, 42
patients, 13, 37, 39–44, 45, 67, 71, 72,
106–10, 116, 122–35, 151–4, 156,
157, 159, 160, 161–5, 169, 170, 171,
180, 196
Pauling, Linus, 104
pellagra, 92, 141, 142

258 Biologics, A History of Agents Made From Living Organisms in the Twentieth Century
Public Health and Marine Hospital Service
see Public Health Service
Public Health Law (France), 10
Public Health Service (US PHS), 5, 7, 9, 16
Public Health Service Act, 4, 5, 9, 10, 16
public health, 14, 21, 30, 39, 44, 96, 99, 102,
133, 143, 193
health administration, 30, 132
purification, 17, 18, 28, 29, 33, 48, 50, 68,
75, 76, 77, 86, 93, 94, 99, 110, 117,
139, 179, 180
Pyramidon, 94
Quaker’s Oats Company, 149
Queen Victoria, 75
Quételet, Adolphe, 79
Quirke, Viviane, 73
rabbits, 155, 156, 160, 163, 168
Rabinbach, Anson, 78, 82
Rabot, François, 38, 40, 41, 42, 44
Rajan, Kaushik Sunder, 106
rat, 68, 95, 143–6
recombinant proteins see proteins
recruitment, 77, 112, 113, 116, 129
reform movements, 11, 12, 14, 21, 30, 31,
72, 90, 93, 99, 185–7, 191
regulation, 2–12, 15, 16, 18–23, 25–7, 28,
30, 31, 37, 73, 90, 96, 97–100, 105,
108, 119, 127, 133, 135, 153, 156, 158,
163, 170, 178, 185, 187, 188, 195
Reichs-Impfgesetz, 10
Reichsgesundheitsamt (German Imperial
Health Office), 10, 158, 161–3
Reichspatentamt (German Imperial Patent
Office), 158, 162, 165
Reichstein, Tadeus, 67–72
rejuvenation, 13, 14, 90–2, 99
reproduction, 13, 28, 79, 99, 105, 112, 113,
116, 117, 119, 135
reproductive cell see cells
resources, 6, 20, 23, 28, 31, 52, 57, 59, 96,
101, 105, 115, 123–37, 139, 184–8, 190
Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg, 29, 96
rickets, 95, 141–4, 149, 150
Rietschel, Hans, 101
Rost, Eugen, 162
Roux, Émile, 35, 40

Roux, Gabriel, 44
Roux, Wilhelm, 91
rubella, 15
Ruzicka, Leopold, 69
saffron, 58, 59
salvarsan, 7, 94, 162
Santillan, Jesica, 128, 129
Schaefer, Edward, 96
Schering (company), 27, 70, 96, 103, 167,
171, 172
Scheunert, Carl-Arthur, 102, 104
Schroeder, Hermann, 101, 102
Schweigart, Hans-Adalbert, 104
Schweitzer, Albert, 104
screening, 47, 112, 118, 174, 175, 182, 183,
191, 196
scurvy, 92, 95, 141, 142
Secord, James, 66
Sengoopta, Chandak, 92
sensibility, 13
serendipity, 175, 177, 180, 184, 186–8
serotherapy see vaccination
serum see vaccination
sexuality/sex, 13, 25, 52, 69, 82, 90, 91, 92,
96, 99, 107, 109, 110, 112, 117, 142, 147
sheep, 13, 92
Simon, Paul, 182
slaughterhouse, 23, 90, 152
smallpox, 5, 10, 15, 30, 198
Soer, J. J., 143
Southeast Organ Procurement Foundation
(SEOPF, US), 130
Spallanzani, Lazzaro, 107
spectrography, 144–6
spectrometer, 177, 179
nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer
(NMR), 177, 179
sperm see cells
stabilization, 25, 29, 67, 133, 152, 168
standardization, 2, 3, 9, 11, 17, 22–6, 28, 29,
33–7, 39, 43–7, 52, 61–3, 65–7, 72,
73, 75, 76, 90, 94, 105, 106, 117, 118,
121–5, 128, 131, 133, 136, 137, 140,
144–62, 167–72, 193, 195, 196–8
Star, Susan Leigh, 111
Starling, Ernest, 13, 65–7, 73, 93
State Serum Institute (Copenhagen), 24

