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Forward 3

Methodology 4
Challenges 5
Caymanas Park 6
Competition for Land 13
Horse racing stakeholders by place of residence. 15
Marginalization and Social Dislocation 16
Portmore community data profile 19
Economic Linkages and Externalities 23
Portmore Public Perception of Caymanas Park 26
At Caymanas Park 33
Ecological Description 33
Land Usage and Facilities 38
Provisions for The Physically Challenged 40
On Track Punters 42
General Operations At The Track 52
The Claims Market 65
Distances Ran 73
Betting 78
Total Purse Paid Out (1991-2007) 81
The Backstretch 84
Reported Horse Deaths In The Industry 87
Stable and Horse Distribution By Trainer 89
Cull 89
The Betting Sector, Years 2002-2007 91
Overseas Betting 94
Number of Local Racing Bookmakers and Offices 2004-2007 95
The Illegal Betting Sector 97
Betting Offices 99
Bookmakers Performance 2004-2007 (J$) 100
Purse Money 2002-2007 105
Disqualifications and Late Non-Starters, Years 2002-2007 109
A General Overview of The Betting Sector 111
The Stud Farm Sector 199-2007 115
Stud Farm Earnings 127
Thoroughbred Owners’ & Breeders’ Association’s Yearling Sales Review 131
Farm Hygiene Practices 138
Farm Community Relationship 141
The Jamaica Racing Commission 144
The Organizational Structure Of The Jamaica Racing Commission 148
Industry Unique Departments 149
General Observation 150
The Staff 151
Some Observations 153
Performance 164
Government Direct Investment 167
The Role of the Jamaica Racing Commission in the Production Chain 169
Appendix 1 171
Appendix 2 172
Appendix 3 173
Appendix 4 175
Appendix 5 176
Appendix 6 177
Appendix 7 188
Appendix 8 191
Appendix 9 192
Appendix 10 194
Appendix 11 197
Appendix 12 198


The period between the years 2001 and 2007 was a very challenging one for all
segments of the Jamaican racing industry, with the industry entering into a slump
between the years 2004 and 2005. The industry however, showed great resilience and
developed new approaches in order to safeguard revenues: one saw the development
of “claiming races “ by the promoter, the taking of steps by the betting sector to
maximize earnings from each location, and in the breeding sector there was a
widening of the distribution of serving stallions, hence creating new revenue

Notwithstanding the difficulties of the period, the racing industry remains a very
profitable area of investment for the Government of Jamaica, with each dollar
directly invested in the Jamaica Racing Commission leading to the generation of
over ninety dollars in return, an area contributing a minimum of two percent of
the GNP.

The face of racing changed tremendously over the period, as there was a
significant increase in the number of owners, trainers and jockeys. Thanks to the
efforts of the Jamaica Racing Commission, through its training programme one saw a
raising of the level of competence and professionalism among jockeys and trainers.
One saw also a strengthening of the level of organization of the occupational
groups, even where this led to more and not less challenges to the views of the
Commission. The industry today is very democratic, with the views and opinions of
the largest owners to the poorest groom finding its space and equal time around
the table.

This study was designed and done, in such a manner, not only to collect and
present information, but also, where possible, to indicate the areas of challenges
and opportunities, and as such it is hoped that it will find use by the various
stakeholders in the planning and development process.


This research, in the collection of information relied on the following methods:

1. Interviews where large population segments, such as punters, community
residents etc, were being targeted;
2. Executive interviews where detailed background information was required;
3. Observation in order to get information about processes or about the state
of affairs in a given local;
4. Content research, using prepared texts in order to solicit written open
ended feed back, and
5. The economic or statistical analysis of various in-house data set.


This research was hampered in its start and in its implementation by a lack of
financial resources, which meant that rural locations which were initially
targeted for visiting and processing could not be done in the manner desired, thus
usage of the information gathered by the Registration Department during visits to
the farms was used.
The failure of stakeholders to keep formal records was another area of challenge,
as some farm operators have no records of date of arrival or of death of a given
mare. This situation held true for trainers also, who depended in the main on
memory rather than records.

An area of special challenge was that of receiving doctored information, aimed at

advancing one or more personal or group causes, e.g. trainers and or jockeys. Here
the intent was to point the research into a given direction. Trainers were most
guilty of carrying the doctoring of information.

Caymanas Park


Caymanas Park is a one hundred and ninety six (196) acre equine complex located
north of the Helshire Hills, west of Waterford and Hog Town, and south of Gregory
The complex lies on the Rio-Cobre Flood Plains, however as a result of (a)
inefficiencies in agricultural irrigation systems, (b) type of crop production,
(c)mal-placement of wells, (d) nitrate and heavy metal contamination of aquifers
(f) salt water seepage and (g) rapid urbanization coupled with the fact that area
is in the shadows of the nearby mountain range, has meant that there is currently
a relative shortage of portable water and an intensive ongoing competition for
water resources.
There are questions from a hydrological perspective as to the long term viability
of Caymanas Park, which from a gallon per acre standpoint is a very demanding
consumer of fresh water, with a very poor water management system coupled with
freedom of use without payment.
Table 1. Major water basins of Jamaica
Hydrologic Basin Area (km2) Rainfall (106m3) Evapotranspiration (106m3)
Surface water runoff
(106m3) Groundwater discharge
Blue Mountains South 678 1,694 912 662 147
Kingston 202 312 208 81 50
Río Cobre 1,283 2,009 1,450 177 472
Río Minho 1,700 2,420 1,641 225 593
Black River 1,460 2,530 1,530 346 654
Cabarita River 924 1,890 1,019 366 451
Great River 791 1,685 863 467 355
Martha Brae, River 756 1,154 673 279 201
Dry Harbour Mountains 1,362 2,450 1,302 457 691
Blue Mountains
North 1,597 5,068 2,346 2,452 278
Total 10,753 11,906 5,512 3,892
Source :- FAO statistics

Digital image and aerial view of the Rio Cobre and Rio Minho-Milk river basins on
the south coast of Jamaica, West Indies.

RCB - Rio Cobre Basin
RM-MRB - Rio Minho-Milk
River Basin
KB - Kingston basin
MH - Manchester
Highlands (Ls)
KH - Kemps Hill (Ls).
BM - Brazilletto Mt. (ls)
PR - Portland Ridge (ls)
HH - Hellshire Hills (ls.)
SCFZ - South Coast Fault Zone
- Faults
- White Limestone/
alluvium contact
- Basin Boundary

Present and Future Water Supply from the Rio Cobre Basin Systems (MCM/Year)
Rio Cobre
Present Supply 304.7
Demand 2015 449.62
Future Supply With
Present Systems 304.7
Developmental Needs* 144.92

• Developmental needs are defined as the difference between the demand in the
year 2015 and the future supply with present systems
Source, US Army Corp of Engineers, Southern Command
The area faces danger from floods caused by seasonal tropical rains, water and
wind damage by hurricanes and other tropical systems, and lies along a line of
fault and hence the danger of earthquakes are always present.
Of particular concern is the state and capacity of Waterford Canal, the UDC-Town
Centre Drain, and other minor systems. It should be noted that flood water drains
coming directly from the communities to the east and north east, runs directly
through the Caymanas Park complex and directly under the racing track. This
already complex situation was made even more complicated by the construction of
Highway 2000, which crosses both the Waterford Canal and the UDC-Town Centre
Drain. The highway can, under particular conditions have a damming effect and in
other circumstances become a run of canal for storm water coming from distances as
far as the Old Harbour turn off.
The Waterford Canal has a catchment area of approximately 1,560,000m2 while the
UDC –Town Centre drain has a catchment area of 385,000m2.
The is a need for hydrological studies to identify what conditions can lead to the
submerging of significant portions of Caymanas Park under water, thus forcing the
closure of the complex, and to identify the conditions which could lead to the
cutting off of Caymanas Park and surrounding communities from the main channels of
transportation by flood/storm waters. Currently Caymanas Park plays a critical
role in storm water management system as a point for slowing and holding excess
storm water runoff that could cause damage elsewhere.

Summary of some of the engineering and ecological recommendations

Peak flow rates for Waterford Canal and UDC-Town Centre Drain
Return Period (year) Waterford canal UDC-Town Centre Drain
5 25.2 8.5
10 32.2 10.5
25 42.4 13.4
50 49.4 15.8
100 58.8 17.9
Source:-Hunt,s Bay-Portmore Causeway Report, June 2000

Water level rise due to Extreme Hurricane Waves and Storm water Run off conditions
Return Period (Years) Hurricane Waves-Static water level
Component (m) Storm water run off-Static
Water level component (m)
25 1.55 0.645
50 1.74 0.845
100 1.98 1.195
Source:-Hunt’s Bay-Portmore Causeway Report, June 2000

From a socio-demographic standpoint, Caymanas Park lies between the mature

communities of Waterford, Independence City, Caymanas Gardens and Christian Pen:
Communities characterized by “tenementization” of residential properties,
commercialization of some residential properties, the exodus of the more affluent
persons from the community, the sales of properties, etc.

One finds along two of the perimeter walls of the Caymanas complex, Quartile 4
squatter communities, characterized by a lack of access to running water, legal
domestic electrical supply, basic schools and other social infrastructure, high
levels of unemployment and high levels of female fertility. Several similar
communities exist within the radius of one mile from Caymanas Park.

Competition for Land

Caymanas Park exists within the Municipality of Portmore, the single largest and
fastest growing municipality of this kind in the English-speaking Caribbean. The
area has witnessed a rapid conversion of sugar-cane farm lands belonging to the
Bernard Lodge Sugar Estate, into sub-divisions and housing estate and shopping
complexes such as the Portmore Pines Shopping Centre, and others. Along with the
coming into being and continuous development of the municipality, one finds the
evolution of a modern road system, the installation of a modern telephone and
cable systems, plumbing and sewage systems, the construction of Highway 2000,
among others.

These developments have further stimulated the demand for land for residential and
commercial purposes. Caymanas Park with its 196 acres (with an estimated
unimproved value of J$2.5 million per acre) from the perspective of the
developmental needs of Portmore, is faced more than ever with the need to prove to
the municipality that an equine facility of its kind is the best potential use
that can be made of the land it holds. Here national needs or desires are of
secondary importance to the perceived developmental needs of Portmore.

Ranking of Firms By Observed Size of Work Force

Firm Ranking
Bernard Lodge Sugar Estate 1
Caymanas Track Limited 2
Portmore Community College 3
The Jamaica Constabulary Force 4
Call Centers 5
Mega Mart 6
Shoppers Fair Super Market 7
High Way 2000 8
Note:-Bernard Lodge uses a lot of seasonal labour.

So far, the fact that the Peoples National Party with its four Members of
Parliament in the municipality, view this facility as having some status value,
and their Jamaica Labour Party constituency counterparts have not found reasons to
oppose the existence of this facility; has played a role in protecting the
facility from open demands for a change in land use. The fact that the equine
complex provides some level of tactical employment for some supporters of both
parties, has also served to preserve its value to the political machinery in the
municipality, and keep in check some of the more organized anti- Caymanas Park
sentiments which might exist.
Owners Trainers Assistant
Trainers Jockeys Grooms Stable Assistants Exercise Riders
St. Andrew 248 60 10 39 43 6 5
St. Catherine 189 62 26 88 335 15 32
Clarendon 30 5 2 1 7 0 0
Manchester 6 0 0 0 1 0 0
St. Elizabeth 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
Westmoreland 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
St. James 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Trelawny 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
St. Ann 6 0 0 0 0 0 0
St. Mary 5 0 0 0 1 0 0
Overseas based interests 44 0 0 0 0 0 0
It should be noted that Caymanas Park has over the last five to ten years, sought
to improve its relationship with the wider community, by actively supporting
several educational institution, including the Portmore Community College,
Waterford Comprehensive High School among others, and by supporting other
community activities such as Portmore week.
Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

Horse racing stakeholders by place of residence.

It is worthwhile noting that ownership of thoroughbred horses has a very strong

middle class, middle income characteristic and is far less an industry dominated
by the economic elite as one might have been led to believe.
Additionally a minimum of nine hundred Portmore residents earn a direct income
from Caymanas Park, as owners, trainers, grooms, jockeys, waiters, security
guards, cashiers etc.
Place of Residence of Caymanas Park Thoroughbred Owners and Associated Horsemen

Marginalization and Social Dislocation

The poor management of the development of Portmore has witnessed some of the worse
cases of social marginalization witnessed anywhere in Jamaica, with entire
villages and settlements being converted within months into inner city
communities, communities such as Gregory Park, Reids Pen, Wallen Avenue, Grange
Lane, once had their own concepts of social hierarchy and status, a village middle
class etc. The structure of these communities were destroyed in a relatively short
period of time, by the influx of an urban middle class, enjoying a higher standard
of living and higher incomes, bicycles were displaced by the motor car, pit
latrines by flush toilets, pasture lands by shopping centres and housing schemes.
An entire way of life was destroyed, leaving behind a native population without
the education, income or resources to compete, and the birth of a population of
gardeners, and petty-thieves.

The problem of crime and social dislocation in the municipality of Portmore was
and is compounded by the birth of near parentless children, whose parents leave
out early in the mornings and return in the evenings or night, leaving children
unattended before and after school.
The implications and consequences on the security of patronage and operations at
Caymanas Park are yet to be measured. What is known is that the members of gangs
in Portmore compared with those of Kingston are relatively youthful, educated, and
with the assault rifle giving way to the 9 mm.
Population per Parish
Name Capital A (km2) C 1982-06-08 C 1991-04-08
C 2001-09-10
Clarendon May Pen 1196 203 132 212 324
Hanover Lucea 450 62 837 65
958 67037
Kingston Kingston 22 104 041 103771
Manchester Mandeville 830 144029 164979
Portland Port Antonio 814 73656 76067
St. Andrews Kingston 431 482 889 540030
St. Ann St. Ann's Bay 1213 137745 149015
St. Catherine Spanish Town 1192 332 674 361535
St. Elizabeth Black River 1212 136 897 144118
St. James Montego Bay 595 135 959 156152
St. Mary Port Maria 611 105969 107 993
St. Thomas Morant Bay 743 80 441 84266
Trelawny Falmouth 875 69466 71646
Westmoreland Savanna-la-Mar 807 120622 128213
Jamaica Kingston 10991 2 190357 2366067

1982) UN Demographic Yearbook 1988.

(1991) Britannica Book of the Year 1993.
(2001) Statistical Institute of Jamaica (web).
As can be seen from the table below, with the exception of murder and violence
against the individual, Jamaica’s crime statistics are still well in keeping with
those of many developed country and hence by itself crime is not a major deterrent
to large investment, Caymanas Park, once community stability can be preserved,
should be able to function without major problems. Here the attitude of the two
major political parties towards peace and security in that area of Portmore is
even of a more critical value than the presence or absence of the police.
Portmore community data profile

Population (estimated) 225,000

Number of housing units (estimated) 45,000
Number of persons with access to running water 195,000
Capacity of sewage treatment plants 9.7 m.g.d.
Illegal Dumpsites 11
Dental clinics 1
Health Centres 3
Fire Station 1
Libraries 4
Police Stations 4
Post Offices 4
Courts 1
Educational/Training Institutions 65
-of which: Basic 38
Primary 16
Secondary 5
Tertiary 1
Other (Skills training) 5
Source:-Roundtable Workshop ICT for Good Governance in Portmore”, Kingston,
Jamaica, September 27-29, 2001

Of vital importance to patronage of Caymanas Park, is the need for steps to be

taken to reduce the high levels of social marginalization in and around the
neighbouring squatter communities and in communities such as Waterford. Without
this reversal or slowing of the process of marginalization, and, without a better
understanding of the value and contribution of Caymanas Park to these communities,
Caymanas Park as a business venture and as a meeting place for the more socially
affluent could become targets for economic crimes.

Currently the management of Caymanas Track Limited is known from television by

those who follow the sports news or the sports section of the newspapers and not
in a face to face manner by those who live in the communities. It is not usual for
the management or members of the Board of Caymanas Track Limited to be seen at
meetings of the various Citizen Associations, at Sports Days at schools or
Churches, or visiting any of the various community bars or cook shops. Hence a
feeling of distance towards those who lead Caymanas Track Limited and those,
especially younger people, is not unnatural and is to be expected.

Total recorded crime per 100,000 population source:-United Nations Surveys on

Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems
Country\Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1987 1988 1989
1990 1991 1992 1993
3,303 3,027
Antigua and Barbuda 48 79 99 134 168 179 165 1,251 1,002
1,028 2,025 2,152 2,275
Argentina 342 363 441 351 265
270 331 326
Australia 4,594 5,047 5,147 5,135 5,185 5,648
5,274 5,923 5,991 6,351 6,181 6,285

Austria 215 216 306 245 249

266 232 216
Azerbaijan 5,786 6,019 5,076 5,053 5,720 5,791
6,493 6,806 6,202 6,716 7,291 7,816 7,146
7,737 6,688
3,677 3,555 3,011
Bangladesh 471 479 456 557 588 584 541 738 792 937 998 1,161
1,276 1,236 1,251
Belgium 7,935 8,327 9,091 9,147 8,234 7,509
7,888 9,641 9,590 9,034 10,775 9,966
Botswana 506 507 526 560 552 541 624 772 1,877 2,387
2,328 2,363 2,465 2,348 2,909
Burundi 8,804 9,191 9,192 8,836 8,713 8,751
9,061 10,603 11,447 11,111 10,497 9,979

Canada 7,027 7,757 8,130

9,287 8,784 4,488 4,333 4,396
Chile 90 74 60 50 52 51 195 206 136 137 139
140 132 131
Colombia 874 871 880 857 950 1,141 1,243
1,321 1,382
Costa Rica 1,397 1,344 1,918
1,617 1,341 1,318 1,223 1,155
Croatia 1,333 1,365 1,277 1,496 1,569 1,481
1,939 541 522 539 599 596 550 612 523
3,636 3,822 3,917
Czech Rep. 8,282 8,313 8,512 9,015 9,756 10,391
11,091 11,531 11,471 11,907 12,084 11,878 10,309
10,043 10,051
Egypt 1,515 2,027 2,672
2,451 2,384 2,665 2,414 2,809
Estonia 1,968 1,919 1,950 2,055 2,086 2,033
2,192 1,873 2,184 2,374 2,386 2,517 2,679
2,632 2,719
Fiji 10,062 10,596 10,881 12,040 13,416 13,390 14,208
8,779 7,812 7,792 7,644 7,650 7,472 7,352
Finland 4,877 5,334 6,266 6,512 6,700 6,488
5,943 6,156 6,562 6,677 6,732 6,765

France 361 402 443 406 325

255 267 256
Georgia 4,873 5,193 5,479 5,573 5,309 5,425
5,618 8,168 8,116 8,025
Germany 3,063 3,179 3,424 3,996 3,562 2,933
2,954 3,256 3,503 3,678 3,454 2,909 3,147
3,336 3,591
Hong Kong 1,219 1,260 1,308 1,421 1,478 1,567
1,737 3,291 4,256 4,332 3,895 3,795 4,907
4,572 5,066
Hungary 575 559 602 582 577 583 595 605 603
182 181 179
Iraq 2,500 2,678 2,688
2,778 2,830 2,845 2,775 2,482
Ireland 1,350 1,307 1,383
1,418 1,404 5,385 5,569 6,276
Israel 2,019 2,089 1,987 2,134 2,251 2,410
2,479 4,411 4,666 4,204 3,961 3,805 4
4 4
Italy 2,355 2,277 2,140 2,207 2,285 2,295
2,120 2,085 2,034 2,016 2,156 2,114

Jamaica 1,178 1,244 1,291 1,292 1,324 1,331

1,302 1,397 1,451 1,469 1,512 1,491 1,421
14,409 1,507
Japan 731 715 604 621 636 618 714 690 739 807 581 905
929 1,062 1,053
Jordan 906 1,057 1,216
1,250 1,238 1,145 1,156 1,047
Kiribati 1,628 1,632 1,666 1,972 1,942 1,948
1,988 2,677 2,740 2,773 2,961 2,945 2,672
2,826 3,041
Korea, Rep. Of 235 230 257 237 260 311 324 907 1,046
Kuwait 675 720 978 948 920
908 866 804
Latvia 1,299 1,575 2,351
2,043 1,608 1,556 1,534 1,496

Perhaps with the usage of retired geldings and in conjunction with the local high
schools, the Caymanas Track Ltd. could form “Junior Jockey Clubs”, which would
seek to meet the needs of some of the thirteen to seventeen year olds for after
school activities. Basic riding and horsemanship could be taught in these clubs.
Additionally, schools could be encouraged to adopt retired horses, which could
form the basis for the introduction of polo at the high school level.

