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Mobile Basic Basic Electricity

Electricity is motion of electrons in certain materials. When electrons (containing charge)starta moving towards protons (containing + charge) this motion causes flow of numerous electrons. This flow is called electricity.

Basically the force that forces eletrons to flow is measured in Volts whereas the quantity of electrons flown in certain time is measured in Amperes
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Formation Of Electricity
There are two types of electricity according to its form

1. AC (Alternating Current) 2. DC (Direct Current) 1. AC (Alternating Current)

Alternating current is the type of current in which both current flow lines bear both type

of charge + and

In AC both lines contain + charge for a certain time and afterwards so it forms a wave in which the supper level from 0 level is + and lower level from 0 level is . See figure 1.0 Sources of AC:
Commonly AC is supplied in Mains supply used in commen home electrical appliances. It is produced by Dynmos , Turbines and Generators and also in UPS normally proveded AC in homes is measured 220 Volts and its Frequence(cycling speed of + and charge) would be 60 Hz(hertz frequency measurment units). And in some countries it would be 110 Volts and 50 Hz.

2. DC (Direct Current)
Direct Current is derrived from its shape. The charactristic of DC are

1. DC is not in wave form rather it is straight 2. DC contains + charge on one line and charge on another line( See Figure 2.0

Sources:
Normally sources of Direct Current are batteries, Cells, Solar Cells and DC Adapters and Chargers.

AC To DC Conversion
AC can be changed into DC as well as DC into AC. While converting AC into DC we need a few components calles detectors commonly known as Rectifire Diods. The complete function of Diods is discussed in Parts Detail and Function Lesson, but here I want show the simple process in which AC is converted into DC. First of all we should know the main differences between AC and DC.

1. AC contains + and cahrge in wave form whereas DC contains + and charge in straight shape. 2. AC contains both + and charge on both lines whereas DC contains + charge on one line and charge on another line. So it is easy to convert AC into DC by straightening charge shape and by making it seperate.

Note: this circit with some modifications is used in mobile phone chargers.

Cell Phone System

hi dear students, in the first place of your course i would like to introduce you about cell phone basics and the very basic techniques with the cell phone works. while beginning to the main technology of cell phones you should know about the basic sections of a mobile phone. A conventional mobile phone contains three main sections prescribed as under.

Radio Section Power section Computer section

Radio section

A radio section is based on two main Circuits.

Transmitter Reciever A simple mobile phone uses these two circuits to correspond to an other mobile phone. A Transmitter is a circuit or device which is used to transmit radio signals in the air.and a reciever is simply like radios which are used to recieve transmissions(Radiation) which is spread in the air by any transmitter on a specific frequency.

The two way communication is made possible by setting two transmitters and two recievers sycronized in this form that a trasmitter in a cell phone is syncronised with the frequency of other cell phone's recieving frequency same like the transmitter of second cell phone is syncronised with the recieving frequency of first cell phone. So first cell phone transmits its radiation in the air while the other phone listens it and same process is present in the opposit side. so these hand held two cell phones correspond to one another.

the technology used in these days is a little bit different but it is based on the basic theory prescribed before. the today's technology will be discussed in later on.Power Section. A power section in mobile phones is designed to handle energy matters that is cosumed in mobile phones.There are two main sub sections in a single power section.

Power Distribution and switching section Charging Section

A power distribution section is designed to distribute electricity to the other sections of a phone. this section takes power from a battery (which is figured commonly 3.6 Volts)and in some places it is steped down to various volts like 2.8 V 1.8V 1.6V etc.while on other place it also steps up the voltage like 4.8 V. this section is commonly designed around a power IC(and integrated circuit) which is used to distribut and regulate the voltage used in other components. The Charging section is based on a charging IC which takes power from an external source and gives it to battery to make it again power up when it is exausted.this section uses conventiolly 6.4 V from an external battery charger and regulates it to 5.8V wile giving it to battery. The battery is made charged by this process and it is ready to use for the next session(a battery session is a time which is provided by the maufactrur of a cell phone for standy by condition of a mobile phone or talk condition.) Computer Section a computer section is used in mobile phones to handle decision making applications like making decision the phone should be power on when its power switch is pressed down one time and on the other time the phone should be powered off. this section is commonly based on around three main components
RAM( Random Access Memory) ROM,Flash(Read Only Memory CPU( Centeral Processing Unit) The very first part is a memory component which commonly saves in it self user defined setting of a phone and contacts Numbers. the informations in this memory chip is editable by user easilyThe second Component contains mobile phone's operating system which is not editable bye user but it is only in special conditionsThe Third Compnent is as like a simple brain used to understand differnet situations ad to make decisions and to hold control on other components as well as sections

Note: The special terms used in this lesson should be asked for if not understood able

Introduction to Mobile Phone Part I

Dear Students Here are we going to study about different parts used in mobile phones and there functions in the cell phone systems. To avoid non applicable items in mobile phones we will discuss only key components which are responsible for the faults.