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Index
statistics, 30, 43
Steenbock, Harry, 149
Steiger, Marguerite, 71
Steinach, Eugen, 92
Stepp, Wilhelm, 92, 102, 170
sterility, 93, 99, 116
sterilization, 20, 54, 55, 57, 61, 99
steroids see hormones
Stiasny, Hans, 111
storage, 28, 105, 113, 115–17, 119, 126–8,
167, 180, 188
Storm van Leeuwen, Willem, 144
Straub, Walther, 93, 95
Strauss, Hermann, 158, 169
streptomycin, 194
Strophantus, 31, 59
strychnea, 22
surgery, 40, 76, 110, 122–4, 127, 132–4,
136, 137
synthesis, 12, 14, 22, 23, 27, 67, 69, 70–2,
96, 101–3, 171, 183, 190, 196, 197
syphilis, 7, 20, 30

259

Umber, Fritz, 158, 161, 163, 169
United Nations, 184
United Network for Organ Sharing
(UNOS, US), 130, 134, 135
University of California, 17
University of Leiden, 144
University of Toronto, 151, 154, 155, 157, 158
Connaught Laboratories, 154, 165
University of Utrecht, 150
vaccination, 4, 10, 11, 24, 26, 30, 31, 33
serotherapy, 11, 34, 37–40, 42–5
serum, 4, 5, 7, 9, 21–4, 33–46, 163, 195
vaccines, 1, 3–5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15–18, 20,
22, 26, 31, 34, 35, 44, 47, 105, 118,
119, 195, 196, 198
see also diphtheria serum
Vahlen, Ernst, 153
valorization, 10, 11, 22, 25, 34, 111
Veronal, 94
Verzar, Fritz, 69
Vigantol, 96, 142, 143, 145
Vincent, Swale, 67
virus, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 15, 17, 23, 197
Vitalstoffgesellschaft, 104
vitamins, 1, 3, 13, 14, 19, 21, 22, 25, 27,
29–31, 47–9, 89. 90, 93–105, 118, 121,
139, 140–50, 196, 198
vitamin A, 94, 96, 141, 142, 148
vitamin B, 96, 102, 141
vitamin C, 14, 99, 100, 102, 141, 196
vitamin D, 14, 21, 95, 100, 141–7, 149,
150
Voss, Hermann E., 95

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Tausk, Marius, 145, 146
Taxol, 190
teratology, 91
testosterone, 70
therapeutic revolution, 2, 193, 194, 197, 198
Thompson, Alexander, 154
threshold, 13, 85, 87
thyroxine, 160
Timmermans, Stefan, 36
tissue, 3, 15, 18, 28, 89, 106, 114, 121–37
bones, 122, 127
cardiac valves, 122, 127
cornea, 122, 126, 127, 134
placenta, 11
skin, 127
spinal cord, 11
tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), 18
toxicity/toxins, 91, 103, 173–6, 180, 187, 189
tracheotomy, 39, 40
traditional knowledge, 176, 186, 188, 195
transfusion, 9, 20, 123
transplantation, 28, 105, 119, 122, 124–37
xenotransplantation, 18, 22
see also organs; tissue
tuberculin, 10, 44, 45
tuberculosis, 10, 31, 44, 194

Wada (Professor), 125
Wahlberg, Ayo, 123
Wahrig, Bettina, 75
Warburg, Otto, 101
Washington Convention, 31, 178
Wellcome (company), 27
Wertbestimmung see valorization
Westenbrink, Hendrik, 139
Weyl (representative), 163
Wiener, Norbert, 98
Williams, Michael, 182
Windaus, Adolf, 96, 141, 143
Windgätter, Christof, 78, 82

260 Biologics, A History of Agents Made From Living Organisms in the Twentieth Century
Wirkstoffe, 1, 9, 12, 13, 14, 19, 27, 29,
89–104
Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, 142
Witkop, Bernhard, 174
Wöhler, Friedrich, 12, 75
Wolff, Lodewijk Karel, 142, 143, 146,
148–50
Woodyatt, Rollin, 156
Worboys, Michael, 249
World Health Organization (WHO), 15,
17, 111–13
Committee/Commission on Biological
Standardization, 25, 146, 148, 197

International Institute for Medical
Research, 168
League of Nations, 25, 26, 146, 148, 155,
157, 168
xerophtalmia, 141
yam see Dioscorea
Zolot-Nisky, 45
Zondek, Bernhard, 94
Zuelzer, Georg, 153

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