Economic Linkages and Externalities

Caymanas Park has served to stimulate the development of stud farms in and around
the Portmore Municipality and some three Off Track Betting Parlors, creating an
estimated eighteen full-time jobs and roughly thirty seasonal jobs. Seasonal
employment peaks during the stud season. Within the transport sector, one finds an
increase in the number of passengers going in the direction of Caymanas Park on
race days, however a more detailed transport study is needed in order to determine
the impact of race days on traffic flows, and to identify the influence of the
Portmore Community College, which has a number of classes starting at roughly the
same time as the start and or end of the race day.

The Municipality of Portmore has a Chamber of Commerce and is the home of over two
hundred small businesses, ranging from call centres, manufacturing shops (cooking
oil processing plant, textile producers, furniture making shops, soap and perfume
manufacturers, etc), aquarium fish farmers, pet bird farmers to retailers. The two
main challenges facing the local business community are affordable locations and
market access.
Caymanas Track Ltd, had been a member of the steering committee that guided the
formation of the Portmore Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and its Executive
Marketing Manager, Millicent Lynch became the first President of this special
interest body.
While Caymanas Track Ltd. played and is playing an active role in the promotion of
the interests of industry and commerce in the Municipality of Portmore, Caymanas
Park has on the whole failed to stimulate the formation of any significant
complementary business activities in the Portmore Municipality, in the main
because of its own narrow focus on Race Day organization.
Factory Capa
city Production

Tonnes 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Frome 90,000 59,108 64,078 56,534 53,117 56,978 42,515
Monymusk 65,000 42,247 32,559 22,666 19,028 27,258
9,322 18,424
Bernard Lodge 50,000 29,325 28,193 19,673 16,798 21,869
14,053 15,124
Appleton 50,000 23,291 30,709 26,707 20,882 29,267
21,404 26,327
Trelawny Sugar 30,000 15,600 8,967 9,873 10,475 10,410 4,654
St. Thomas Sugar 25,000 13,383 10,615 10,968 9,685 13,492
10,426 10,927
Worthy Park 26,000 25,188 22,339 23,066 22,552 24,566
21,833 20,958
Source: - Sugar Industry Authority

Bernard Lodge has, over the years lost significant amounts of land from sugar cane
farming owing to real estate development and or soil exhaustion. It is a
possibility that the sale of stable waste to the neighbouring cane farmers by
Caymanas Park Limited could promote soil renewal, which would increase the
productivity of existing farm lands. Owner-trainers involved in crop production
speak of the positive impact and cost reduction stable waste has had on their

One can only but note that while punters use hundreds of race meet programs on any
given race day, none are produced in the Portmore community, while each jockey and
horse in any given race must wear the colours of its owners, none of these colours
are produced in the community; groom, trainers, stable assistants and other
persons working in the back-stretch wear caps during the day in order to better
cope with the sun, none of these caps are made anywhere in the Portmore community;
Caymanas Park is a bulk producer of horse manure, yet there are no plant nurseries
within the Portmore community; while medina, the hibiscus plant and duckweed are
known to be good sources of protein and are directly substitutable for the alfalfa
plant, no step has so far being taken to encourage their cultivation on those
available lands on the fringes of the municipality.

Here however one should note, that grooms do harvest from the fringes of the
various cane farms in and around Portmore, herbs such as Medina, Bima, and other
such beneficial plants. Further co-operation might be possible with the technical
staff of Bernard Lodge in the usage of saw dust and rice hull in the generation of
electricity to power the operation of the pumps at Caymanas Park.

Portmore Public Perception of Caymanas Park

Given the fact that the Municipality of Portmore still retains a very strong
dormitory characteristic, and given the fact that Portmore is the home of some
150 thousand adults, while Caymanas Park employs just a bit more than 1000 persons
directly or indirectly , a person’s attitude towards Caymanas Park is strongly
determined by the person’s family history, the age of the person, the persons
attitude towards gambling in general, the employment status of the person, the
person’s relationship with employees of the track and the person’s gender.

Caymanas Track has a strong appeal to young college educated males and females,
who do not live near to the track. Their not visiting Caymanas Park comes has a
result of not been invited (females) or not having an excuse to go (males).
While the negative influence of gambling on family members and on the family has a
whole can possibly explain the negative attitude of some respondents to
thoroughbred racing and to visiting Caymanas Park, further studies are needed to
explain why both male and female respondents who live near to Caymanas Park seem
to have a lower interest in thoroughbred racing and to visiting Caymanas Park. It
is interesting to note that females are more willing to go on a date at Caymanas
Park, than are males prepared to invite their girlfriends on dates to Caymanas
Park. The role played by male insecurity and fear of competition could be feasible
reasons for the higher level of male reluctance to carry their dates to Caymanas
Its is however clear, that Caymanas Track Ltd. in is Marketing Strategy, needs to
do more to provide “young college educated” persons with a reason to visit
Caymanas Park, here the approach used in selling Baseball by the deliberate
promotion of “stars” such as Michael Jordon, Magic Johnson, Pepping and others,
the promotion of clashes between teams, could be adopted, where jockeys are
promoted as super stars and clashes between stables are promoted.

There also appears to be a space on the “date venue” market that could be
exploited by Caymanas Park Ltd. If college educated females find the idea of going
with their boyfriend on dates to Caymanas Park, appealing, then maybe Caymanas
Track Limited, has a responsibility in assisting these females to get their
boyfriends to carry then to watch thoroughbred racing.
It is important to note that people and young people in particular do not see
visiting Caymanas Park as being identical to being willing to gamble. Equally the
existence or none existence of corruption in races at Caymanas Park is not a
determining factor in deciding whether or not a visit to Caymanas Park would be
refreshing and exciting. In fact the thought of “set races” and “bandolu runnings”
are much stronger among unemployed males who feel that they can make a money from
horse racing if they had the right links.

It is also important to note that, visiting Caymanas Park is less appealing to

parents over the age of thirty.
Attitude to Caymanas Park (percent of age sample of 600)
Attitude to Caymanas Park/
Personal attributes Would visit Would not visit Caymanas Park adds
Value to the community Cayman. Park does not add value to community
College Educated (female) 70 25 80 17
Did not attend college(female) 60 35 70 30
College Educated (male) 90 10 65 30
Did not attend college(male) 95 5 73 27
Live near to Cayman Park (female) 30 70 80 20
Does not live near to Cayman Park (female) 80 20 70 25
Live near to Cayman Park (male) 65 40 78 15
Does not live near to Cayman Park (male) 80 20 84 10
unemployed 90 5 96
employed 78 12 65 30
Respondent older than 30 years of age 55 30 60 28
Respondent younger than 30 years of age 77 13 83 10
has a punter in family 60 35 55 43
Does not have a punter in
family 83 15 76 15
Would carry girl friend to Caymanas Park 75 20 70 20
Would not carry girlfriend to Caymanas Park 65 35 68 27
See Appendix 1 for sample questionnaire

As was expected, the vast majority of respondents do believe that the presence
Caymanas Park, does positively contribute to the Portmore community. In fact there
is a strong positive correlation between those who would visit Caymanas Park and
those who think that its presence contribute positively to the community of

The views of female college students, are of particular importance, firstly

because of their abilities to influence male views as to where is a good place to
visit or where is not a good place to visit and secondly because of the fact that
within the near future, these will be individuals with some amount of disposable
income to spend on entertainment.

A survey done on this population of females (see table below) has revealed that it
is of importance to separate the act of visiting Caymanas Park from the act of
gambling. While a majority of the respondents do not see the act of watching a
live race as being particularly sinful, the act of betting on a horse is seen by a
significant number of these respondents, as being sinful. In other words nothing
is wrong with watching a live race, but something is wrong with betting on horses,
even where the respondents buys Pick 3, Lotto etc.

Previous exposure to equine (horse or donkey) racing does not seem to play an
important role in determining the attitude of the respondents towards horse
racing; what is more important seems to be their view as to the correctness or
incorrectness of young professional women seeing horse racing as an acceptable
form of entertainment. Is it a place where a good progressive woman can go?

Caymanas Track has a very difficult job in encouraging second visits by this group
of respondents, because the ambience is seen as being very noisy, unruly, smoked
filled and harassment encouraging, by those respondents of the group that has
actually visited the track. It is seen as a “man’s space’ and not being female
friendly. It is also important to note, that a significant percentage of these
respondents would accompany their boyfriend or husbands to the track.

Female Full Time College ( UWI & UTECH) Students Views on Horse racing ( Sample
size =400)
Question % responding “yes” % responding “no” % not answering
Have you ever gone to
Horse racing at Caymanas Park? 33 67 0
Do you think that upstanding progressive young women should visit Caymanas Park?
61 35 4
Have you ever placed a bet on horse racing? 24 75 1
Do you play Lotto or Pick 3 or any other such betting? 30 66 4
If your husband or boyfriend invited you on a date to Caymanas Park, would you go?
58 42 0
Do you know of any woman of any age who goes to watch horse racing at Caymanas
Park? 40 54 6
Have you ever seen a live horse racing competition? 35 65 0
Have you ever seen a live donkey racing competition? 3 97 0
Do you think to go to watch horse racing is a sinful act? 11 89 0
Is betting on horse racing a sinful act? 57 41 2
Do you watch horse racing on television? 34 66
Can you give the name of one racing horse? 48 48 4
Can you give the name of one jockey? 53 47 0

See Appendix 2 for sample questionnaire

Horse racing is seen as being relatively boring by a significant number of

respondents and its broadcast by television is not seen as being exciting.
Further studies are needed in order to compare audience response to television as
against radio, and in order to identify the specific determinants of excitement in
horse racing, e.g. tone of voice, speed of speech, level of excitement in the
voice of commentator, position of cameras, facial expression of jockeys, the
movements of the horse etc.
One notes the very low usage of adjectives by race commentators, and near non-
commentary on the efforts and or actions of the jockeys; equally there is a lack
of pre-race build up by commentators and the voice of a jockey or actions of the
horse preparing to go out is never heard. Is there competition between individual
trainers, stables or jockeys in a given race? If yes, how do these players feel
about their competitors and from which point on the track will they start whopping
their competitors. From observation, commentary tends to be too cut and dry and
very much similar to a scientific report factual but without colour.

At Caymanas Park

Ecological Description

Caymanas Park, lying in the Rio Cobre Basin has a Histosol type of soil, which is
rich in organic matter. This type of alluvial soil, by Jamaican classification of
land for agricultural purposes (see table below), using the 1983 system, soil at
Caymanas Park belong to type ll, group 2, good for the cultivation of sugar cane,
or good to be used for pasture.

Generalized capability classification of Jamaican land for agricultural purposes

In terms of physical characteristics, this type of soil tends to hold water

because of its high organic content, relatively easy to be worked with tools, and
relatively flat. Alluvial soil of this type tends to be nutrient poor. While this
reality reduces the possibility of Caymanas Park being converted to agricultural
use, it does make the soil of good quality for its designated use, the mass
holding and racing of horses.
Soil potential rating system for crop production

Human interaction with the soil over the decades and the using of sand for
surfacing purposes has significantly changed the plant types that grow
uncultivated on this land. The fact that the soil is constantly subjected to water
flows from the water cistern system and from corroded sub terrain pipes, (for
example pipe from pump to the Azan Stables) has reduced the influence of seasons
on plant selection, creating space for flora of the type native to the places with
a high level of precipitation and even plants such as duckweed and algae which are
found in water-logged places. On the other hand, flora belonging to the dry plains
has experienced a catastrophic reduction in habitat.

The usage of sand over the decades, has changed both the chemical make up of the
soil by increasing salinity, and changing its physical capacity. By the addition
of very large quantities of sand, the load bearing capacity of the soil has
improved, equally as the tendency to caking has increased. This change has
resulted in the need for constant damping of the soil, to reduce weathering and
the nuisance of flying sand particles.
In order to prevent damage to the hooves of horses in races, from the high forces
of compression with which the hooves of the horses hit the soil.

Given that the soil type, if taken by appearance and texture, seem to vary between
Histosols and Nitosols soil types, there is a strong possibility that owing to
consistent and frequent use of the track for both training and competitive
purposes over the decades, sand being driven by the forces of comprehension from
surface layer of the track into the sub -base layers, could give rise to a type of
adobe soil type. Adobe soil, has a good carrying capacity and handles well the
forces of comprehension. There is a need however; to study the impact of an adobe
sub base can have on the hooves of a galloping horse. To what extent are the
dynamic forces coming from the downward thrust of the heel or toe of a horse’s
hoof is reflected by this adobe type sub-base back into the foot of the horse and
thus resulting in damage or injury to the tendons and or ligaments?

An important purpose of sprinkling of the track is the prevention of the hardening

of the sub-base, this purpose is also complemented by the raking of the surface
sand , where if the rakes are long enough would also loosen the sand –soil mix in
the sub-base. The rakes as observed in the garage have blades that seem to be less
than six inches in length, which raises the question of their adequacy for the job
at hand.

It was also observed that pebbles and small stones, transported by the human
carriage of sand to the locations over the years, could be seen in and around the
stable area, and is a source of annoyance and concern to both grooms and trainers
who have to find and remove them. It is said that a horse stepping on a sharp
stone, could have a similar impact to that of a man stepping with his bare foot on
a thorn, i.e. the result is pain and lameness.

While it is not possible at this moment to calculate the cost of lameness to

owners or trainers, one can only but note that there is significant number of
horses suffering from lameness at Caymanas Park especially among those horses that
race in Claiming Races. According to both trainers and officials of the Caymanas
Track Limited, of some 1100 horses housed at the track only about 700 are sound
and race ready another 400 suffer from one or another type of problem to the feet.

Land Usage and Facilities

The Caymanas Park compound is separated from the adjoining communities by concrete
fencing in the east and the west and by chain linked fencing in the north east and
the south. It is to be noted that as a result of the process of weathering, the
security layers of the concrete fences have either worn down in the case of broken
glass bottles or rusted in the case of barbed wires; while holes have appeared in
sections of the north east chain linked fence.
Stakeholders Views about Racing Plant

Question % yes % no Having no views

Has racing plant improved when
compared to past years? 50 50 0
Has racing surface improved when
compared to past years? 80 20 0
Have stables improved when
compared to past years? 50 50 0
Has stable area improved when
compared to past years? 30 70 0
Dou you think that the purse structure is
adequate at this time compared to yesterday? 50 40 0
Do you think racing is seen as being corrupt when compared to past years? 90
10 0
Do you think that there is a need for a new racing plant? 60 20 20
Do you think that there is a need for a Racino at Caymanas Park 80 0 20

See appendix for sample questionnaire

The property is roughly divided into two sections, with one third of the property
being used for the purposes of racing, training and administration. The racing
track is nine furlong in length, with two shoots, one at the nine furlong point
and the other at seven furlong point. The racing track is some seventy-five feet
wide. The track is intensively used for training purposes. It is to be noted that
some eighty percent of trainers and jockeys interviewed were of the view that the
riding surface has improved, when compared with past years; however some trainers
and jockeys are of the view that holes have appeared on the track, that the track
area is not properly secure thus allowing the possibility of stray animals
crossing the race track during races among other concerns.

Neighbouring the track and its multistory arena are the administrative buildings,
which because of the soil type and locality are single story structures. The arena
(all the stands taken together) from visual observation can comfortably
accommodate roughly three thousand individuals.

The entrance to the arena and the ground floor, are very unattractive, with the
entrance reminding a person of a high security custodial facility.

The ground floor (entrance to the Club Stand) of the track is very unattractive,
resembling an older European train station in lay -out and colour. Its is a flat
area, raised above the ground level of administrative section and with a passage
leading to the none-paying spectator area of the track. This area has several
mounted monitors for the watching of on-going races or simulcast races from
overseas. The area also doubles as a vending area and an area for socializing.
Entrance and exit to those areas designated for paying spectators are on this
floor and demarked by heavy iron gates manned by security guards.

The four stand areas, the Club Stand, Grand Stand, Reserve Stand and North Lounge
spectator areas are in very good state of repair, and are quite comfortable and
are in keeping with the standards seen at other sporting arenas locally and
internationally. The Stands on the second and third floors are for paying
Provisions for The Physically Challenged

One should note, that provisions for the physically challenged wheel chair users,
exists only into the Club Stand. Here however, a physically challenged individual
would face significant problems going up or down the only ramp provided because of
its steepness. The angle of the ramp to the floor is greater than forty degrees,
which means that the person must be very strong to push up themselves in the chair
to the floor and in coming down, there is a high possibility that both the wheel
chair and the person unaided will go flying down at high speed. No bath-room
provisions are made to satisfy the needs of the physically challenged punter, i.e.
there is no bathroom designed for wheel chair entrance, and hand rails on the wall
to assist the individual to get up out of the chair or to get off the toilet seat.
This means that the Caymanas Park Limited is still not as yet in keeping with the
government’s building standards

On the third floor of the arena building, is the North Lounge, which has a very
welcoming ambience, good food service in terms of menu, quality of food and
service, and a comfortable air-conditioned location for watching the races either
on monitors or live; from this patio its is possible to look at the horses being
saddled up for races, jockey mounted horses entering the arena, etc. The North
Lounge is normally where owners, trainers and the more affluent visitors meet to
watch the races, or to socialize over a meal or drink.
It is critical here to recognize that the apparently unruly anarchic culture on
the ground floor properly called the Club Stand, which to many non-punting
observers might be a turn off and unattractive; this area provides a “second
arena”, where a punter is able to “whip “his fingers, ride his horse in, freely
express “his” joy or disappointment about the performance of “his” horse and or
jockey; without “getting in the way” of other punters; while creating a powerful
feeling of brethren ship. From the stand point of entertainment management and
service product creation, it could be considered as a plus, that the management of
the track has being able to consistently create this environment, which is an
important and unsubstituteable part of the betting experience for many punters.
Petty-vendors also benefit from this atmosphere as the punters are more willing
to buy cigarettes, a draw of marijuana and various types of snacks, while the
Caymanas Track Limited is able to maintain high velocity betting rates as
individuals are under some pressure to place their bets and not “weigh down man

While more money is wagered on the average bet placed at the North Lounge, the
quantity and velocity of bets placed in the Club Stand (the ground floor) makes it
the main contributor the revenues of the track. Additionally as noted above, the
Club Stand (the ground floor) is opened daily (except on Sundays) for betting on
simulcast races from the United States and elsewhere.

It is the replication of the “Betting Shop” atmosphere at the level of the race
track on the ground floor (the Club Stand). It is this highly spirited, masculine
environment that creates a feeling of apprehension among non-punting first time
visitors to the track, and to females in particular-who appears to experience
difficulty coping with hundreds of unruly ungoverned males in a closed place. It
also tends to nurture the view, that Caymanas Park is a place for idlers and
careless men. Women and non-punting visitors who make it to either the second or
third floors and in particular to the North Lounge, find their visit to the track,
a pleasant one and generally leave positively surprised at what they discovered.
On Track Punters

From observation and from the tables below, the spectator population at the race
track, has more in common with the sport of Cricket, than with the sport of
Football (Soccer)in the sense that it a sport which an individual has to over time
acquire a taste for it and secondly there are very strong generational influences
(i.e. the taste tends to be passed down from father to son etc).
Similar to Cricket matches, there is a noticeable strong presence of the thirties
and over generation with a sprinkling here and there of the seven to twenty-five
years age group. In short it appears to be a sport for the mature rather than the
young. There also appears to be a strong “life time “commitment to the sport by
the punters of Caymanas Park, even where there is a significant feeling that the
sport of Thoroughbred Racing at Caymanas Park is corrupt.
Age Distribution of On Track Punters in Percentages
Age Range % of respondents
18-35 27
36-53 49
54-71 24
See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix
Amount of Years Visiting Caymanas Park
Visitng track for how many years?
1-9 years 24
10-19 years 42
20 and over 34
See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix
Punting at Caymanas Park is in essence a male activity, with the rare occurrence
of female punters. This existing situation is not what the average on track punter
would like to see continuing, and in fact there is a strong view that there are
not enough women participating in the sport. It should however be noted, that this
view, possibly should be understood, that women here means for a strong segment of
the punters “other women” and not their wives or girlfriends who they would not
invite to the track.
Gender Distribution Among On Track Punters in Percent
Gender Male (in %) Female (in %)

See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix

Yes % No %
Racing is a dying sport? 15 79
Would invite wife/girlfriend to track 45 47
Enough women involvement in racing 21 74
See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix
Except for a minority of respondents, on track punters express a relatively high
degree of confidence in the future of the sport, and do not see it as a dying
sport, however there are strong concerns expressed about the absence of the youth
from the track, the dead time between races which could be filled with other minor
events or music and the absence of women (a “bull parade” kind of thing) Apart
from expressing a strong degree of confidence in the Sport of Racing, on track
punters also do wager a significant percentage of their wages on races, and this
is also a reflection of their commitment to the sport.

Percentage of Salary Wagered on Horse Racing

% of salary wagered on Horse Racing % of Punters
0-9% 25
10-20 34
21 and over 25.
See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix
Of major concern here from a betting sales perspective, is the salary/wage scale
of the average punter and related to this is the social class of the average
punter. Observation seems to subject that the average punter is from the working
class (the proletariat) as against the intelligentsia and other professional
groupings and as against entrepreneurs in the classic sense of the word, where the
act of wagering is not identical or seen as an act of investment.
The issue of gender participation and or visitation to the track is also in some
of its dimensions related to the social class of the average punter, for example
when a person from the middle classes carries a lady to the Races, it is usually
not women from their social groupings but rather from the ranks of the working
classes “a ghetto girl”, the few female punters at the track also appear to be
from the working classes and in addition the women working at the track are also
from the working classes. Where there are educated women (i.e. women with
tertiary level education) working at the track on a race day, nothing is done to
distinguish them from the other women, for example at the last check point to the
third floor, there is a small table around which, sits at least two women, one
known to have tertiary level, yet without knowing her, one could be led to believe
that she and the female security guards or waitresses in the North Lounge are from
a similar educational background. This failure to differentiate contributes to
the view that only women from the lower classes visit or work at the track.

Being a punter, in the strictest sense of the word, does not mean being a gambler
in a general sense, most of the responding on track punters wager only on horse
racing, at the track or at an Off-Track Betting Parlor. Here one has to take into
account the fact that there is a level of substitutability between the Off Track
Betting Parlors and On Track Betting, hence Caymanas Track Limited neither “de-
facto” nor “de-jure” has a monopoly on betting on horse races. One also notes that
Lotto and others such gaming are substitutes in demand, in the eyes of more than a
few punters. Here there is a need to for more study to be done, in order to
determine, if the quantity of money spent on gaming activities is a percentage of
that that quantity of money that would normally or could be used for the wagering
on horses.

This study would deeper ones understanding as to the whether or not Lotto and
similar games, are from a punter’s perspective substitutes in demand and hence
competitive products or to what degree are Lotto and such other games compliments
in demand, products enriching the experience of the punter rather than pulling him
in one direction or the other, in other words are Lotto and other such games
similar in function as are “the women on the side-the sweet hearts or maties” who
are not direct competitors with the wife from a perspective of replacement but
rather “experience enriching” or are they de-facto competitors for the husband’s
limited resources and time taking from both the wife and the family?

It is the view of nearly have of the respondents that racing at Caymanas Park is
corrupt, while only a minority are of the view that racing must be corrupt. This
is more significant when one takes into consideration that more than thirty
percent of the respondents refused to answer this question as to whether or not
racing at Caymanas Park is corrupt. And a vast majority of the respondents no not
believe that horse racing has to be corrupt. Added to this only thirty eight
percent of the responding punters are of the view that they are getting value for
money at the track.

Some Off-Track Punters’ Views

Questions/ Response % Yes % No

1. Do you also place bets at Off Track betting shops? ___ 45 18
2. Do you do most of your betting on horses at the track?________ 56 5
3. Do you also bet on Lotto and other games? _______ 39 22
4. Do you think that horse racing is corrupt? _________ 49 15
5. Do you think that horse racing has to be (must be) corrupt? _______ 15
6. Are the conditions at the track better than they were when you first started
to visit the track? ________ 49 15
7. Are you getting value for money for the services provided at the track?
_______ 30 38

See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix

The age of the punter and how long he (or she) has been visiting the track is a
very strong determinant in deciding as to whether or not things at the track have
improved. Another important determinant is the level of exposure of the punter to
overseas tracks, with punters referring to places such as “Calder” and tracks in
the United States. Caymanas Track is less being measured as to what was there
before and is more being measured against what exist now elsewhere.

On Track Punters’ Views 1

Question/Response % Yes % No
1 Would you carry your children to the track? _______39 16
2 Is parking at the track adequate? __________ 38 20
3 Is security at the track adequate? ________ 40 21
4 Do you live further than two (2) miles from the track? _______ 46 12
5 Do you use your own transportation to get to the track? ________ 52 3
6 Do you buy refreshment or food at the track? ___________ 33 17

See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix

While many punters are of the view, that speaking about the conditions at the
track or complaining is a waste of time, because nothing will change, from those
who answered, one is led to believe that there are a significant number of punters
who either reside close to the track or have access to the private means of
transportation. This reality has implications for the potential economic
contribution of the track to the development of public transportation to and from
the track. While a high percentage of private transportation ownership by the
punters reduces the reliance of the track on the public transport system, its
relative independence of the public transport system, reduces the number of
derived employment created by the track and also its economic contribution to the

Ownership or access to private means of transportation coupled with a good sense

of security, and a feeling that parking is adequate, has perhaps contributed to
some punters’ views that they could carry their children to the track. This
feeling of relative child friendliness is also contributed to by the presence of
some children playing at the track especially in safety of that area in front of
the Grand Stand.
Of economic importance also, is the fact that some thirty three percent of the
respondents report that they do buy refreshment at the track.

On Track Punters’ Views 2

1. Do you think that Caymanas Park has a good influence on the communities next
door to the track?_________ 26 25
2. Do you think that the track has a bad influence on the value of property
around the track? _____ 28 23
3. Do you think that Caymanas Park is doing enough to assist in the development
of the neighbouring communities?_____________ 34 24
4. Do you know if Caymanas Park has a programme to facilitate the development
of youth and service clubs in the neighbouring communities?__________ 28 28
5. Would you buy a house next door to Caymanas Park?________ 31 24
6. Would you visit a casino? __________ 45 18
7. Would you actively seek to gamble at a casino? _______ 56 5
8. Would it be a good idea to build a casino near to the track? ______ 39
From the perspective of Community Development, the low level of interest shown by
punters in responding to those matters relating to the communities around Caymanas
Park is a matter of concern. One could also conclude that the level of “punters’
education” on the community outreach activities of Caymanas Track Limited is not
very good, equally as one could conclude that Caymanas Track limited is not very
involved in community outreach activities.

General Operations At The Track

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

# of Race days 93 94 96 92 80 82 82 80
# of Races 998 1022 999 923 839 854 858 841
# of Starts 10050 9929 9599 8784 7916 8162 8206 7519
Avg Start 10.07 9.72 9.61 9.52 9.44 9.56 9.56 8.94

Highest Earning by an individual 7,591,550 11,774,080 10,415,855 9,333,000

11,634,750 12,628,700 12,314,600 10,302,250
# of Owners who earn above 300,000 186 184 198 210 220 224 246 268
Total # Racehorses 1114 1055 1069 1028 958 990 961 898
Total # Raceowners 678 656 656 640 582 563 597 587
Average 1.643067847 1.6082317 1.629573171 1.60625 1.6460481 1.7584369
1.6097152 1.5298126

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Starts 10050 9929 9599 8784 7916 8162 8206 7519

# of horses claimed 302 298 241 306 348 375 435 444
# of horses entered for claiming 3483 3231 2440 3169 3475 3756 4518 4292
others 6567 6698 7159 5615 4441 4406 3688 3227

Native Bred 9038 9089 8894 8172 7158 7289 7323 6709
Importee 612 530 468 427 595 740 754 584
Half Bred 400 310 237 185 163 133 129 226
NB Gelding 200 146 152 244 301 442 658 838
IMP Gelding 51 40 29 22 21 24 30 11

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Total # of horses Reported Dead 136 55 73 90 90 88 74 61
Total # Native Bred horses Reported Dead 111 46 57 69 65 64 50
Total # NB Gelding horses Reported Dead 3 5 0 0 0 0 0
Total # Imp horses Reported Dead 22 9 14 19 23 23 22 10
Total # Imp Gelding horses Reported Dead 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total # mares Reported Dead 26 16 15 26 29 19 20 3
Total # NB mares Reported Dead 13 11 9 17 13 10 7 2
Total # IMP mares Reported Dead 11 5 5 9 16 9 13 1
Total # NB Stallion Reported Dead 7 2 4 0 1 1 0 2
Total # IMP Stallion Reported Dead 5 1 3 5 2 6 2 4

Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

# of Race days # of Races # of Starts

2000 93 0 998 0 10050
2001 94 1.075269 1022 2.40481 9929
2002 96 2.12766 999 -2.25049 9599
2003 92 -4.16667 923 -7.60761 8784
2004 80 -13.0435 839 -9.10076 7916
2005 82 2.5 854 1.787843 8162
2006 82 0 858 0.468384 8206
2007 80 -2.43902 841 -1.98135 7519

∆%# of Race days ∆%# of Races ∆%# of Starts

2000 0 0 0
2001 1.075269 2.40481 -1.20398
2002 2.12766 -2.25049 -3.3236
2003 -4.16667 -7.60761 -8.49047
2004 -13.0435 -9.10076 -9.8816
2005 2.5 1.787843 3.10763
2006 0 0.468384 0.539084
2007 -2.43902 -1.98135 -8.37192

From the above, it appears that the number of starts in any given year is the
factor in determining the number of race days and number of races in that given
. The marginal number of starts either pulls down or pushes up the marginal
number of race
days and the marginal number of races.

Total # Racehorses ∆ in T#of Horses Total # Race owners ∆ in T#of

2000 1114 0 678 0
2001 1055 0.05 656 -0.03245
2002 1069 0.04995005 656 0
2003 1028 0.049925112 640 -2.43902
2004 958 0.0499002 582 -9.0625
2005 990 0.049875312 563 -3.2646
2006 961 0.049850449 597 6.039076
2007 898 0.04982561 587 -1.67504

∆in T#of Horses ∆ in T#of owners ∆%# of Starts

2000 0 0 0
2001 0.05 -0.03245 -1.20398
2002 0.04995 0 -3.3236
2003 0.049925 -2.43902 -8.49047
2004 0.0499 -9.0625 -9.8816
2005 0.049875 -3.2646 3.10763
2006 0.04985 6.039076 0.539084
2007 0.049826 -1.67504 -8.37192

The marginal change in the total number of horses has remained over the period
constant, however the marginal change in the number of owners and the number of
starts fluctuated
together, with the marginal change in the number of owners affecting the number
of starts and highly
probably the number of races and race days

∆%# of Race days ∆%# of Races ∆ in T#of owners

2000 0 0 0
2001 1.075269 2.404809619 -0.032448378
2002 2.12766 -2.250489237 0
2003 -4.16667 -7.607607608 -2.43902439
2004 -13.0435 -9.100758397 -9.0625
2005 2.5 1.78784267 -3.264604811
2006 0 0.468384075 6.039076377
2007 -2.43902 -1.981351981 -1.675041876

As can be seen from above, the marginal change in the number of owners first dips
to zero in the year 2002 influencing both the number of races and the number of
race days.
Its influence on the changes in total number of race days and number of races are
best seen
between the years 2004 and 2007.
∆ in owners ∆ in S & C
2000 0 0
2001 -3.24 1.994822598
2002 0 6.882651538
2003 -2.43902439 -21.567258
2004 -9.0625 -20.90828139
2005 -3.264604811 -0.788110786
2006 6.039076377 -16.29596005
2007 -1.675041876 -12.5

There however is no clear relationship between the marginal change in the total
number of owners and the
marginal change in the difference between the total number of starts and the
number of horses offered for claiming.
If horses not put up for claiming are horses in grade stake races or other non-
claiming events, then it would be fair
to say that these better horses have a less significant role in the operations of
Caymanas Park. An area that needs to
be examined in some detail, is the width of the ownership band of these horses.
Are they owned by many persons
or by a small group.
# of horses claimed ∆ in # of horses claimed ∆in owners
2000 302 0 0
2001 298 -1.3245 -3.24484
2002 241 -23.6515 0
2003 306 21.24183 -2.43902
2004 348 12.06897 -9.0625
2005 375 7.2 -3.2646
2006 435 13.7931 6.039076
2007 444 2.027027 -1.67504

There is a very strong relationship between the change in the number of horses
claimed and the marginal change in the number of owners. Changes in the claiming
of horses are a major determinant in the numbers of race days and races offered
by Caymanas Track Ltd, it directly influence the changes in the number of owners
other related factors. One should note that the data seems to indicate that while
track can have a large number of horses, the stagnation in the change of horse
gives owners the ability to directly influence the number of race days,
races and starts. Claiming reduces the power of boycott or withholding by owners.

Claiming horses as a % of starts

2000 34.65672
2001 32.54104
2002 25.41931
2003 36.07696
2004 43.89843
2005 46.01813
2006 55.05728
2007 57.08206

As can be seen from the graph above, the percent of horses put up for claiming to
number of starts, have increased in a clearly visible way over the period.

Non claiming horses as a % of starts

2000 65.34328
2001 67.45896
2002 74.58069
2003 63.92304
2004 56.10157
2005 53.98187
2006 44.94272
2007 42.91794

As can be seen from the graph above, since the year 2003, non –claiming horses
as a percentage of starts have been steadily declining.
Marginal Change in Starts Marginal change in t. # of raceowners
2000 0 0
2001 -1.20398 -3.244837758
2002 -3.3236 0
2003 -8.49047 -2.43902439
2004 -9.8816 -9.0625
2005 3.10763 -3.264604811
2006 0.539084 6.039076377
2007 -8.37192 -1.675041876

As can be seen from above the marginal change in race ownership has a pulling or
pushing effect
on the marginal change in starts. There are strong reasons to believe as is borne
out by the set of
data above, that Caymanas Track Limited as early as from the year 2003 began a
programme of
expanding ownership through the promotion of claim races. This policy deliberate
or otherwise
has had a negative impact on the influence of the owners of horses not entering
claim races, and
has also strengthen the role played by “small” trainers who satisfy the needs of
the “small” raceowner.
This further borne out in the table below. The possibility of having a single
united position among
trainers has become more difficult, and the large trainers out voted by small and
medium sized trainers.

Stable and Horse Distribution By Trainer

Trainers Number of trainers

Having less than 10 stalls 54
Having more than 10 but less than or 20 Stalls34
Having more than 20 13

Total Horse Population at Caymanas Park=1100

Source:- Caymanas Track Limited

The Claims Market

The claiming system in use at Caymanas Park over the years, has given birth to a
very vibrant
and active claiming market, albeit unregulated, with a value in the calendar
year 2007 of over
J$100,000,000.00 (US$1,448,016.2 at the 2007 rates).
A particular feature of this market is the role of the trainer, who carries out
the activities of those
of a broker, both in regards to buying and/or selling on behalf of the owner
and/or purchaser of
the horse in question. . In its purest form, this market, allows for owners to
dispose of, with relatively
low transaction costs, his or her under-performing or non-performing horse, while
still retaining one
last chance of earning some purse money if the horse ended the claiming race in
the frame. In reality,
the market has taken on other complimentary functions, such as enabling those
trainers whose experience
or social relations would curtail their possibilities of training horses for
graded stakes, to ply their trade
at another level in racing, it also facilitates some of these trainers to retain
their stalls by obtaining claimed
horses. In doing this, these small trainers work closely together with the
smaller owners or prospective
small owners. This market also allows breeders to obtain bloodstock at relatively
low prices, than they
would otherwise be able to obtain.

The market is highly segmented, with some trainers working within only one or two
higher price
bands. Trading within the band ranges of J$4000, 000.00 to J$ 499,000.00 and.
J$300,000.00 to
J$399,000.00, is dominated in the main by a relatively small number of traders
(i.e. trainers)
and exhibits very strong speculative behavior on the part of the traders. In fact
it is possible to find
a trader selling a given horse in one claiming race and return two or three race
days after to
re-purchase the very same horse at a higher or lower price. The unregulated
nature of this market,
also allows for the possibility of money laundering. Here it is important to note
that the
Jamaica Racing Commission, regulates the racing and conditions for racing,
however does
not regulate the functioning of the claiming market, for example it cannot give
any assurance
about the state of health of a horse at the time of delivery to the new owner, it
does not issue
certificates of fitness for horses entering the claiming races, nor does it in any
way seek
declarations about source of funds or the fitness of the traders and or their
clients to trade.

Value of Transactions and Number of Transactions on the Claiming Market

Year Value of Transactions ∆in VT # of Transactions ∆in #T

2001 45480000 0 298.00 0
2002 35767500 -21.3555 235.00 -21.1409396
2003 54570000 52.56867 305.00 29.78723404
2004 74620000 36.7418 248 -18.68852459
2005 85895000 15.10989 373.00 50.40322581
2006 106960000.00 24.52413 434.00 16.3538874
2007 114192600.00 6.761967 443.00 2.073732719

Source:- Jamaica Racing Commission

The marginal changes in the number of transactions in the Claims Market has had a
very strong
influence on the marginal changes in the value of the transactions, this influence
can be seen
between the points 1 and 4 in the graph above.
(Value of Transactions in ranges )
Year 100-199,000 range 200-299,000 300-399,000 400-499,000
2001 30670000 3205000 5770000 0
2002 24962500 5995000 4810000 0
2003 24940000 15100000 175121308.00 0
2004 28275000 21885000 24250000 0
2005 24465000 33220000 573148408 762864280.00
2006 23310000 45285000 18640000 18905000
2007 19080000 44505000 33285000 17460000
Source:- Jamaica Racing Commission

VT= Value of Transactions

As can be seen in the diagrams above, trades in the range band of J$3000, 000.00
to 399,000.00 has
a highly unusual marginal curve, showing very high and steep peaks and steep
falls, which raises
questions related to the possible influences of speculation on the market or other
types of activities such
as price and or market fixing or the possibility of money laundering. Examine
graph below for further
comparisons of the marginal curves, with respect for the changes in the value of
transactions in the 3-3.9 range.

In short, regardless with which other marginal curve it is compared with, the
marginal changes
in the value of transactions in the price range J$300,000.00 to J$399,000.00 begs

Marginal Table for change in the number of Transactions

Year 100-199 range ∆ range 1-1.9 200-299 ∆ change in range 2-2.9 300-
399 ∆change in range 3-3.9 400-499 in change in rang 4-4.9
2001 240.00 0 40.00 0 18.00 0 0 0
2002 201.00 -16.25 25.00 -37.5 15.00 -16.66666667 0 #DIV/0!
2003 205.00 1.990049751 264.00 956 35.00 133.3333333 0 #DIV/0!
2004 182.00 -11.2195122 83.00 -68.5606 69.00 97.14285714 0 #DIV/0!
2005 153.00 -15.93406593 143.00 72.28916 51.00 -26.08695652
0 #DIV/0!
2006 141 -7.843137255 190.00 32.86713 53.00 3.921568627 46.00
2007 112.00 -20.56737589 189.00 -0.52632 97.00 83.01886792 39.00
Source:- Jamaica Racing Commission

From the table and graph above, the marginal change in the number of transactions
in the price
range J$200,000.00 to $299,000.00 was most dramatic, reflecting increasing and
decreasing trading
activity on the claiming market. It is also possible that more opportunistic types
of traders entered
and departed the market, their rapid departure had a very short negative influence
on this market
segment as represented by the price range.
It is important to note the behaviour of the marginal curve for the market segment
There was a modest increase in the number of transactions, however not enough to
the behavior of other traders in other market segments.

This note is of importance, because it points to the fact that the abnormal
behavior of the
marginal VT curve for the range3-3.9, was not caused by a marked influx of
traders or a dramatic
increase in the number of trading activities by existing traders on that market
segment, but more
possibly by speculative activities.

The claiming system is an exciting and possibility creating addition to the

activities of the
Caymanas Track Ltd; over the years it has witnessed significant growth, it has
positively contributed
to the democratization of the racing industry, and has created significant
quantities of new wealth.

Distances Ran

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

2 fur 0 2 1 0 2 1 1 0
3 fur st. 2 4 2 3 5 4 5 5
4 fur st. 11 10 8 11 9 9 8 5
5 fur. St 160 191 191 154 151 161 163 158
5 fur rd 80 65 68 64 36 38 33 18
5 1/2 fur st. 109 110 107 103 109 109 107 113
6 fur 126 133 141 133 131 102 128 139
61/2 fur 92 89 76 67 61 66 58 56
7 fur 89 96 95 101 86 82 90 84
7 1/2 fur 91 87 86 86 82 72 72 70
8 fur 91 87 87 87 21 80 85 81
8 1/2 fur 22 21 24 24 13 12 20 17
9 fur 19 22 13 13 66 12 9 12
9 fur 25 yds 84 80 78 78 17 61 54 58
10 fur 19 22 19 19 1 20 22 22
11 fur 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
12 fur 2 2 0 1 2 2 2 2
998 1022 997 945 793 832 858 841
Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

Year Totals ∆ Change Average

2000 998 1 142.5714
2001 1022 2.40481 146
2002 997 -2.44618 142.4286
2003 945 -5.21565 135
2004 793 -16.0847 113.2857
2005 832 4.918033 118.8571
2006 858 3.125 122.5714
2007 841 -1.98135 120.1429
Source:- Jamaica Racing Commission

Caymanas Track has in the period between 2000 and year 2005, fought to maintain
its race day
structure and race card offerings, as can be seen in the table above and in the
graph below. It was only
after the depression in the industry bottomed out in 2004, that recovery started,
with some signs of a
new bout of downturn on its way (see the flattening of both marginal and average
curves starting at
the mid-point of year 6 in graph below).

In spite of the above mentioned challenge in maintaining its race day and race
The track did remarkably well in maintaining the structure of its race cards, and
there is a very high
degree of correlation between the structures of the race cards when seen from an
annual stand point.
Please see table and charts below.

Distance/Year 2000 2003

2 fur 0 0
3 fur st. 2 3
4 fur st. 11 11
5 fur. St 160 154
5 fur rd 80 64
5 1/2 fur st. 109 103
6 fur 126 133
61/2 fur 92 67
7 fur 89 101
7 1/2 fur 91 86
8 fur 91 87
8 1/2 fur 22 24
9 fur 19 13
9 fur 25 yds 84 78
10 fur 19 19
11 fur 1 1
12 fur 2 1
Totals 998 945
Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

Coefficent of correlation between individual pair of years.

Coefficient of correlation 2000 & 2003
Coefficient of Correlations between 2003-2006
Coefficient of Correlation. Between 2000& 2006
Coefficient of Correlation between 2000&2007

The coefficient of the line of regression between years 2000 & 2001 is 0.947729
which is positive and very close to 1. The coefficient of the line of regression
between years
2000 & 2007 is 0.846899. Which is positive, but indicates a slight reduction in
the level of
predictability between year 2000 & 2007, a fact that is also reflected in the
coefficient of correlation
between the same two years.

The very high positive values for both the coefficient correlation and regression
between the individual
years indicates a very high level predictability and reliability of the offering
of Caymanas Park,
which are important factors in retaining horse racing and betting. This is further
highlighted in the
table below which where the total distances ran per year is matched against the
promoters total take
for the given year.
Year Total Distance Ran Promoters Total in US$
2000 998 41400.35
2001 1022 40502.02
2002 997 34279.42
2003 945 28181.53
2004 793 25720.49
2005 832 29679.46
2006 858 32033.47
2007 841 34925.92

Co-efficent of Correlation 0.724868


Earnings from betting when expressed in US dollars also reflect a period of

challenges, which became
most clearly visible in the year 2002, worsened in 2003 and began to improve in
the year 2004. While
the figures for the promoters total was still less in the year 2007 than it was
in the year 2000, it was a
definite recovery of positions previously held.

Year Promoters Total Exchange Rate Promoters Total in US$

2007 2411984 69.06 34925.92
2006 2110365 65.88 32033.47
2005 1854966 62.5 29679.46
2004 1577695 61.34 25720.49
2003 1632556 57.93 28181.53
2002 1663923 48.54 34279.42
2001 1866333 46.08 40502.02
2000 1783527 43.08 41400.35
Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

Year Promoter’s Total in US$ ∆ in Promoter’s Total in US$ Promoters Total As

% of 2000 Total
2000 41400.35 0 0
2001 40502.02 -2.16986 97.83014
2002 34279.42 -15.3637 82.79983
2003 28181.53 -17.7888 68.07075
2004 25720.49 -8.7328 62.12627
2005 29679.46 15.39225 71.6889
2006 32033.47 7.931459 77.37488
2007 34925.92 9.029461 84.36141
Based on the table and the graph below, it is possible that the track is on the
verge another cyclical
depression even before it has recovered its year 2000 values in terms of the
promoter’s take from betting.

Year ∆ in Promoters Total in US$ Promoters Total As % of 2000 Total

2000 1 100
2001 -2.16986 97.83014
2002 -15.3637 82.79983
2003 -17.7888 68.07075
2004 -8.7328 62.12627
2005 15.39225 71.6889
2006 7.931459 77.37488
2007 9.029461 84.36141

Based on both the year-to-year changes in the number of race days and the number
of race days
expressed as a percentage of the number of race the year 2000, also seems to
indicate that the
year 2007, marked the potential entrance to another period of cyclical

Year Race Days As % of year 2000 ∆ Change # of Race Days Races As % of year 2000
∆ Change # of Races
2000 93 100 1 998 100 1
2001 94 101.0753 1.075269 1022 102.4048 2.40481
2002 96 102.1277 2.12766 999 97.74951 -2.25049
2003 90 93.75 -6.25 923 92.39239 -7.60761
2004 80 88.88889 -11.1111 839 90.89924 -9.10076
2005 80 100 0 854 101.7878 1.787843
2006 82 102.5 2.5 858 100.4684 0.468384
2007 80 97.56098 -2.43902 841 98.01865 -1.98135
Total Purse Paid Out (1991-2007)

The period reviewed 1991 to 2007 saw a decline in the total amount of money paid
out reduced
by some nineteen percent, in other words, purse money paid out in 2007 was some
nineteen percent less
than that paid out in the year 1991. The depreciation of the Jamaican dollar over
the period has had a very
devastating effect on purse money, making participation by owners and potential
owners of thoroughbred
horses in the sport of racing, less attractive.
Change in the rate of exchange for period 1991 to 2007 in percentage=1717.888%
Change in the
rate of exchange for the period 2000 to 2007 in percentage =150.6901%.

Purse Paid Out

Year Purse in J$ Exchange Rate Purse in US $
1991 21718657 12.22 1777304
1992 35856820 22.99 1559670
1993 48447700 25.11 1929419
1994 76957470 33.29 2311729
1995 121082145 35.35 3425237
1996 139312146 37.25 3739923
1997 176319800 35.51 4965356
1998 201930230 36.65 5509692
1999 224164776 39.2 5718489
2000 247595680 43.08 5747346
2001 257975900 46.08 5598435
2002 253210425 48.54 5216531
2003 257086950 57.93 4437890
2004 302511250 61.34 4931713
2005 312876550 62.5 5006025
2006 341121273 65.88 5177919
2007 373102150 89.05 4189805
Source:- The Jamaica Racing Commission and Bank of Jamaica

Year ∆ Change in Purse Purse as % of 1991

1991 1 100
1992 -12.24517 87.75483
1993 23.706822 123.7068
1994 19.814819 119.8148
1995 48.167755 148.1678
1996 9.1872725 109.1873
1997 32.766256 132.7663
1998 10.962683 110.9627
1999 3.7896251 103.7896
2000 0.5046289 100.5046
2001 -2.590952 97.40905
2002 -6.821622 93.17838
2003 -14.92642 85.07358
2004 11.127426 111.1274
2005 1.5068237 101.5068
2006 3.4337372 103.4337
2007 -19.08322 80.91678

It is to be noted however that purse money paid out in the years 2001 and 2005
marginally increased
over the amount in the year 1991. Once again as previously pointed out the year
2007 has the markings
of a new round of decline, as was in the period 2001 and 2003.

The Backstretch

The backstretch of Caymanas Park lies on some 131 acres of low lying land, with
significant parts of the property lower than the adjoining communities especially
in that area where one finds Stable 51, and the area directly behind the walls of
the Veterinarian’s office. As such seasonal flooding is a problem, especially in
the hurricane period, when complete sections of the road leading to stable 40 and
others can be completely submerged and accessible only on foot or by high axle
vehicles. In earlier years during floods the horses would be removed to the track
which is on higher ground. Flood waters still settle in the rectangular court yard
enclosed by the stalls, making movement and work in the stable area unpleasant.

There are some eighty stables in the backstretch area, this is the working area of
four hundred and eight grooms, one hundred and forty one trainers, forty seven
exercise riders eighty-nine jockeys, forty-five assistant trainers and eight
food/snack vendors in addition to a number of stable lad, an estimated fifteen
unlicensed farriers, one medical doctor, one nurse, and an estimated three
Stables and stalls were built in three separate waves at varying construction
standards and dimensions; in the very early days of Caymanas Park, trainers built
their own stalls, for example the Nunes Stables were built by the trainer Mr.
Nunes, stables built by trainers were built at standards and sizes affordable to
the given trainer; later Caymanas Track Limited built a set of stables to meet the
growing demand for stables. These stables were built in accordance to engineering
standards and are better able to withstand the challenges posed by storms, winds
and/or floodwaters. The last set of stables were built by private contractors,
contracted by Caymanas Track Limited and are the least able to meet the challenges
posed by high waters and winds. The stables and their stalls are distributed to
the trainers in accordance to number of horses in his or her care.
Stable and Horse Distribution By Trainer
Trainers Number of trainers Average # of horses per trainer
Having less than 10 stalls 54 6.462963

Having more than 10 <but less than< or =20 Stalls 34 13.47059

Having more than 20 13 22.53846

Total Horse Population at Caymanas Park=1100

Source:- Caymanas Track Limited

Caymanas Park in many ways is an evolution of Berth’s classic Plural Society, with
the interdependence of individuals from different ethnic groups, which meet but
never mixes, into one more akin to that which existed in the French colonies –
clearly separated and demarked groups, bonding into one whole by the existence of
a large mulatto middle class. At Caymanas Park the older and more established
trainers are Whites, upper caste Indians, Sephardic Jews, and Jamaican Chinese.
One the other hand, most of the grooms tend to be Blacks with an element of lower
caste Indians.

Whites and near whites are under constant pressure to play a positive role in the
back stretch as their behaviour, real or imagined is taken as a form of datum from
which behaviour is measured and assessed, if it is felt that the “White Man Dem A
Run Racket”, then other trainers will then begin to explore the possibility of
running some racket for themselves. An important caveat here is the recognition,
that unlike many other cultures or sub cultures, the term “white” on the
backstretch might or might not refer to ones racial or ethnic background, but
always used in reference to wealth, here wealth might be money or the number of
horses one has in his stable or stables. In keeping with this caveat, a trainer
from Caucasian ethnic background with only a few horses in his stable is not
White, while a trainer from Chinese or Black ethnic background with more than
thirty horse in his stable or stables is counted among the Whites.

This division of the ranks of the trainers into socio-ethnic groups is also
reflected in the poles of influence in the Trainers Association, whose membership
is split among the three centres of influence, the large (White) trainers whose
base on the backstretch is in the northerly direction, a mobile under tree based
grouping of the ambitious discontents, and the Black Trainers (led by one of the
larger trainers) which is based around and in a southerly direction. The
leadership of the Black Trainers group, in views, methods of mobilization and
personal ambitions is not very different from the White Trainers group.
Reported Horse Deaths In The Industry
∆ T # of Horses ∆ # of NB ∆# NB mares ∆# NB Stallions
Reported Dead Reported Dead Reported Dead Reported Dead
2000 0 0 0 0
2001 -59.5588 -58.55855856 -38.4615 -71.4286
2002 32.72727 23.91304348 -6.25 100
2003 23.28767 21.05263158 73.33333 -100
2004 0 -5.797101449 11.53846 #DIV/0!
2005 -2.22222 -1.538461538 -34.4828 0
2006 -15.9091 -21.875 5.263158 -100
2007 -17.5676 0 -85 #DIV/0!

The data above indicates a comparatively high Reported Native Bred Mare Deaths,
while the marginal change in Total Reported Native Bred Deaths very closely
follows the marginal change in Total Reported Deaths; reported Native Bred Mare
Mortality as compared with reported Native Bred Stallion Deaths.

∆ T # of Horses ∆ in IMP Mare ∆ in Tot Mare ∆ in IMP Stallion

Reported Dead Reported Dead Reported Dead Reported Dead
2000 0 0 0
2001 -59.5588 -38.4615 -54.54545455 -59.0909
2002 32.72727 -6.25 0 55.55556
2003 23.28767 73.33333 80 35.71429
2004 0 11.53846 77.77777778 21.05263
2005 -2.22222 -34.4828 -43.75 0
2006 -15.9091 5.263158 44.44444444 -4.34783
2007 -17.5676 -85 -92.30769231 -54.5455

Of particular concern is not only the relatively higher level of reported mare
deaths, but also the situation faced by the imported stallion, whose exposure to a
positive reported death rate covers a longer period of time than the imported
mare, whose reported death curve has far sharper (narrower) angles.

Market Creation/ Performance and Economic Contribution Of Caymanas Track Limited

Stable and Horse Distribution By Trainer

Trainers Number of trainers Average # of horses per trainer

Having less than 10 stalls 54 6.462963

Having more than 10 <but less than< or =20 Stalls 34 13.47059

Having more than 20 13 22.53846

Total Horse Population at Caymanas Park=1100

Source: Caymanas Track Limited


As may be seen from the data below, the number of horses culled from racing has
declined over the years, when looked at as a percentage of the number culled in
the year 2002. However when examined on a year to year basis, one finds a
relatively high level of volatility in the rate of culls, reflecting the natural
differences in the performance of one cohort as against another cohort of horses.
The volatility in the rate of cull reflects a high level of objectivity in the
cull, with the performance of the given cohort determining the number of horses
culled, with no attempts being made for the sake of establishing any given pattern
or trend. As pointed out, the cull rate is in the main determined by the
performance of the cohort, and as such the rate is not indicative of one culled
horse performing better or worse than a given horse in a next year group.

# culled year to year as % As % of 2002
2002 53 100 100
2003 37 69.81132 -30.1887
2004 30 81.08108 -43.3962
2005 18 60 -51.3514
2006 25 138.8889 -16.6667
2007 25 100 38.88889
2008 15 60 -40
Source:-Jamaica Racing Commission

year to year as % As % of 2002

2002 100 100
2003 69.81132 -30.1887
2004 81.08108 -43.3962
2005 60 -51.3514
2006 138.8889 -16.6667
2007 100 38.88889
2008 60 -40

The Betting Sector, Years 2002-2007

The gaming sector over the period, from the perspective of sales and number of
betting offices, have proven to be very resilient. (See table below):

Bookmakers Sales, Years 2002-2007

Year Local Sales in US $ Marginal change in local sales Overseas Sales in
US $ Marginal Change in Overseas Sales
2002 22321302.45 0 13844360.21 0
2003 17498712.16 -0.216053266 11879586.62 -0.14
2004 1955539.24 -0.888246677 888213.4755 -0.93
2005 1955417.97 -6.20135E-05 1020425.602 0.15
2006 2339067.95 0.196198453 1203440.424 0.18
2007 2623218.02 0.121480042 1203534.728 0.00

Year Marginal change in local sales Marginal Change in Overseas Sales

2002 0 0
2003 -0.216053266 -0.141918699
2004 -0.888246677 -0.925231954
2005 -6.20135E-05 0.148851746
2006 0.196198453 0.17935146
2007 0.121480042 7.83619E-05

As can be seen from the above table, the bookmakers were able to recover from the
2003-2004 slump and recover lost ground in terms of sales. (See chart below)

The chart above however reveals that overseas sales has become a major determinant
of the bookmakers’ sales and actually plays a pull push role in respect to local
Promoters Sales At Caymanas Park
Year Caymanas Park Exchange Rate C Park Sales in US$ Marginal Change
in C Park Sale
2004 72137023 61.63 1170565.30 0
2005 87538744 64.58 1355479.19 0.157969739
2006 98238332 67.15 1462996.78 0.079320722
2007 103473522 70.62 1465265.34 0.001550627

Year Off-Track OFF T sales in US$

2004 223662349 3629362.199
2005 233539348 3616201.383
2006 300422754 4473992.11
2007 320312547 4535874.159
Source:- Betting, Gaming & Lotteries Commission

Year M.Change in Off T. Total M. Change in T T in US $

2004 0 295799372 0 4799927.498
2005 -0.003626206 321078092 0.035782432 4971680.577
2006 0.237207676 398661086 0.194161371 5936988.892
2007 0.013831506 423786069 0.010805244 6001139.503

For the Promoter, Off Track sales have played that critical role in determining
the magnitude of sales at Caymanas Park, and on total sales.
Marginal Change in C Park Sale M.Change in Off T. M. Change in T
2004 0 0 0
2005 0.157969739 -0.003626206 0.035782432
2006 0.079320722 0.237207676 0.194161371
2007 0.001550627 0.013831506 0.010805244

Overseas Betting

Year Bookmakers, overseas betting in US $ ∆ in OVS Betting Simulcast Betting

in US $ ∆ in Simul. Betting Local Betting in US $ ∆ in L Betting
2001 14442.40451 0 24332.09635 0 69519.6398 0
2002 14537.43304 0.006579828 22626.51422 -0.07009598 57718.1706 -0.169757341
2003 12431.21008 -0.144882728 21014.60383 -0.07123989 46492.7844 -0.194486174
2004 12545.20704 0.009170222 21998.761 0.046832059 42885.0668 -0.077597365
2005 13534.24 0.078837516 22966.352 0.043983886 48080.704 0.121152596
2006 13967.62295 0.032021225 25297.04007 0.101482729 51787.629 0.077097977
2007 11872.03881 -0.150031552 30476.97654 0.204764528 57062.0475 0.101847074

Year ∆ in OVS Betting ∆ in Simul. Betting ∆ in L Betting

2001 0 0 0
2002 0.006579828 -0.07009598 -0.169757341
2003 -0.144882728 -0.07123989 -0.194486174
2004 0.009170222 0.046832059 -0.077597365
2005 0.078837516 0.043983886 0.121152596
2006 0.032021225 0.101482729 0.077097977
2007 -0.150031552 0.204764528 0.101847074

As can be seen from the tables and chart above, simulcast betting has become the
major performance driver of the sector, followed by local betting. Overseas
betting in its classical form is on the decline in terms of its contribution.

Number of Local Racing Bookmakers and Offices 2004-2007

Year Number of Number of Betting #of Betting Offices/

Bookmakers Offices # of Bookmakers
2004 12 391 32.58333333
2005 11 365 33.18181818
2006 10 359 35.9
2007 10 359 35.9

Among the Bookmakers, there was some consolidation, with the number of Bookmakers
declining from twelve in the year 2004, to ten in 2007, one also witness an
increase in the number of betting offices to the number of Bookmakers,
representing a strengthening of individual operations.
Year 2005

Parish Number of Betting Shops Number of closed betting shops

Closure rate in %
Clarendon 61 28 45.90164
Hanover 5 1 20
Kingston 43 21 48.83721
Manchester 22 5 22.72727
Portland 10 2 20
St. Andrew 18 5 27.77778
St. Catherine 147 48 32.65306
St. Ann 17 9 52.94118
St. Elizabeth 25 11 44
St. James 7 2 28.57143
St. Thomas 17 13 76.47059
Westmoreland 25 13 52
St. Mary 17 4 23.52941
Portland 7 2 28.57143

Source:- Betting and Gaming Commission

As can be seen from the table above, the betting sector is very dynamic and
relatively unstable, with betting offices coming in and off the scheme, and thus
demands a relatively high level of managerial skills from the Bookmakers. In
terms of closure rates, St. Thomas leads with seventy six percent of all betting
office opened being closed. This is followed by the parish of St. Ann with nearly
fifty three percent of all betting offices opened being closed. Of the high
population density parishes of the south coast, St. Catherine is the most stable
with a closure rate of less than thirty five percent. The presence of Caymanas
Park in that given parish, coupled with the history of racing in the Old Harbour
area are possible determinants of its success rates. One should note that the
argument that the presence of large sugar estates is a determinant of success in
betting office operations, does not hold true, since St. Thomas, Clarendon and
Westmoreland are also sugar cultivating areas, but the closure rates for betting
offices are above forty percent. This would suggest that there are other factors
at play.
The Illegal Betting Sector

Illegal bookmakers continue to operate with various levels of impunity in several

inner city communities, in fact taking over the domain once occupied by legal
Bookmakers, who have withdrawn from these communities for various reasons. Based
on observations made during the writing of this report, there are some two illegal
bookmakers to every five legal bookmakers. Interestingly, these operations are,
from the perspectives of the communities they operate, above ground, in other
words, there is nothing wrong with them. In fact in one community, until recently
one such illegal betting office was operated by a known Justice of the Peace.

Illegal bookmakers are very adaptive to the changing market conditions in the
areas in which they operate, and are able to sell bets on individual races at
prices below the official rates and are not above giving credit bets to regular
punters or in some cases lend or give these punters the money so that they can
place their bets. Illegal bookmakers also place bets with legal Bookmakers, and
thus expand the market area covered by some betting offices.

From the perspective of the industry from a most general perspective, these
illegal bookmakers play a critical role in preserving the presence of racing in
those most volatile communities, where the risks are too high for the legal
Bookmakers to take on. For example in the community of Jones Town, without
illegal bookmakers, the sport of racing would be non-existent.

The illegal bookmakers also serve pockets of punters who because of their low
level of disposable income, would not be able to actively and regularly
participate in the sport. To the extent that these illegal bookmakers also place
bets with the official Bookmakers, they tend to act as unofficial sales agents.

Some officially registered Bookmakers are also actively involved in illegal

bookmaking activities, in terms of opening time and in terms of standard
operations. In some places, the existence of modern communications infrastructure
has permitted nearly twenty-four hours continuous betting operations nearly seven
days per week, with heavy betting on overseas/simulcast racing. Based on
interviews done with two former betting office employees, in some offices there
are two “sales books” in use, which facilitates the under reporting of sales and
other irregular operating practices. The less vigilant buy and leave punters, in
some instances can find that where several tickets have been bought, changes are
made to the bets, in terms of horses and or races. The fear of job loss and other
acts of reprisal are major deterrents to a greater flow of information.

There appears to be a relatively close linkage between bars and betting offices,
both legal and illegal. The bar maids are generally well informed about the
locations of both legal and illegal types of operations, their employees and
opening hours. This was verified in Portmore, in the Community of Greenwich Farm
and Down Town Kingston.

Betting Offices

A major deterrent to the expansion of the racing market, especially among the more
stable segments of the population and among women is the state of the betting

The typical betting office is located in small shops, equipped with a counter
where the bets are bought and sold, a television for the punters following of the
races and one or two long benches. Very few and far between are betting offices
that have bathroom facilities, for example no such betting office has been found
anywhere in Portmore, or in the Half Tree area. A visit to two offices on
Knutsford Boulevard in Kingston, revealed that none of the two offices there
located had bathroom facilities open to the general punting population.

Because of the Laws and regulations under which betting offices operate, they are
unable to sell food or a beverage, which places them at a distinct disadvantage
when compared with the sale of the Lotto and other such types of number games,
which can be sold nearly anywhere. The Betting and Gaming Act and its various
amendments, have created a legal environment that stifles the growth of the
betting offices in terms of the effective use of facilities and staff. In fact
most betting offices operates on a part –time basis, two days per week, and are
generally located in structures that are approaching the demolition stage of their
life cycle.

Bookmakers Performance 2004-2007 (J$)

Year Post to Post Summit Betting Co. Total Betting Track Plus

2004 3447414 5773491 1637025 34160533

2005 4894995 6923098 1902520 31619776
2006 5698186 7543113 0 40553102
2007 47287907 8730941
Year Big "A" Track Limited Capital Betting

2004 3364385 11185733

2005 3569518 11880194
2006 5423413 14784124
2007 4814386 18171000
Year Markam Betting Caribbean Turf Champion Betting Co. Charles Off

2004 18632605 9004415 22804236 4223261

2005 19528115 11880194 23340697 4697939
2006 27291377 13300332 30082774 4916384
2007 26751138
13572168 43831042 5494001

Year Track Plus ∆ Change in Track Plus

2004 34160533 0
2005 31619776 -0.074376972
2006 40553102 0.28252338
2007 47287907 0.166073732
Year ∆ Change in Champion Betting Markham Betting Champion Betting Co.
2004 0 18632605 22804236
2005 0.023524621 19528115 23340697
2006 0.288854999 27291377 30082774
2007 0.457014636 26751138 43831042
Year ∆ Change in Capital Betting Ideal Betting Capital Betting
2004 0 5742111 11185733
2005 0.062085 7044385 11880194
2006 0.244435 7472567 14784124
2007 0.229089 10264185 18171000

Growth among the top five Bookmakers was led by Champion Betting and Ideal
betting. It should noted here , that as will be seen later , the rate of growth of
sales is not dependent on the number of betting offices, but rather on how
effective is the given betting office used.

Number Bookmakers Offices 2004-2007

Year Big "A" Track Limited Capital Betting Caribbean Turf Champion Betting

2004 23 46 22 51
2005 19 40 22 51
2006 25 44 19 49
2007 20 56 20 48
Year Post to Post Summit Betting Co. Total Betting Track Plus

2004 24 38 15 69
2005 23 38 11 61
2006 23 37 0 61
2007 22 36 0 61
Year Charles Off Betting Ideal Betting Markam Betting

2004 45 25 33
2005 39 28 33
2006 35 26 40
2007 29 26 41

Year ∆ Change in Track Plus ∆ Change in Champion Betting ∆ Change in Markham

Betting ∆ Change in Capital Betting ∆ Change in Ideal Betting
0 0 0 0 0
2004 0.131147541 0 0 -0.130434783 0.12
2005 0 -0.039215686 0.212121212 0.1 -0.0714286
2006 0 -0.020408163 0.025 0.272727273 0

As was previously stated, there is no clear relationship between the number of

betting offices operated by a given Bookmaker and the sales performance of that
given bookmaker, for example Capital Betting underperforms in sales when compared
to Track Plus, yet leads in growth of number of betting offices. The area of most
likely growth in the upcoming period is likely to be in the area of increasing the
effectiveness at which locations are used.

Purse Money 2002-2007

Purse money regardless of its source , has over the period experienced on a year
to year basis, negative marginal changes, meaning that from one year to the next,
if expressed in US dollars, there is less purse money to be divided. This is
taking place at a time, when there has been an expansion of ownership of horses
thanks to the claiming system. The decline value of sponsorship and trophies are
the main factors causing the decline in the value of the purse money. The tables
below, gives a detailed picture of growth in purse money over the period.
Year Tropies US $ Value of Tropies
2002 697500.00 253000000.00
2003 771000.00 257000000.00
2004 824000.00 510000000.00
2005 926500.00 313000000.00
2006 1278650.00 341000000.00
2007 1294500.00 $18,760.87

Year Promoter/Government Levy US Value of Promoter/Government Levy

2002 243543525 5017377.94
2003 248626460 4291842.91
2004 293984250 4792700.52
2005 295272188.8 4724355.02
2006 295272188.8 4481970.08
2007 351,310,050 5087026.50

Year Exchange rate US $1.00=J$ Sponsors in J$ US Value of Sponsers

2002 48.54 8969400 184783.68
2003 57.93 7689500 132737.79
2004 61.34 8527000 139012.06
2005 62.5 16677862.82 266845.81
2006 65.88 17824000 270552.52
2007 69.06 21,792,100 315553.14

Year ∆ of Promoter/Government ∆ of Sponsor ∆ of Trophies ∆ value of

2002 0 0 0 0
2003 0.169049762 0.363635468 0.233639091 0.215037427
2004 -0.104504257 -0.192457545 -0.244398989 -0.619329488
2005 0.014466631 -0.481327011 -0.538708534 -0.247639912
2006 0.05408 -0.013700536 -0.28533496 -0.344508977
2007 -0.118941079 -0.279372148 -0.288195595 -0.349208722

year Exchange rate US $1.00=J$ Amount paid in J$ US $ Value Paid ∆ in US

Amount Paid
2002 48.54 22565950 464893.9 0
2003 57.93 25097650 433241 -0.06809
2004 61.34 28084400 457848.1 0.056798
2005 62.5 27801500 444824 -0.02845
2006 65.88 30599423 464472.1 0.044171
2007 69.06 33,388,450 483470.2 0.040902

One the other hand, the amount paid out to breeders over the period, as expressed
in US dollars has increased on a year to year basis. See tables below.

Amount Paid To Breeders and Owners of Sires 2002-2007

year Exchange rate US $1.00=J$ Amount paid in J$ US $ Value Paid ∆ in US

Amount Paid
2002 48.54 22565950 464893.9019 0
2003 57.93 25097650 433240.9805 -0.068086334
2004 61.34 28084400 457848.06 0.056797673
2005 62.5 27801500 444824 -0.028446249
2006 65.88 30599423 464472.116 0.044170539
2007 69.06 33,388,450 483470.1709 0.040902466

Year US $ Value Paid to Owners and Breeders % paid out over year 2002 base to
owners and Breeders
2002 464893.9019 100
2003 433240.9805 93.19136661
2004 457848.06 105.6797673
2005 444824 97.15537508
2006 464472.116 104.4170539
2007 483470.1709 104.0902466

Disqualifications and Late Non-Starters, Years 2002-2007

Over the period the number of disqualifications and the number of Late Non-
Starters have grown. There are several causes at work, ranging from the health and
or temperament of the horses in question, to the behaviour of the jockeys. A
break down is given below; however there is a need to follow the trend in a more
detailed manner to identify the role played by competition for purse money.

Year # of Disq from 1st. Place Other Disq Total Disq Other Disq/ Total Disq

2002 15 21 36 58.33333333
2003 11 11 100
2004 8 8 100 80.1980198
2005 20 20 100 115.6378601
2006 3 23 26 88.46153846 100
2007 21 44 65 67.69230769 116.0142349

Year 3 of LNS % ∆ in LNS over 2002

2002 324 100
2003 303 93.51851852
2004 243 80.1980198
2005 281 115.6378601
2006 281 100
2007 326 116.0142349

Year Other Disq/ Total Disq % ∆ in LNS over 2002

2002 58.33333333 100
2003 100 93.51851852
2004 100 80.1980198
2005 100 115.6378601
2006 88.46153846 100
2007 67.69230769 116.0142349
Source :Jamaica Racing Commission

The impact of Late Non-Starters on the actual outcome of races vis-à-vis the
projected outcome of the given races, needs further and more detailed analysis.
There is a need to ensure that LNS are not used by dishonest jockeys, trainers or
owners to remove favourites from races, thus giving a horse with greater odds an
increased possibility of winning. Equally, the punters have had concerns about the
disqualifications of various horses and or jockeys, both opinions in support of
the Race Day Stewards and against them, one also find punters who are of the view
that some disqualifications come as a result of tactical considerations taken by
the jockey and or trainer. There have also been cases where the jockey named in
the “weights” fails to show up for the given race, thus influencing the odds and
outcomes on a given race. For the jockey, risk-taking is feasible if the pay-off
is enough to cover the amount lost as a result of a suspension, for example twenty
race days. Jockeys so involved are generally of a lower status, with less mounts
on any given race day, e.g. for a jockey who receives less than ten mounts in any
month, this type of risk taking can be of economic value. Allegations have also
been made about linkages between Bookmakers and or large punters and
trainers/jockeys; two bars in the Portmore area have been pointed out as the
meeting places for these alleged participants in race fixing, however, it was not
feasible given the allocated time and resources to verify these allegations.

A General Overview of The Betting Sector

The performance of the betting sector over the period has been very dynamic and
showed a high level of resilience in its ability to bounce back from periods of
lower economic activity as was the period between the years 2002 and 2005, as can
be seen in the table and graph below:-

General Over View

Summary of Racing Promoters Sales 2000-2007
Total Sales in J$ US$1=J$ Total Sales in US $ % Change over 2000
Marginal change
2000 2666133788 43.08 61887970.94 100 0
2001 2938534250 46.08 63770274.52 103.0414692 0.03041469
2002 2936552026 48.54 60497569.55 97.75335761 -0.0513202
2003 2775473016 57.93 47910806.42 75.13031233 -0.208054
2004 2848061124 61.34 46430732.38 76.74809537 -0.0308923
2005 3022351442 62.5 48357623.07 100.932601 0.04150033
2006 3357503867 65.88 50963932.41 109.763361 0.05389656
2007 3939233989 69.06 57040747.02 117.9560603 0.11923755

The graph is in many ways a reflection of what is de facto an ordinary business

cycle, please see marginal sales curve below:-

It however should be noted that there is not a one to one relationship between the
number of race days and the volume of sales.

The percentage change in the average race day curve is flatter than the percentage
change in total sales curves, hence reflective of a greater level of consistency
and predictability.

Number of Race days % change in Number of Race Days over 2000

2000 94 100
2001 94 100
2002 93 98.94
2003 95 101.06
2004 87 93.55
2005 79 83.16
2006 81 93.10
2007 83 105.06

There is also a very close relationship between the number of races and the number
of starts over the period as can be seen from the table and chart below:-
# of Races # of Starts % change in # races over year 2000 % change in the #
of Starts over 2000
2000 998 10050 100 100
2001 1022 9929 102.40 98.80
2002 999 9599 100.10 95.51243781
2003 923 8784 90.31 88.46812368
2004 839 7916 83.98 82.46692364
2005 854 8162 92.52 92.91894353
2006 858 8206 102.26 103.6634664
2007 841 7519 98.48 92.12202891

Hence in concluding, one could say that there is very close relationship between
the race card offered by the promoters and the performance of the Betting Sector
in terms of sales.

The Stud Farm Sector 199-2007

The stud farm sector during the period has remained relatively unstable and
extremely risky, similar to the horse industry as a whole and reflective of the
state of the racing economy in particular.

Distribution of Broodmare Operations 2007

Parish Number of operations
St. Catherine 10
Clarendon 1
Trelawny 1
St. Mary 1
St. Ann 1

Distribution of major studs 2007

Parish Number of operations

St Catherine 9
Clarendon 2
St. Ann 2
St. Mary 1
St. Elizabeth 3
Trelawny 1

Total number
Of stud farms
Marginal Change in the number of Stud Farms % increase in the number of
stud Farms
26 0 100
20 -0.23077 76.92308
22 0.1 84.61538
22 0 110
24 0.090909 109.0909
25 0.041667 113.6364
22 -0.12 91.66667
25 0.136364 100
21 -0.16 95.45455

The relative stability of the sector owes a lot to the operation of a few larger
farms, which have been better able to withstand the blows experienced better than
the smaller farms.

Stud farm operators in a bid to maintain income, sought to increase the

availability of covering services, thus increasing the number of farms with
standing stallions.

Year # of Stud farms without resident or visiting stallions

1999 11
2000 4
2001 5
2002 3
2003 4
2004 5
2005 5
2006 6
2007 6
Source : Jamaica Racing Commission

In spite of the various challenges, the quality of the farms in terms of the
distribution of stallions has remained fairly constant, with the number of farms
with three or more stallions increasing relative to the year 1999..
Year # of farms with more than one but under three resident stallions # of
farms with three or more resident stallions # Of Farms with stallions Total
# of stud farms % Of Stud Farms with Stallions
1999 12 3 15 26 57.69231
2000 11 5 16 32 50
2001 12 5 17 34 50
2002 14 5 19 38 50
2003 16 4 20 40 50
2004 13 4 17 34 50
2005 10 7 17 34 50
2006 14 5 19 38 50
2007 9 5 14 28 50

The availability and distribution of stallions during the period under review,
show signs of unpredictability, however it clearly demonstrates in part the
positive impact on the tax concessions given to the breeders, especially on those
farms with three or more stallions.

years Total number of resident stallions Total number of visiting stallions

1999 44 0
2000 43 0
2001 47 0
2002 46 0
2003 39 0
2004 33 0
2005 49 0
2006 50 2
2007 50 3
Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

The availability, marketing and distribution of visiting stallions, have remained

very poor and is yet to become an industry-wide practice especially among the
smaller farms. The average age of the serving stallion has remained steadily
between ten and twelve years of age. This is a good sign, and may be taken as an
indicator of quality, owing to the fact that a stallion within the ages of ten and
twelve years, is an animal at its reproductive prime. Stud farm operators and
breeders seem to have a preference for the younger stallions of ages less than
twelve years.
Year % of Stallions Eleven years or less % of Stallions 12 years and older but
under not over 15 years of age % of stallions age 16 and over Year
Average age of resident stallions in years
1999 50.00 27.27 22.73 1999 12
2000 53.49 25.58 20.93 2000 12
2001 59.57 21.28 19.15 2001 12
2002 58.70 13.04 28.26 2002 12
2003 56.41 23.08 20.51 2003 12
2004 54.55 30.30 15.15 2004 12
2005 64.44 24.44 11.11 2005 10
2006 64 22 14 2006 11
2007 72 14 14 2007 11

This can be seen in the graph below, which shows a going tendency towards the
usage of the stallions in the lower age band as compared with the stallions in the
other two older age bands. This tendency is consistent, with what occurs in other
branches of industry, where capital equipment or stock of a younger vintage is
preferred to equipment or stock closer to the write-off point.

The sector also shows two clear stallion restocking periods, namely the years 2001
and 2005. In the years 2000 and 2004, stallions of ages between twelve and fifteen
years were partially used as substitutes for the younger stallions.

Year Total # of resident mares Total # of visiting mares Total # of tested

Barren Total # of live Foals
in foal In foal
1999 314 149 91 225
2000 313 138 56 218
2001 358 204 56 235
2002 407 225 68 291
2003 388 166 83 279
2004 423 201 64 126
2005 444 261 114 312
2006 480 277 107 314
2007 575 166 76 351
Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

The number of mares in foal also increased over the period, from four hundred and
sixty three in 1999 to seven hundred and forty one in the year 2007.

Year Total # of mares in foal % increase over 1999

1999 463 100
2000 451 97.41
2001 562 121.38
2002 632 136.50
2003 554 122.84
2004 624 111.03
2005 705 111.55
2006 757 136.64
2007 741 118.75
One must however note as can be seen from the table and chart below, that the
increase in the number of mares in foal was done in a very erratic and unplanned
manner and carried with it significant losses to the industry.
Marginal change in the number of mares in foal
1999 0
2000 -0.02592
2001 0.24612
2002 0.124555
2003 -0.12342
2004 0.126354
2005 0.129808
2006 0.073759
2007 -0.02114

Year Total # of live Foals

% increase if foal crop over 1999
1999 225 100
2000 218 96.89
2001 235 104.44
2002 291 129.33
2003 279 127.98
2004 126 53.62
2005 312 107.22
2006 314 112.55
2007 351 278.57

The percentage increase in the number of mares in foal however does not lead to a
one-to -one matching in terms of live foals as can be seen in the table above and
in the chart below. This once again is consistent with the Law of Diminishing
Marginal Returns. Notwithstanding the difficulties experienced over the period,
the industry has been able to perform well in terms of live foal production.

Marginal change in foal production Marginal change in the number of mares in
1999 0 0
2000 -0.031111111 -0.025917927
2001 0.077981651 0.246119734
2002 0.238297872 0.12455516
2003 -0.041237113 -0.123417722
2004 -0.548387097 0.126353791
2005 1.476190476 0.129807692
2006 0.006410256 0.073758865
2007 0.117834395 -0.021136063
Equally there is no one-to-one matching of the increase/decrease in foal
production to the increase/decrease in the number of stud farms in operation. This
is largely so, because the bulk of foal production is carried out by three or four
larger farms. See table and chart below.
Marginal Change in the number of Stud Farms Marginal change in foal
1999 0 0
2000 -0.230769231 -0.031111111
2001 0.1 0.077981651
2002 0 0.238297872
2003 0.090909091 -0.041237113
2004 0.041666667 -0.548387097
2005 -0.12 1.476190476
2006 0.136363636 0.006410256
2007 -0.16 0.117834395

If the performance of the stud farm sector should not be determined by the
performance of the three or four larger farms, there is a need to increase the
level of capitalization, especially in terms of mares and access to land to the
smaller stud farm operators.

Total # of mares in foal Live Births Lost foals Lost foals as

percentage of total pregnancies
1999 463 218 245 52.92
2000 451 235 216 47.89
2001 562 291 271 48.22
2002 632 279 353 55.85
2003 554 126 428 77.26
2004 624 312 312 50
2005 705 314 391 55.46
2006 757 351 406 53.63
2007 741
Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

As was pointed out earlier, the increase in the number of mares in foal also
brought along with it significant losses to the industry in terms of false
pregnancies, which in some instances can result in a loss of a complete breeding
season. As can be seen in the table above, the percentage of false pregnancies
surpasses that for feral horses which are less than thirty percent. In short with
this rate of false pregnancies, the Jamaican native bred is faced with significant
danger of extinction. Here one is forced to inquire if the veterinarians are using
standard and known procedures in the examination of the mares, their familiarity
with the usage of ultra sonic hand-held devices and if fit to breed examinations
were carried out on the mares. Equally important is the carrying out of pasture
hygiene examination, and the recording of parasite load per square foot of
pasture. These operations within the Jamaican context, given the relatively low
level of training of the average farm-hand , is best done by the veterinarian.

The loss leaders in this regard are the larger farms that handle considerable
numbers of mares per season. While mare densities per acre are not the most
significant possible factor here, there is a need for its urgent review.

Mares To Stallions

Year Total # of mares served Total number

of serving stallions # Mares to stallion
1999 554 44 12.59
2000 507 43 11.79
2001 618 47 13.15
2002 700 46 15.22
2003 637 39 16.33
2004 688 33 20.85
2005 819 45 18.2
2006 864 50 17.28
2007 817 50 16.34
Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

The mare to stallion ratio in Jamaica is relatively good and compares well with
the breeding jurisdictions of the developed world where the figures range from
1:30, 1:35 and 1:45. One however should note that the flooding of the fields with
mares starting from the year 2002, has negatively affected the Jamaican ratio: See
graph below.

The Distribution of Mares By Age

Year % of mare younger or equal to 11 years % of mares of ages between 12 and
15 years % of mares of ages 16 years or older
1999 64 21 15
2002 64 27 10
2003 59 27 14
2004 59 26 16
2005 62 25 13
2006 66 20 14
2007 66 19 16

Similar as in the case of the stallions, breeders and stud farm operators have a
strong preference for the younger horse of eleven years and under, when compared
with the demand for the older horses. Except for the years 2004 and 2007, there is
a gradual tendency towards the reduction in usage of mares of ages sixteen years
and over.

The chart above however shows a substitution relationship between the distribution
of mares ages eleven and under and mare of ages between twelve and fifteen years
of age. When there is an increase in the usage of the elevens and unders, there is
a reduction in the usage of the twelves and overs, when there is an increase the
usage of the twelves and overs there is a decrease in the employment of mares of
ages eleven and less.

Stud Farm Earnings

The sector in terms of revenue from stud services, performed in a most erratic and
unpredictable manner during the period. This was tied directly to the unplanned
nature in which mares are put up for and or removed from coverage, which is again
tied into the level of confidence owners and breeders have in the future of the
racing industry, for example the period starting in 2004 and ending in 2007,
breeders and owners had a higher level of confidence in the industry than they had
in previous years, and hence put up more mares to be bred. It however should be
noted that the confidence shown was more of a subjective nature and had less to do
with the actual performance of the sector.

Earnings from Stud Services

Mares covered Average price for coverage in US $ Revenue in US $

marginal change revenue from Stud Fee in US$ Changes in revenue from Stud
Fee as a percentage of 1999
1999 559 507.2463768 283550.7246 0 100
2000 573 507.2463768 290652.1739 0.025045 102.5045
2001 622 507.2463768 315507.2464 0.085515 111.2701
2002 481 507.2463768 243985.5072 -0.22669 83.94415
2003 640 507.2463768 324637.6812 0.330561 102.8939
2004 478 507.2463768 242463.7681 -0.25313 99.3763
2005 747 507.2463768 378913.0435 0.562762 116.7188
2006 620 507.2463768 314492.7536 -0.17001 129.7071
2007 720 507.2463768 365217.3913 0.16129 96.38554

As is shown below the number of mares covered showed a strong upward tendency,
reflective of the level of confidence the stakeholders had in the industry and or
as a result of a bid to shore up revenues.

marginal change revenue from Stud Fee in US$ Changes in revenue from Stud
Fee as a percentage of 1999
1999 0 100
2000 0.025045 102.5045
2001 0.085515 111.2701
2002 -0.22669 83.94415
2003 0.330561 102.8939
2004 -0.25313 99.3763
2005 0.562762 116.7188
2006 -0.17001 129.7071
2007 0.16129 96.38554

The sector performed better in terms of earnings on foals produced, than it did in
terms of revenue from stud fees. The figures below indicate that the period
between the years 2004 and 2007, the industry in terms of foal production
experienced strong growth. One should also note here that other sectors of the
industry such as racing was also experiencing similar strong growth and stimulated
the demand for stud services, foals etc.
Total # of live Foals
Year Price of average foal Revenue from foal in US $ ∆ in Revenue from
foal % change in Revenue from Foal
2002 291 1146.5 333631.5 0 100
2003 279 1141 318339 -0.04584 95.41635
2004 126 1065 134190 -0.57847 40.22102
2005 312 1158.5 361452 1.693584 113.5431
2006 314 1160 364240 0.007713 271.436
2007 351 1179 413829 0.136144 114.4907

In terms of revenues from “keep and care” operations, the farms earnings were
equally as erratic and unpredictable, with the strongest period of growth been
between the years 1999 and 2003 (see table and charts below), based on the
performance of average revenue earned.

Mares covered Price for keep and care in US$ Revenue earned from
keep and care ∆ in keep and care revenue % change in keep and care revenue
over 1999
1999 559 11.23 2291313.05 0 100
2000 573 11.23 2348698.35 0.025045 102.5045
2001 622 11.23 2549546.9 0.085515 111.2701
2002 481 11.23 1971594.95 -0.22669 86.04651
2003 640 11.23 2623328 0.330561 111.6928
2004 478 11.23 1959298.1 -0.25313 76.84887
2005 747 11.23 3061915.65 0.562762 155.3015
2006 620 11.23 2541349 -0.17001 96.875
2007 720 11.23 2951244 0.16129 150.6276

Thoroughbred Owners’ & Breeders’ Association’s Yearling Sales Review

A review in the performance of Thoroughbred Owners & Breeders Association (TOBA)
during the period is in the main applied gender analysis, in the sense that there
is a complex relationship between the gender and price of the yearling and the
level of mutual subsidy provided by both genders in keeping the breeder going.

The selling price of fillies have a very strong pushing or pulling effect on the
price of colts, with the price of fillies reacting more readily and more sharply
to changes in the market conditions. This therefore implies, not only that the
selling price of the colts vary more slowly than those of the fillies , but also
during periods of strong market optimism , the soaring prices of the fillies tend
to encourage breeders to enter their colts into the market, and also contributes
to the establishment of a floor price for the colts. The price of the colts
however tend to establish ceiling prices for the fillies.

year # of fillies ∆ in # of fillies # of colts ∆ in # of colts

2002 56 0 49 0
2003 56 0 54 0.102041
2004 80 0.428571429 63 0.142857
2005 61 -0.2375 68 0.073529
2006 57 -0.06557377 72 0.055556
2007 43 -0.245614035 59 -0.22034

year ∆ in # of fillies ∆ in # of colts

2002 0 0
2003 0 0.102040816
2004 0.428571429 0.142857143
2005 -0.2375 0.073529412
2006 -0.06557377 0.055555556
2007 -0.245614035 -0.220338
Average Revenue From The Sale of Colts and Fillies

year Exchange Rate AR of filly in US$ AR colt in US$ Ar for foal in US$
2002 48.54 4960.359746 7113.846775 6037.103
2003 57.93 4759.438731 5563.866991 5161.653
2004 61.34 56.18566305 6521.030323 3288.608
2005 62.5 5373.114754 6002.352941 5687.734
2006 65.88 5887.898252 6657.727855 6272.813
2007 69.06 6879.760774 8879.529959 7879.645

This complex relationship between the prices of foals and colts are also shown in
their average revenue curves, with the average revenue of the fillies pulling up
those of the colts, then giving way for the colts to play price leadership. One
here should note, that this type of relationship between the colt and the fillies
also exist in embryo. More fillies are generally born in those lean years of low
rainfall and reduced availability of nutrients for the foaling mare, while on the
other hand more colts tend to be born in the good years of plenty. The reason for
this phenomenon lays in the fact that the foaling mare has a preference for
passing her genes through the male line, and in good times there are increased
possibilities that the foal will survive.

The marginal revenue for the fillies also exerts the same push-pull influence
throughout the total market, influencing and strongly determining the marginal
revenue of the market (see tables below).

year Total Revenue in J$ for fillies Total Revenue in J$ for colts Total
Revenue From Sale
2002 13965000 16920000 30885000
2003 15440000 17405000 32845000
2004 27740000 25200000 52940000
2005 20485000 25510000 45995000
2006 22110000 31580000 53690000
2007 20430000 36180000 56610000

From the perspective of the Jamaican dollar TOBA yearling sales have done
relatively well in terms of revenues. This is reflected in the average, marginal
and total revenue columns as are shown here for the period 2002 to 2007.

year ∆ in TR Filly ∆ TR Colt ∆ in TR Sale

2002 0 0 0
2003 -0.073591354 0.110378565 -0.108917522
2004 0.69675414 -0.146688506 0.522209499
2005 -0.275241586 0.396743478 -0.147311432
2006 0.023951063 0.208989324 0.107411955
2007 -0.118531818 0.299719983 0.005835055
When one uses the US dollar, both colts and fillies on the market have been good
and have shown strong growth over the period.

year Exchange Rate TR Filly in US$ TR Colt in US$ TR Sale in US$

2002 48.54 287700.8653 58.81108485 636279.4
2003 57.93 266528.569 65.30256801 566977.4
2004 61.34 452233.4529 55.72343187 863058.4
2005 62.5 327760 77.83134 735920
2006 65.88 335610.2004 94.09725916 814966.6
2007 69.06 295829.7133 122.3000881 819722
year ∆ in TR Filly ∆ TR Colt ∆ in TR Sale
2002 0 0 0
2003 -0.073591354 0.110378565 -0.108917522
2004 0.69675414 -0.146688506 0.522209499
2005 -0.275241586 0.396743478 -0.147311432
2006 0.023951063 0.208989324 0.107411955
2007 -0.118531818 0.299719983 0.005835055

In terms of costs, using the marginal cost tables below, it can be seen that for
the period under review, the marginal cost of the filly had a greater propensity
to fall than did the marginal costs of the colts.

year MC Filly in US$ MC Colt in US $

2002 287700.8653 58.81108485
2003 -21172.2963 6.49148315
2004 185704.8839 -9.579136138
2005 -124473.4529 22.10790814
2006 7850.200364 16.26591915
2007 -39780.48707 28.20282895

year MC Filly in US$ AR of filly in US$ Super Normal Profit in US$ on

2002 287700.8653 4960.359746 -282740.5055
2003 -21172.2963 4759.438731 25931.73503
2004 185704.8839 56.18566305 -185648.6983
2005 -124473.4529 5373.114754 129846.5676
2006 7850.200364 5887.898252 -1962.302112
2007 -39780.48707 6879.760774 46660.24785

In the critical area of supernormal profit (i.e. mc<mr), the colts out performed
the mares.

year AR colt in US$ MC Colt in US $ Super Normal Profit on colt in US$

2002 7113.846775 58.81108485 7055.03569
2003 5563.866991 6.49148315 5557.375508
2004 6521.030323 -9.579136138 6530.609459
2005 6002.352941 22.10790814 5980.245033
2006 6657.727855 16.26591915 6641.461936
2007 8879.529959 28.20282895 8851.32713

year Super Normal Profit in US$ on Fillies Super Normal Profit on colt in US$
2002 -282740.5055 7055.03569
2003 25931.73503 5557.375508
2004 -185648.6983 6530.609459
2005 129846.5676 5980.245033
2006 -1962.302112 6641.461936
2007 46660.24785 8851.32713

year % change in Supernormal Profit for fillies % change in Supernormal

profit for colts
2002 100 100
2003 -109.171567 -21.22824387
2004 8.68691E-05 -7.433360426
2005 -145.9242893 -15.2343759
2006 -99.30597064 -5.86210718
2007 253.6846059 25.46112478

The total revenue for stud farms 1n the year 2007 is shown below (TOBA earnings

Earnings in US dollars
keep and care 2951244
Foal 413829
stud fees 365217.4
TOBA 46660.24785
Total Revenue 3,776,951

Farm Hygiene Practices

The main challenges facing most stud farms in the area of pasture management,
remains the question of having in place an effective system for vector control and
reducing the parasite densities as found in the pastures.

The failure to remove animal droppings and to ensure that suitable run-off systems
are in place, has created on many farms, conditions ideal for the breeding of
various types of flies ranging from the common house fly (Musca domestica) to the
black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus), mosquitoes (Culicidae), various
species of roach (Blattaria), rats (rattus) and mice (Mus musculus). These vectors
tend to contribute to the creation of an environment that is both unpleasant and
unhealthy to both man and horse.

The failure to timely remove horse droppings, also serves as a medium of

distribution for various internal parasites (worms), which are deposited from the
animal along with the droppings, hence increasing the spread of these worms and
increasing the rate of re-infection.

The current practice is to allow the dropping to dry as deposited, after which it
might be removed by some field hands for sale to horticultural interests, or left
to remain in the field. Compounding this unhealthy state on some farms is the
failure to remove the horses from those enclosures within which the grass is below
for inches in height, thus forcing the animals to gaze within the parasite belt.

While crop rotation or the turning over and replanting of the pasture, where
possible or resting the land where crop rotation or pasture replanting is not
possible, would serve to reduce the parasite load; it would also in the short run
reduce revenue flows while increasing operations costs and thus in the main is not

One large farm uses peafowl {Pavo cristatus (Asiatic)} and the guinea fowl (Numida
meleagris) as a means of managing the parasite and insect loads, this practice of
mixed husbandry is not widespread, because of the high rick of theft. For example
the Peking Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) would be an ideal addition to the
farm because of its feeding habits and the fact that it is not a transmitter of
internal parasite. How long they would be allowed to remain on the farms without
being stolen remains an open question. Equally the presence of flowering plants
and fruit trees tend to allow the horses to de-worm themselves in a natural
manner; however these very same plants tend to act as attractants to people
seeking to harvest their fruits. One however should note that most farms tend to
be less than creative in this area, since plants such as the red hibiscus
(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) which is relatively rich in protein and natural diuretic
with the flower has antifungal, emmenagogue, emollient and refrigerant effect.

The two major cause for the relatively low level of pasture hygiene are (1) the
need to reduce operating costs and (2), the relative lack of formal specialized
training of the field hands and supervisor staff.

Relationship between the farm and the neighbouring communities also have adverse
implications for farm hygiene, in the sense that most vectors tend to be highly
mobile and migratory in nature; thus while the farm might control for ticks, flies
etc, failure to carry out simulations parallel control in the neighbouring
communities (especially those with a high concentration of dogs and pit latrines)
tend to undermine the efforts of the stud farm, since ticks, fleas, roaches etc
are all migratory moving from location to location.

Many farms are straddled with considerable unpaid debts owed by breeders and
owners, which when coupled with the relatively low daily rates being paid for keep
and care, considerably constrains the number and size of projects that the average
stud farm operator is able to carry out. For example a farm faced with a
relatively large amount of unpaid debt and having low daily rates for keep and
care, is not able to readily afford the cost of turning over or resting a pasture,
but rather is forced to focus on finding avenues for increasing revenue flows, an
exercise that easily could result in the over-crowding of the pasture leading to a
worsening of the already poor state of hygiene. Equally such a farm would not be
able to afford the level of veterinary care that is needed to ensure that the
stock is healthy and ready to breed.

Some farms have tried to diversify their activities into crop production and even
fish rearing, however they are faced with the high costs of protecting their crops
and or animals from thieves, given that stud farms tend to be relatively large,
without live-on tenants and are very difficult and costly to secure. Here one
notes that Ham Stables once used to rear fish and birds -- fish rearing however
has ceased and the rearing of birds has been significantly reduced.

Farm Community Relationship

The relationship between the stud farms and the neighbouring communities tend to
be at best distant and at worse hostile. The communities in the main provide the
day labour needed by the farm while the farm provides limited employment. The
numbers of jobs created by the farms tend to be relatively small and seasonal in
nature, except for those farms that carry out some level of crop production.

The communities are also a source of problems for the farms, the communities tend
to be the source of the thieves that raid crops and fruits thus reducing revenue
flows, it is the source of stray or partially stray dogs, the source of rats,
mice, roaches and flies undermining the best of efforts by the farm operators at
implementing vector control regimes.

The nature of the relationship between the farms and the communities at times
takes on racial and class overtones, in that the farm operators and breeders tend
to be from the racial minorities and are from the point of view of the residents
of the communities, wealthy, while on the other hand, farm operators, breeders and
owners tend to look down on or patronize the residents of the communities.
Residents of the communities are as a rule, not invited to the “big functions and
or dinners” being kept on the farms; sometimes even the farm hands and their
families are excluded from these events, a reality that further negatively
influences the relationship between the parties. One should however, carefully
note, that Ham Stables not only yearly sponsors a youth club, but also has present
at some of its events some citizens from as far as Greater Portmore. The Ham
Stables approach to community relations however is not widespread as can be seen
around Grange Lane where four stud farms are located.
In order to reduce some of the operating costs to the farms, there is a need for
closer collaboration between the farms and their neighbours. The removal of horse
waste from the fields could be greatly enhanced if the communities were encouraged
to carry out the commercial growing of potted plants or to manufacture compost for
sale, the pest loads in the pastures could be reduced if the farms facilitated the
leasing of sections of the pasture for the seasonal cultivation of crops or
rearing of free range ducks/poultry. This type of collaboration would serve to
increase employment, reduce security and hygiene costs by spreading the risks, and
greatly improve the relationship between the farms and the neighbouring

The restructuring and decline of the sugar industry has left a large pool of
unskilled labour at the doorsteps of the stud farms. Here the active management of
expectations is of vital importance for peaceful co-existence and economic

The Jamaica Racing Commission

The Measuring of Performance

The performance of the Jamaica Racing Commission in this section is assessed

against the three pillars that define its policy and task domain, namely:
1. The Jamaica Racing Commission Act of 1977
2. The Mission Statement of the Commission and
3. The Racing Rules of 1977
These three instruments in terms of their intent, have remain stable over the
years, with minor amendments and refinements been made to the Act and to the
Rules. It is from these three instruments that bench-marks are developed.

Task & Policy Environment

The Jamaica Racing Commission operates in a task and policy environment, which is
defined by the presence of three powerful and influential monopolies, namely the
Caymanas Track Limited, Jamaica Betting and Gaming Commission and the Bookmakers
Association. These monopolies have the ability to influence the Jamaica Racing
Commission source of funding, amount of funding and speed of funding. The Ministry
of Finance and the Public Service, acts as a broker between the parties in this
task and policy environment.

At a second level the environment is defined by: - occupational (professional)

groupings are carrying out the functions of lobbying bodies and as platforms for
engaging in negotiations between the Jamaica Racing Commission and the promoter,
Caymanas Track Limited in advancing their own particular interests. These
occupational groups are known to at times, try to use either of the two monopolies
i.e. the Commission or the promoter, to act against each other with the intent of
modifying, stopping or delaying actions by either body that is not in their
interests. At this second level one finds the Stud Farm operators and the
breeders, who are organized within their respective bodies.
Thus while the parties at this second level may be individually smaller, numerous
and operating within a monopolistic market, their coming together for pursuance of
shared goals and interests, means that within the Jamaica Racing Commission task
and policy domain, they appear as monopolies in their own rights.

The Jamaica Racing Commission is a very small and highly specialized Division of
the Ministry of Finance and The Public Service, established by Act of Parliament,
with the responsibility and mandate to regulate the racing industry and facilitate
the development of thoroughbred racing and breeding in Jamaica.

The Jamaica Racing Commission is managed by a General Manager Mrs. Ruth Smith-
Sutherland who is assisted and understudied by the Director of Racing, Mr. Lloyd
Cobran and the Director of Finance, Mr. Ainsworth Carroll, all three having a
combined experience in the Racing Industry of no less than sixty years. The
function of the Commission is to provide strategic policy direction, participate
in solving problems of a policy nature, and recommend where needed amendments to
the Racing Act and the Rules of Racing.

The Jamaica Racing Commission is further assisted and advised by a panel of Racing
Commissioners, who are charged with ensuring that all stakeholders act in
accordance with the Rules of Racing and who are duty bound to be present at all
race meets. The composition of the Board of Commissioners is determined by the
Minister of Finance in keeping with the Racing Commission Act of 1977.

The main source of direction and guidance to the Jamaica Racing Commission are the
Jamaica Racing Commission Act, The Rules of Racing and the annual strategic plan
of the Jamaica Racing Commission. All of these foundation documents are reviewed
on a regular basis, and are recommended to be amended in keeping with the
development of the racing industry and thoroughbred racing in particular.

While the racing industry in terms of revenue turn-over is one of Jamaica’s

largest and most dynamic, with revenues running into the billions of Jamaican
dollars, the Jamaica Racing Commission full time staff compliment is less than
forty, hence making the Commission one of the most efficient arms of government
and civil administration.

Apart from the regulating of races, the Jamaica Racing Commission is the sole
agent in Jamaica that is currently involved in the training of racing
professionals such as jockeys and trainers, with the training of grooms and
farriers currently at the curriculum development stage. Additionally the
Commission administers the industry’s health insurance policy, directs the
remedial education programme, pension scheme and other such welfare activities
from its Welfare Office which is located at Caymanas Park.

The Jamaica Racing Commission is actively involved in the welfare and care of the
horses belonging to the industry. In order to effectively carry out its animal
welfare policy, the Commission has on staff two full-time and two part-time
veterinarians, all of whom work from the veterinary office at Caymanas Park. The
Commission’s veterinarians are also responsible for the marking or tagging of
horses, ensuring that horses entered on any given race card are fit to race and
free from drugs. They are also responsible for assisting the racing industry to
participate in regional meets, to ensure that all horses in racing are duly
vaccinated and assisting the Race Stewards when such requests are made, the
identification and removal of abandoned horses, the development and implementation
of the horse retirement programme among other duties. The veterinarians are
assisted by an administrative secretary.

The Organizational Structure Of The Jamaica Racing Commission

Industry Unique Departments

Those Departments which are unique to the Jamaica Racing Commission fall under the
direct span of control of the office of the Director of Racing. These departments

1. The Registration Department. This department is tasked with the

responsibility of carrying out the registration of all horses intended to
participate in racing, the assignment of colours to owners, the registration of
racing professionals, the carrying out of stud farm visits, register the death of
horses, prepare the Stud Farm Report. This department, if it is to be able to
better serve the Breeders and Stud Farm operators, needs to have the services of a
Pasture Hygienist and a Veterinary Technician. Without the service of these two
persons, the department will continue to be handicapped in the type of advice it
can provide.
2. The Stewards’ Department is currently staffed by three stewards, whose
responsibility it is to ensure the observance of the Rules of Racing at all racing
meets held on Jamaican soil. Additionally along with the Veterinary Department,
these Stewards are responsible for the licensing of racing professionals, develop
and implement training programmes in keeping with the needs of the Racing
Industry, assist in the enforcement of the Commission’s anti-doping campaign,
recommend amendments, changes and or modifications to the Racing Commission Act
and the Rules of Racing, the preparation of the cull list, recommend measures to
enhance the safety and well being of man and horse among other duties. This
department is grossly understaffed, given its responsibility set and is currently
unable because of man power shortages to police and or prevent racing on
unauthorized tracks. The minimum duties of the Operations Stewards and Stewards of
Meeting are outlined in the Rules of Racing, 1977.
3. The Veterinary Department operates the island’s only equine clinic. The
basic tasks of this department are described above. However, the department
currently is not in a position to assist breeders and stud farm operators in the
reduction of the high levels of false pregnancies owing to a lack of resources in
the form of equipment and manpower, nor is the clinic suitably equipped to carry
out cause of death investigation. This department has the potential of increasing
revenue intakes if ways could be found to allow it to confirm pregnancies and
issue the relevant certificate of confirmed pregnancy.

General Observation

The Racing Division of the Jamaica Racing Commission with the best intention is
currently grossly understaffed and over worked. The Division has significant
revenue earning potential; however this potential cannot be fully realized with
the current staff numbers and hence is forced to operate below the expectations of
the industry. The industry expects this department to play a leading role in its
development and in the welfare of horses in general.

The Staff

The staff compliment is relative well balanced in terms of age with nearly forty
percent being below the age of thirty five years, and nearly equal in terms of
gender distribution. The average staff member has some eleven years of experience
working with the Jamaica Racing Commission, with four persons having over fifteen
years of experience. A minimum of eleven staff members are degree holders, and
only about five staff members having only high school level education.

While in theory, given the attributes of the staff, succession planning would
appear to be a relatively simple venture, owing to the highly specialized skills
required, understudy programmes are at best feasible within the two divisions with
a considerable about of time needed for pre-posting training. For example, for a
member of the Registration Department to function near adequate in the Stewards’
Department, at least three months of on-the-track at the races exposure would be

The staff experience with horses is very limited, with less than four staff
members knowing how to ride a horse and only some thirty six percent of them
having ever visited a stud farm.

Sixty five percent of staff members feel that their training and knowledge of the
industry is adequate enough for their effective functioning, and less than fifty
percent feels that the Jamaica Racing Commission facilitates their training in the
area of racing and equine management, with less than forty percent of staff
members receiving any form of training in this area.

Some seventy-five percent of staff members have made proposals on how to improve
the Jamaica Racing Commission as a regulatory body and an equal number of staff
members are of the view that given the mandate of the Commission, it should be
concerned about the wider development of the equine industry. Sixty four percent
of staff members are of the view that the Commission would be better able to carry
out its mandate were it better funded and having the status of an executive

Below are samples of the comments of staff members to given questions:-

4. What is meant by the term “handicapping”?

Ans.;-“ Weight that the jockey is supposed to run with.”
“The allotment of weight given to the horse based on their previous
performance so as to ensure that the race is run on even ground.”

5. Is a “racing card” and a “meet” the same thing? Explain your answer.
Ans:- “No, Race card is an outline of the programme, the race meet is the race
“Basically it is the races to be run on a particular day”
“No! The race card is a schedule of time, number of races, horses and their
jockeys, equipment used by their jockeys, weight. The meet is the actual event
that takes place on the day.”

14. Do you think that the Jamaica Racing Commission, given its mandate should be
concerned about the wider development of the equine industry? Explain your answer,
Ans.:- “ I think they should, although they have been involved with breeders and
importation of horses for the breeding to be improved. But more needs to be done.
Yes, because without development and keeping abreast of international advancement,
the industry will stagnate. New owners and breeders are needed and the JRC must
encourage that”.
“The Commission does have as part of its mandate the development of horse-racing
in Jamaica. Development related to the participation, particularly the
occupational groups, the professionals in the industry as well as the breed
(thoroughbred horse). The Commission should also be concerned about the quality of
the racing product and the development of infrastructure of the racing plant.

Some Observations

a. The General Manager is highly respected and has authority based on her
knowledge of the industry and her abilities, as different from authority given by
b. The Director of Racing is very talented and has a sound knowledge of his
c. The relationship between all levels of management and the staff and between
individuals themselves is excellent and the organization is seen as a family-type
close knit organization.
d. It is felt that senior management needs also to give recognition to all who
do good work and not only some of those who are doing good work.
e. It is felt that more needs to be done to have the Ministry of Finance to
increase the allocation of resources for overseas training in order to increase
the availability of specialized training to a wider cross section of the staff.
f. Management and the Ministry of Finance need to show a greater level of
appreciation for the quality and variety of the work done and the high level of
efficiency shown by staff members.

Rivalries and Conflicts

The Jamaica Racing Commission has a relatively small staff, who has known each
other for a number of years. In addition, the high level of non-substitutability
of jobs across departments, added to the extremely limited or no-existent
possibility for upward mobility within the organization has significantly reduce
the space for rivalry between departments and between individuals. Of note also,
is the high level of shared values and common principles among staff members and
the management team, thus being into a level of similarity in the way that task
and environment assessments are done, and commonness in starting point in terms of
judging or validation.

Notwithstanding, the Commission is staffed by individuals who have strong

personalities and clear position on issues. This reality makes the various
internal meetings within the Commission very lively, and demands that the General
Manager have advance skills in the chairing of meetings. The high male composition
and long industry experience of the Racing Division has made it into a reservoir
of opinions and debates, which have in the main enhanced the efficiency of
decision making within the Commission, while at the same time in some instances
can contribute to a de-acceleration of the pace of task implementation if “Buy-in”
is not sought.

Thus, while the General Manager is a strong and experienced person with a high
level of individual authority within the industry and in the Jamaica Racing
Commission in particular, the relative strength of personality and experience of
key individuals within the organization means that her approach had been and has
to be one of negotiation rather than dictate.

The Security Environment

While in the process of carrying out its day to day duties, the Jamaica Racing
Commission might cause injury to individuals or parties in terms of negatively
affecting their income flows and their ability and level of participation in
racing, the Commission’s approach to security appears to remain naïve and out of
keeping with the conditions prevailing within its task and policy environment.

The main office of the Jamaica Racing Commission is located at Winchester Road,
very close to Half Way Tree, it is partially surrounded by the Bureau of
Standards, and it is bordered in the north by the Jamaica Society for the
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. While the premises of the Jamaica Society for
the Prevention of Cruelty to animals is unsecured and unguarded with an open gate
policy in operation, the Bureau of Standards has in force a closed gate policy
with guards posted at the gates and on the reception area of the building. Ground
security for either premises is none existent. Thus, it is a real possibility for
a person to move in a straight line though the chain-link border fence with the
Young Men Christian Association, through the Bureau of Standards and through the
Jamaica Racing Commission’s chain-link border fence, undetected if this operation
is carried out at the proper time.

The Jamaica Racing Commission operates an open gate and open policy, without
active security presence during the days. Both the vehicles of the General Manager
and the Director of Racing are parked on the compound in a straight line from the
gates and at the left side of the building. This enhances potential criminals’
ability to plan both time of entry and mode of departure from the premises. The
fact that an open gate policy is in operation means that any and all vehicles
parked on the compound can be targeted.

The open door policy of the Commission also means there is no security system or
means of meaningful deterrent, anywhere in the building, thus a person off the
road can enter through the front door and move through any area of the building,
with the use of just the name of one Steward. It also means that individuals who
are in the building for legitimate purposes such as jockeys or trainers can access
all areas within the building.
Additionally there is no evidence that the premises of the Jamaica Racing
Commission is toured during the night by the guard on location, who tend to be
either under the parking shed during the night and by the Hall of Fame during the
early mornings. This guard is armed with a piece of steel pipe that is left next
to the cherry tree and or a long kitchen knife. The work of the guard is at times
compounded by visitors to the grounds man, visitors whom the guard is not general
in advance notified about.

The compound by way of externalities benefit from some additional level of

security from the Bureau of Standards, the housing estate and office complex
across the road, locations with manned security presence at their entrance, from
which the Commission’s compound is visible. The fact that a major police center
is located within close proximity also enhances the sense of security.

Welfare Office Security

The Welfare Office, which given it nature and scope of work, can be defined as a
high-risk area has no form of active security. The guard at the entrance gate of
the compound at Caymanas Park is not in a position to see the entrance to the
Welfare Office, and that part of the compound in general does not benefit from
security patrols, which are as a rule irregular and infrequently done. The fact
that the office is located at the back of a building and facing a concrete wall,
with a passage at the side of the building formed by a section of the same
concrete perimeter fence, does nothing to enhance security. Security at this
location stems from the age and gender of the Welfare Officer and the fact that
her work has been of benefit to many, added to the fact that she is quite
frequently in and around the backstretch carrying out her inspections.

The Veterinary Office

The veterinary office is in the main a secure location in terms of the presence of
a guard and the enforcement of a closed-door policy. It is however to be noted
that security in this location is one of perception, rather than real. The
presence of an unharmed female security guard, who is clearly a mother of growing
children, has more a deterrent effect than giving a sense of actual security.
Secondly the examination barns do not benefit from any type of visual or
electronic security.

An area of significant weakness, identified elsewhere, is the fact that at least

one of the vets’ computer is not password secured nor from observation the
computer of the secretary. Thus information on those computers is secured only to
the extent that a member of staff of the Commission is present in the office.

Electronic Security

A major area of weakness is in the area of the security of the Jamaica Racing
Commission information system. The fact that the server used by the Commission is
out of the Commission’s control creates particular types of vulnerabilities and
increases the potential scope for hacking into the system. While the Commission’s
computers are Firewall and anti-virus protected, one should note that the software
in use is that used throughout the civil service and whose strengths and
weaknesses are known, thus providing the opening for the remote disabling of the
anti-virus and Firewall system if needed.

Location and Land Use

The Jamaica Racing Commission is located at 8 Winchester Road on roughly two acres
of prime commercial lands. Over the decades, the neighbourhood has been changed
from a mainly upper income residential area to one dominated by government
institutions along with a few from the private sector. It forms part of the
Greater New Kingston area, from the perspective of those who work there and in
terms of land use, however, from a geographical point of view it is part of the
Half Way Tree Area, served by the Half Way Tree Post Office and the Half Way Tree
Police Station, unlike New Kingston Proper which is served by the Cross Roads Post
Office and the Cross Roads Police Station albeit that it has its own police post.

The area is well lit, and the roads are in relative good condition although in a
state of repair that is below those found in New Kingston proper. Unlike other
neighbouring communities to the west of Half Way Tree, the area has a reliable
source of treated piped water. It is also well served by public transportation.

The neighbourhood in terms of crime, shares similar features to those in the

shadows of New Kingston, with prostitution, pimping and illegal vending being the
main form of crime. This is so in part owing to the high level of property
security features within the community, the presence of large number of security
guards and the presence of a major police office. Unlike in the Half Way Tree or
New Kingston areas, crime against the person and crime against property are
relative rare; it is possible to park anywhere in the neighbourhood without fear.

Roughly two-fifth of the Commission’s land is build on, with the larger area
serving as the parking needs of staff and visitors. The main office building was
designed and built some thirty years ago and is in a relatively good state of
repair for a government building. It has three floors and with large transparent
glass windows, thus increasing the use of natural light while reducing the need
for artificial lighting. One should note however that the long enclosed passage on
the ground floor is in conflict with the energy efficient design of the building.
Secondly, the fact that the windows are closed and with many with drapes, defeats
the intent of the architect, as more electricity has to be used for both lighting
and cooling than was intended in the design. The blue Jamaica Racing Commission
sign on the building cannot be seen from the street, as it was placed in a line of
vision blocked by a tree. The fence at the entrance and its grassed strip is one
of the best on the road, however the column at the chained gate area are in need
of repair.

The paved parking area has seen better years, and is now in need of repairs. The
neighbouring veterinary office with its resident population of animals and banana
orchard, at times abuse the nose, however reminds one of a more homely place with
a semi-rural feel in terms of sight, sound and smell.

In The Office

The front office is very unattractive and is reminiscent of a public health

facility, with its long wooden bench, a wall clock that is either slow or not
working and a receptionist area that could have doubled as the cashier or
appointment area in a health facility. The long passage from the reception area to
the conference room and the work areas again adds to the feeling that one is in a

The building assumes good health and immunity of staff members from severe trauma,
as there are no ramps into the building for the physically challenged nor any of
the bathrooms designed to accommodate wheel chairs or users of wheel chairs. The
canteen area is located on the third floor of a staired building without
elevators, thus making it difficult to access for those in less than good health
or for women in an advanced state of pregnancy.

Given the size of the staff there is an adequate amount of bathroom facilities,
however the lack of drapes on the windows to the two next to the Registry and that
in the Stewards’ Department creates unnecessary exposure to those persons standing
in or using that section of the Bureau of Standards car park; from the car park it
is possible to say who and how frequent one uses the bathroom.

The second floor is well laid out, and aired. The offices, with exception to those
in the IT Department, receive natural light in adequate quantity, unlike those on
the ground floor which are draped. The bathroom area however feels a bit too
small for comfort and gives a sense of an absence of privacy. The General
Manager’s bathroom is very drab and feels a bit too strongly masculine.
The third floor, apart from the canteen is under-utilized. However there are plans
afoot to put it to greater use.

The Jamaica Racing Commission Act

The Jamaica Racing Commission Act of 1977 gives the Commission broadly interpreted
significant scope in terms of its span of regulation. The Commission under law is
empowered to take action to regulate any and all matters relating to horse racing
and horse breeding. The Act, in so doing, defines the sphere within which the
Commission is able to act as an agent of development, for example schedules 6,1,c,
states that the Commission may apply its funds for all or any of the following
undertaking including ( c) the setting up or the operation of any undertaking, or
both, for the provision of horses, amenities and any other matters or things
relating to horse racing. The Act further reinforces this interpretation in
schedule 22-(2) The Racing Rules may contain provisions relating to- (e) all such
matters, whether similar to the foregoing or not, relating to horses that are bred
for racing and matters relating to racing, breeding, training and grooming as the
Commission may from time to time require. In Part IV, general, 24-(3) it gives an
authorized person the right to enter any premises at reasonable times believed to
be used for the breeding of horses.

Therefore, while from the perspective of available resources the Jamaica Racing
Commission has done a very good job, from the perspective of the Jamaica Racing
Commission Act of 1977, more can be done and be reasonably expected from the
Commission. Here it is important to note that it is highly possible that the
Mission Statement of the Jamaica Racing Commission limits and restricts its
understanding of the Act.

The Act also gives the Commission, significant room to improve its self-financing
activities, for example Schedule 4 gives the Commission the right ( c) to
introduce and implement or assist in or undertake the implementation of any scheme
for the development of the horse-racing industry. This is further re-emphasized in
schedule 6, which outlines for what purposes the Commission may apply its funds.

It is a wider understanding of the Jamaica Racing Commission Act of 1977, and the
revisiting of the Mission Statement of the Commission that will play no small role
in outlining the developmental path of the Commission in the near future. The
Commission in many areas, is already functioning outside of or near to the
boundaries established by the Racing Rules 1977, in terms of the duties and
responsibilities of its personnel, thus calling for its immediate review and
amendment to reflect current realities.


Over the years, the Jamaica Racing Commission has been forced to meet growing
demands for its service while spending only a fraction of what it spent in the
year 2001.
In simple terms the Racing Commission, has been forced to raise it level of
productivity and efficiency while spending less. See table below.

Year Expenditure Exchange Rate Total Expenditure in US$ Percentage Change

In Total Expenditure
over 2001

2001 $132,093,738.00 $46.08 $2,866,617.58 100

2002 $140,748,382.00 $48.54 $2,899,637.04 101
2003 $149,252,134.00 $57.93 $2,576,422.13 90
2004 $107,772,820.00 $61.34 $1,756,974.57 61
2005 $106,272,601.00 $62.50 $1,700,361.62 59
2006 $115,642,076.00 $65.88 $1,755,344.20 61
2007 $136,728,443.00 $69.06 $1,979,850.03 69
Source:-Jamaica Racing Commission Financial Statements.

Equally as real expenditure declined, one also saw a decline in real income over
the period. In short, not only was the Jamaica Racing Commission spending less
while doing more than the year 2001, it was also receiving less to do more. This
situation can only be justified from either of two perspectives: (1) The Jamaica
Racing Commission was assumed to have a lot of unused reserves on which it could
call on, or, (2) The Jamaica Racing Commission was assumed to be producing at a
level significantly below its optimal potential and thus could do more with what
it had. See income table below:-

Year Total Income

Exchange Rate Total income in US$ % change in Total Income over
2001 $135,619,103.00 $46.08 $2,943,122.89 100
2002 $134,000,260.00 $48.54 $2,760,615.16 94
2003 $140,028,766.00 $57.93 $2,417,206.39 82
2004 $105,463,623.00 $61.34 $1,719,328.71 58
2005 $121,987,964.00 $62.50 $1,951,807.42 66
2006 $119,695,038.00 $65.88 $1,816,864.57 62
2007 $136,876,950.00 $69.06 $1,982,000.43 67
Source:-Jamaica Racing Commission Financial Statements

If there were spare reserves, these reserves appear to be long exhausted, with the
Commission forced to demand more and more from its staff in terms of output. See
graph below:-

This approach of substituting income for labour, can lead to an increase level of
stress and frustration over the long run, if relief is not found.

Government Direct Investment

While the Jamaica Racing Commission is a Division of the Ministry of Finance and
Planning, Central Government direct investment in the Jamaica Racing Commission
has declined in a marked negative direction over the period as is shown in the
table and graph below:
Year Government
Subvention Exchange Rate Government Subvention in US $ Percentage change
in Government subvention over 2001
2001 $112,978,249.00 $46.08 $2,451,784.92 100.00
2002 $119,497,453.00 $48.54 $2,461,834.63 100.41
2003 $37,125,785.00 $57.93 $640,873.21 26.14
2004 $46,146,989.00 $61.34 $752,314.79 30.68
2005 $47,421,550.00 $62.50 $758,744.80 30.95
2006 $36,693,605.00 $65.88 $556,976.40 22.72
2007 $13,876,143.00 $69.06 $200,928.80 8.20
Source:-Jamaica Racing Commission Financial Statements

Here one should note that the Levy has not completely been able to substitute for
the loss incurred in Government Direct Investment (i.e. subvention) and only twice
over the period has it been more than the subvention and substantially less than
the subvention of the year 2001. See table below:-
Year Government Levy in J$
Subvention in J$ Difference between subvention and levy
2001 $112,978,249.00 $5,620,472.00 $107,357,777.00
2002 $119,497,453.00 $0.00 $119,497,453.00
2003 $37,125,785.00 $107,906,519.00 ($70,780,734.00)
2004 $46,146,989.00 $81,179,582.00 ($35,032,593.00)
2005 $47,421,550.00 $45,979,650.00 $1,441,900.00
2006 $36,693,605.00 $36,693,605.00 $0.00
2007 $13,876,143.00 $13,876,143.00 $0.00
Source:-Jamaica Racing Commission Financial Statements

The Role of the Jamaica Racing Commission in the Production Chain

The essential role of the Jamaica Racing Commission is that of defining, measuring
and ensuring product quality in the racing industry. In earlier years, pri-1977,
the industry was largely self regulated, with the Jamaica Jockey Club playing a
small but important role in ensuring quality. That period was characterized by
grave problems in the identification of lineage, problems in relation to the level
of training of jockeys and resultant injuries and losses of horses, problems with
the usage of performance enhancing drugs and electrical devices such as the
“battery”, the beating and other forms of physical abuse of trainers, owners and
jockeys; problems with the predetermination of results before the races ran, etc.

The Jamaica Racing Commission, is charged with ensuring that the Jamaican racing
product is in keeping with the best international standards in terms of
transparency, quality of inputs, rules, validity of results and fairness of races
and in the application of the Rules of Racing, ensuring minimum standards in the
training of racing professionals, the exportability of Jamaican native bred among
other quality maintenance tasks.

It is from this perspective that the industry multiplier is calculated, with the
expenditure of the Jamaica Racing Commission, taken as the direct investment by
the state in the production chain as a whole.
Economic Contribution of the Racing Industry in US dollars, for year 2007

Purse Paid Out 4189805.166

JRC Expenditure 1979850.029
Breeders and owners 483470.1709
Promoters Sales 57040747.02
Bookmakers Local sales 2623218.02
Bookmakers Overseas Sales 1203534.728
Caymanas Park LTD Turnover 57043.17
Value of Claimed horses 1653527.368
Stable costs 112042797.57
Crop culture Contribution 3625855.778
Mare Covering Fee 365217.3913
Revenue from Foal crop 413829
Revenue from keep and care at Stud farm 2951244
TOBA Sales 819722
Total Contribution 189449861.4

The size of the industry Multiplier= 94.688996

In other words one US dollar invested into the Jamaica Racing Commission created a
value of 94.69 times greater than the initial investment.
Productivity for one US dollar invested in Jamaica Racing Commission personnel
expenses (i.e. wages etc)= $176.50, in other words one US dollar invested in
personnel creates a total of $176.50.

Jamaica’s Gross Domestic Product at end for 2007, using World Bank figures, was
US$10,739,000,000.00, which means that the racing product, narrowly defined,
contributed some two percent of the Gross Domestic Product

Appendix 1
Caymanas Horse and Stable Count Form

Date of count:-_____________________
Counted by:-_____________________

Stable number and state of repair Number of stalls

in stable Number
of female
in stable Number
horses in stable Number of foreign bred in stable by gender Number
by stable Number of trainers employed at stable Number of owners with horses
in stable
Appendix 2
Claiming Races (Some Possible Things To Look At)

Years under review: - 2003, 2004, 2006

Question: Is a claiming race a clearing market or is it a market for speculation,
collusion and hedging?

1. Total number of races ran,

2. Total amount paid out in purse money and or stakes.
3. Total number of claiming races ran,
4. Total amount of purse money paid out in claiming races
5. Total number of horses started in all races.
6. Total number of horses started in claiming races.
7. Total number of horses claimed.
8. Total value of claims.
9. Number of claims per horse ( lowest highest)
10. Total number of claimers
11. Total number of claims by large claimants (owners/ trainers of ten or more
12. Total value of claims made by large claimants (owner/trainers of ten or
more horses).
13. Number of cross claiming between large claimants.
14. Value of cross claiming between large claimants.
15. Number of “double cross claiming” between large claimants (i.e. John claims
Paul’s horse in one race and within a two year period the same horse is reclaimed
by John)
Appendix 3
Farm Community Survey
Dear Resident;

The Jamaica Racing Commission is in the process of conducting a study of the local
racing industry. It is the informed opinion of the Jamaica Racing Commission, that
your views of the industry as a neighbour are both extensive and rich; as such we
are seeking your assistance in completion of this project, by completing
questionnaire below.

Thanks for your cooperation.

Please Answer All Questions___________________________________

1. The name of the community____________________________

2. Gender_________________________
3. Age (please tick one):- 18-23 years , 24-29 years, 30-35 years, 36-41 years,
42-47 years, 48-53 years, 54-59 years, 60 and over.
4. How long have you lived in this community? ________________
5. Are you a practicing Christian? ___
6. Do you rent or live in your own home? _____________
7. Do you work at the near by stud farm? _________
8. If yes for question “6” for how long? _____
9. Do you know anyone from this community who works at the near by stud farm?
10. To your knowledge has the near by stud farm sponsored any activities or
competitions in the community during the last twelve (12) months?_________
11. Does the near by stud farm provides jobs for residents of this
12. Do you know anyone who sells things to employees of the near by stud farm or
to people going to races at the track? ________
13. What does the farm purchases from the community?
14. Has any official from the near by stud farm visited your community during
the year? ______
15. Has any official from the farm visited your Church? _________
16. Do you think that if the near by stud farm were to be closed, your community
would be badly affected as a result of the closure?_________
17. Do you think that the near by stud farm at its present location has been for
business in the community?_________
18. Do you think that the near by stud farm has contributed to the stability,
economic and social well being in the community?__________
19. What good or bad would you say about the near by stud farm?
End. Thank you.
Appendix 4
Female Questionnaire
Dear Madam;
The Jamaica Racing Commission is in the process of conducting a study of the local
racing industry. It is the opinion of the Jamaica Racing Commission that your
views of the industry as a woman are of importance. It is in this light your
assistance in completing the questionnaire below is being requested.
The information you give will be handled with the strictest confidence.
Thank you.
Please Answer All Questions________________________________________________
Date of interview:-_______________________
Time of interview:-__________
1. Have you ever gone to horse racing at Caymanas Park ?_____
2. Do you think that upstanding progressive young women should visit Caymanas
3. Have you ever placed a bet on horse racing?______
4. Do you play lotto or “Prick Three” or any other such betting?__________
5. Do you think that it is ok for upstanding progressive young women to
6. If your husband or boyfriend invited you on a date to Caymanas Park , would
you go?_________
7. Do you know of any woman of any age who goes to watch horse racing at
Caymanas Park?__________
8. Have you ever seen a live horse racing competition?_________
9. Have you ever seen a live donkey racing competition?________
10. Do you think to going to watch horse racing is a sinful act?____________
11. Is betting on horse racing a sinful act?_________
12. Do you watch horse racing on television?________
13. Can you give the name of one racing horse?________
14. Can you give the name of one jockey?____________
15. What in your view prevent most women from visiting Caymanas
16. Have you ever being in a betting shop?_________
17. Do you think that betting shops are female friendly?____________
End, Thank You For Your cooperation.
Could you please give a contact number :-__________________

Appendix 5
Items to be looked at the Community Level

1. Name of the community.

2. Location of the community.
3. Position of the community on the Planning Institute of Jamaica “Poverty
4. Number of persons living in the community.
5. The number of persons employed from the community.
6. Number of full time employees of the farm/track living in the community.
7. The categories of workers employed from the community.
8. The number of females employed from the community.
9. The number of persons under the age of 35 employed from the community.
10. The number of males under the age of 35 years employed by the community.
11. The number of students who did holiday work on the farm or at the track last
12. The number of youth clubs in the community surrounding the farm or the
13. The number and type of schools in the community.
14. Number and types of Churches in the community.
15. Number and type of sports teams in the community.
16. Number of farm/track employees involved in community based organizations.
17. Number and types of community based activities sponsored by the farm/track.
18. Types and quantities of goods and or services bought by the farm/track from
the community.
19. Types and quantities of goods and or services bought by the community from
the farm/track.
20. Types and quantities of market and non market produce harvested by the
community from the farm/track.
21. Number and type of small business in the community.
22. Number and types of crimes reported in the community over the last seven
23. Is there a police station in or near to the community?
24. Number of new families or individuals who moved into the community over the
last seven months.
25. Number of new families or individuals who removed from the community over
the last seven months.
26. Number of small businesses that were opened in the community during the last
seven months.
27. Number of small businesses in the community that closed during the last
seven months.

Appendix 6

Dear Sirs;

The Jamaica Racing Commission is in the process of conducting a study of the local
racing industry. This study is intended to provide the Commission with a detailed
understanding of the state of the industry, its contribution to the national
economy and to job creation, etc; in addition to providing the Commission with the
type of information needed for long term planning. By providing the information
requested on this questionnaire, you will be making an immense contribution to
this study.

We hurry to assure you that all information given will be held with the strictest
sense of confidentiality and will not under any given circumstances be transferred
to a third party.

Thanks for your cooperation.

1. Is the sport of racing in Jamaica properly recognized?________________
2. Where would you like to see the sport in ten (10) years?
3. Compare racing today to when you first started?
4. What is the cost of gear now, compared to when you started riding, training,
5. Compare the condition of racing facilities now and then:
a. Racing plant:_____________________________________________________
b. Racing surface:__________________________________________________

d. Stable area:______________________________________________________
6. What are your short and long term goals?
a. Short term :______________________________________________________
b. Long term :______________________________________________________
7. Do you think the purse structure is adequate at this time compared to
8. What would be a satisfactory wage for you?__________________________
9. Racing is seen by some people as a corrupt sport, how can this be changed
and what can you do to help this? __________________________
10. What does local racing need to move it forward?
a. Short term _______________________________________________________
b. Long term _______________________________________________________
11. Is the sport as professional in your area as you would like?___________
12. What would you like to see changed in your area of the sport?
13. Has it improved in your area since you started?______________________
14. Do you think that you have the type of support you would need to do your
best in the sport?______________________________
15. If your answer is “no” to question 14, what type of support do you think
that you would need to do your best and which agency or institution should provide
16. How can you help in making the sport better in your area?
17. If you had a choice, would you leave the sport and what would make you
18. Should there be a limit on the number of Trainers and Jockeys being
19. In you view, is the racing a business venture or is it strictly a sport?
Explain your
20. For those who see racing as a business venture and an area of investment,
what in your view can be done to make this business more
21. What type of incentives can the government give to make the business of
racing more attractive?
22. What are the challenges in your view, the industry faces in disposing of
retired horses?

23. What can be done to reduce the challenges faced in disposing of the retired
24. Do you think that the services provided by grooms, exercises riders and
farriers (black smiths) are at the standard desired? Explain your
25. Do you think that there is a problem with the quality of local bred horses?
Explain your answer.
26. Would you support the establishment of a “national stud”? Explain your
27. Overall, how can the game be improved?_____________________________
28. Do you think that we need a new racing plant?
29. How can the Jamaica Racing Commission better serve your needs?
30. What are the three main challenges facing you as a professional and or
business person in racing?
31. Would you support and or encourage the establishment of a “racino” at
Caymanas Park? Explain your answer.
32. Do you think that owners, breeders, trainers and jockeys are doing enough to
market the intellectual property (names, colours, photos etc) they create by
participating in racing? Explain your answer.
__________ _
33. Do you think that the exportation of retired horse or horse meat to
countries such as Mexico, Guadeloupe or Haiti, for human consumption is a feasible
idea to be encouraged? Explain your

Thank you for you cooperation

Appendix 7
Punters’ Questionnaire
Dear Race Goer :

The Jamaica Racing Commission is in the process of conducting a study of the local
racing industry. It is the opinion of the Jamaica Racing Commission that your
views of the industry as a punter and or a supporter of racing are of importance.
It is in this light your assistance in completing the questionnaire below is being
The information you give will be handled with the strictest confidence.
Thank you.
Please Answer All Questions________________________________________________

Section of the Track:-______________________________________

Date of interview:-_______________________
Time of interview:-__________
8. Gender:___________
9. Age:- (please tick one) 18-23 ____24-29_____30-35_____36-41___42-47_____48-
53_____54-59________60 and over_________
10. How long have you been visiting Caymanas Park? ___________
11. How long have you been betting on horses? _________
12. Do you also place bets at Off-Track betting shops? _____
13. Do you do most of your betting on horses at the track?________
14. Do you also bet on Lotto and other games? _______
15. Do you think that horse racing is corrupt? _________
16. Do you think that horse racing has to be (must be) corrupt?_______
17. Are the conditions at the track better than they were when you first started
to visit the track? ________
18. Are the conditions at the track worst than they were when you first started
to visit the track? ________
19. Are you getting value for money for the services provided at the
20. What percent of your salary or wage do you spend on gambling (lotto, horse
racing etc)? ________
21. Would you carry your children to the track? _______
22. Is parking at the track adequate? __________
23. Is security at the track adequate? ________
24. Do you live further than two (2) miles from the track? _______
25. Do you use your own transportation to get to the track? ________
26. Do you buy refreshment or food at the track? ___________
27. What percent of your salary or pay do you gamble on horses? ________
28. Do you think that Caymanas Park has a good influence on the communities next
door to the track?_________
29. Do you think that the track has a bad influence on the value of property
around the track? _____
30. Do you think that Caymanas Park is doing enough to assist in the development
of the neighbouring communities?_____________
31. Do you know if Caymanas Park has a programme to facilitate the development
of youth and service clubs in at the neighbouring communities?__________
32. Would you buy a house next door to Caymanas Park?________
33. Would you visit a casino? __________
34. Would you actively seek to gamble at a casino? _______
35. Would it be a good idea to build a casino near to the track? ______

36. What could be done to improve the general situation in and around Caymanas
37. What could be done to make racing at Caymanas Park more

38. Where you the manager of Caymanas Park, what would you do to attract more 18
to 25 year old youths to the track?
39. Do you think that there is enough women involved in horse
40. Is horse racing a dying sports?_______________________________
41. What would you do to attract more young women to the track?
42. What turns you off the most about Caymanas Park?___________________
43. Would you invite your girlfriend or wife to lunch at Caymanas
End. Thank you.
Please give a contact number so that further contacts maybe made:______________

Appendix 8
Some items that could be looked at Off Track and Caymanas Park (Finance)

1. Sales per month for the last ten years (in constant dollars).
2. Sales per race for the last ten years (in constant dollars)
3. Lowest and highest average monthly sales over the last ten years (constant
4. Lowest and lowest sales per race for the last ten years (in constant
5. Stakes per month for the last ten years (in constant dollars).
6. Purse per month for the last ten years (in constant dollars)
7. Lowest and highest stakes.
8. Lowest and highest purse.
9. Value of claims made per month for the last ten years (in constant dollars)
10. Value of claims made per race for the last ten years (in constant dollars)
11. Lowest and highest monthly claims.
12. Monthly rate of inflation for last ten years.
13. Monthly rate of interest on BOJ loans to commercial banks for the last ten
14. Monthly rate on treasury bills for the last ten years.
15. Average monthly stock market index for last ten years.
16. Average monthly volume of sales on stock market for the last ten years.
17. Average monthly increase or decrease in the value of the US dollar
over/under base year.
18. Average monthly increase or decrease in the value of the British Sterling
over/under base year.
19. Average monthly increase or decrease in the value of the Canadian dollar
over/under base year.
20. Highest and lowest average monthly increase and decrease in the value of the
US dollar over the last ten years.
21. Highest and lowest average monthly increase and decrease in the value of the
British Sterling over the last ten years.
22. Average monthly increase or decrease in the price of unleaded gasoline
over/under base year for last ten years.( Percentages calculated using constant
23. Highest and lowest average monthly increase and decrease in the price of
unleaded gasoline over/under base year for last ten years.( Percentages calculated
using constant dollars)

Appendix 9
Some Items To Be Looked At On At The Farms:

1. Location of the farm by village and parish.

2. Age of the farm.
3. The housing of horses :- In Stalls, Stables, communal stables or barns,
their dimensions, material used in their construction, state of repair, value, and
six monthly cost of repair.
4. Number of stalls, stables or etc on farm, and six monthly cost of repair.
5. The presences of a quarantine stable for horses with contagious diseases,
material used in its construction, adequacy of ventilation, state of repair, and
six monthly cost of repair.
6. the presence of folding stables , value, material used in its construction,
adequacy of ventilation, state of repair, and six monthly cost of repair.
7. Number of foaling stables on farm.
8. The presence of a covered lunch area for farm staff, material used in its
construction, value, state of repair, and six monthly cost of repair.
9. The presence of adequate sanitary facilities and shower area for field
staff, material used in its construction, value, state of repair, and six monthly
cost of repair.
10. The adequacy of fencing, type of fencing, length, state of repair and value,
and six monthly cost of repair.
11. Average monthly cost of hay and saw dust, as used for feed and for flooring.
12. Average monthly cost of utility bills, i.e. water, electricity and telephone
13. Total area of the farm.
14. Amount of hay produced per season.
15. Total area of the farm being used to produce other agricultural crops..
16. Types and quantities of agricultural crops produced per year.
17. Number of non horse husbanded animals on the farm e.g. pigs, goats, cows
18. Total yearly production of these animals.
19. Total area of land used for pasturage.
20. Total number of brood resident mares.
21. Total number of resident stallions.
22. Total number of resident foals.
23. Average age of resident brood mares.
24. Average age of resident stallion.
25. Total number of visiting brood mares.
26. Total number of visiting stallions.
27. Average age of visiting brood mare.
28. Average age of visiting stallions.
29. Number of non-productive horses on farm (both mare and stallions).
30. Frequency of visits by Vet.
31. Average cost per visit.
32. Number of animals examined during Vet. visits.
33. Frequency of visits by farriers.
34. Average number of horses shoed by farrier on an average visit.
35. Cost for shoeing an average horse.
36. Daily feed schedule for average brood mare and monthly cost.
37. Composition of feed for average brood mare.
38. Daily feed schedule for average stallion and monthly cost.
39. Composition of feed for average stallion.
40. Daily feed schedule for average foal and monthly cost.
41. Composition of feed for average foal.
42. Average yearly cost of medicines for one brood mare.
43. Average yearly cost of medicines for one stallion.
44. Average yearly cost of medicines for one foal.
45. Average cost of delivery of a foal
46. Total number of persons employed full time on the farm and monthly cost of
47. Categories of personnel employed full time on the farm.
48. Total number of persons employed part time on the farm monthly cost of
49. Categories of persons employed part time on the farm monthly cost of
50. Number of employees with formal training.
51. Number of employees completed primary school monthly cost of employment.
52. Number of employees who have completed secondary (high) school monthly cost
of employment.
53. Number of employees who are members of a citizen association.
54. Number of employees who are members of a Youth Club.
55. Number of employees who are members of a Church.
56. Donations to community based activities.
57. Donations to other charities.

Appendix 10
Staff Questionnaire

Dear staff member,

As you are aware, the Jamaica Racing Commission is conducting a study of the
racing industry. You as a member of staff of the JRC play a critical role in
regulating and in influencing the future development of the industry. As such it
is necessary to request your participation in this study, through the completion
of this questionnaire.

Your responses will not be transferred to any given third party, and its use will
be restricted to the study.

Yours truly,
Basil Fletcher

Instructions: - Pleaser answer all questions

1. How long have you been employed to the Jamaica Racing Commission?
2. In gambling, what does the term “To Draw Less” means?
3. What is your highest level of education attainment?
4. How do you approach a standing horse (give direction and side)?
5. What is meant by the term “handicapping”?
6. Is a “racing card” and a “meet” the same thing? Explain your answer.
7. Do you think that your training and knowledge is adequate to allow you to
effectively function and contribute to the functioning of the Jamaica Racing
Commission as a regulatory body?________________
8. Does the Jamaica Racing Commission facilitate you further education in the
area of racing and or equine management? Explain your answer.
9. Have you ever attended a race meet? _____________
10. Have you ever visited a stud farm? ____________
11. Have you ever participate in any educational programme geared towards a
specialization in thoroughbred racing and or equine management?
12. Can you ride a horse?_________________
13. Have you ever made a proposal about improving in any way the functioning of
the JRC as a regulatory body?_____________
14. Do you think that the Jamaica Racing Commission, given its mandate should be
concerned about the wider development of the equine industry? Explain your answer,
15. Would the JRC be better able to carry out its mandate were it an executive
agency? Explain your answer.
Thanks for your cooperation

Appendix 11

Printing Industry (Possible Items To Look At)

1. Quantity of programmes (weights) produced per quarter for the last ten
2. Value of programmes (weights produced per quarter for the last ten years
using constant dollars.
3. Quantity of Track and Pool produced per quarter for the last ten year.
4. Value of Track and Pool produced per quarter for the last ten year using
constant dollars.
5. Quantity of T shirts with racing motifs produced per year for the last ten
6. Value of T shirts with racing motifs produced per year for the last ten
7. Quantity of articles in major news papers written about the equine industry
per year for the last ten years.
8. Value of articles in major news papers written about the equine industry per
year for the last ten years using constant dollars.
9. Quantity of post cards produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten
10. Value of post cards produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten
years using constant dollars.
11. Quantity of posters produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten
12. Value of posters produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten years
using constant dollars.
13. Quantity of calendars produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten
years .
14. Value of calendars produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten
years using constant dollars.
15. Donations to community activities.
16. Donations to other charities.

Appendix 12









Less than J$30,000
J$30,000– 50,000
J$51,000 – 75,000
J$76,000 – 100,000
Over J$100,000



Less than J$30,000
J$30,000– 50,000
J$51,000 – 75,000
J$76,000 – 100,000
Over J$100,000






Less than J$50,000
J$50,000– 100,000
J$101,000 – 150,000
J$151,000 – 200,000
J$201, 000 – 300,000
Over J$300,000

NAME OF TRAINER………………………………………………………………

ADDRESS OF TRAINER………………………………………………………….

DATE OF INTERVIEW………………………………………………………………….

NAME OF INTERVIEWER…………………………………………………………….

NAME OF SUPERVISOR………………………………………………………………

SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR………………………………………………………