Resistance: resistance mean a component which perform resistive effect while passing current through them. It is used to limit the current. The resistance also performs high resistance for high frequency signals and low resistance for low frequency signals. Resistance is measured in Ohms"

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Symbol Used For Resistance In Schematics Original Shape in general electronics Shape used In Mobile Phones

or

To read the valus of resistance in general electronics there are fixed color codes to read we read color codes from the left side. We assume first two color lines from the left as a number and the third one is replaced with number 0 according to third line number

Example:
so the total value will be 10000 Ohms

Capacitor:

Capasitors or condensors are such components that charges the current in their self and also filters the current for ripples in converted AC to DC Current. There are two main types of capacitors used in mobile phones the first one is Non Polar and the second one is Bipolar. Non-polar capacitors are normally for low capacitance whereas Bi-polar capacitors are normally high capacitance. Capacitance is measred in Feradsand represented in schematics with the symbol of f (micro ferad)

Symbole Used in Schematics Non-Polar Shape Used in general Electronics (Non-Polar)

Shape Used in Mobile Phones

Symbole Used in Schematics Bi-Polar Shape Used in general Electronics (Bi-Polar)

Shape Used in Mobile Phones (Bi-Polar)

Coil:
A coil is a piece of metel wire( normally it is of copper) this is used to filter low frequency signals because it performs low resistance for low frequency signals but very high resistance for high frequency signals. A coil resambles to resistance by its characteristics but there is a little difference between coil and resistance that coil resists only AC type of current DC is passed Directly whereas resistance resists DC as well as AC.

Shape used in Schematics

Shape used in General Electronics Shape used in mobile phones

Comparision
Resistance Coil Capacitor

Resists in the path of Resists in the path of Charges the current current where it is current where it is in itself. coupled coupled Dont let to pass DC Resists for both AC Resists for only AC only AC can passed from and DC. Resists high for high Performs high Resists high for high frequency and low for resistance for low frequency and low for low frequency frequency and low low frequency resistance for high frequenct
Introduction to Mobile Phone Part II

Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures. First of all we will discuss how many main functions a mobile phone often has irrespectively of mobile brands. There are three major sections inside a mobile phone

Power Section Radio Section Computer Section

Power Section:
A power section deals with power related tasks such as power distribution or charging the battery so this section can be divided into two sub sections like.

Power Distribution
A power distribution section is built around an "power IC" it takes 3.6V power from battery and regulates its power and then distributes to the other components used in mobile phone circuit. in some mobile phones tech "RF Power amplifier" uses more Power than provided bye mobile phone's battery .i.e. 4.7 V or 5.6 V in some phones. the power Ic with a power boaster coil is used to increase voltages. so we can say that power IC is used to provide power to other components how much they needed. either less than battery voltage or more than it.

Charging Section
A charging section works for battery charging purposes.it is often consists a fuse, a coil, a protecting diode, a filter capacitor and charging IC and some other discreet. the charging section helps battery to be charged when it needs and when battery is charged, charging IC reads its state of charge and feels it full charged and then disconnects charging from it.

Radio Section:
A radio section has basically a set of four main functions.wich are.

Band Switching RF Power Amplification Transmitter Receiver

Band Switching:
In the modern mobile phone communication techniques. the frequency of mobile phone communication is divided into three bands

GSM (operates on 900 MHz) DCS (operates on 1800 MHz) PCS (operates on 1900 MHz) the third band is used only in USA whereas the first two bands are used in the rest of the world. band switching is done bye a "ceramic antenna switch" it reads from the radiation dispersed in the air and then switches to the appropriate band. in the very first phase of mobile phones there were single band handsets which operated on single frequency band but now a days all the handsets are dual band or tri band in operation.

RF Power Amplifier

RF power amplifier is often called as ".PA" or"Transmitter" its functions is to amplify or boast the power which is being transmitted to air, so may it would be able to communicate with long distances. a typical .PA can amplify rf power up to 0.6W or 600mW. This amount of rf power is sufficient to communicate nearly 20 to 25 kilometers in open area, but all the PA's are controlled by there rf signal processor, so if we are near our cell base tower the PA of our phone will transmit low power but if we are far away it will produce its maximum power.

Transmitting
A mobile phone's rf section is basically built around an rf IC which is often called rf signal processor whereas in nokia it is called hagar IC in some hand sets and in some hand sets it is called Mjoelner. irrespectively of the brands and verity of names we call it rf signal processor. this IC works as transmitter and receiver as well. working as transmitter it takes instructions from phone's computer and also takes audio data from audio section and creates radio waves then mixes audio data to its radio waves according to the instructions given by computer section. this mixer of audio and radio is sent to PA to amplify its strength

Reciever
A reciver section for rf waves is built in rf IC, as it is said that this IC works for dual purposes first transmitting and section recieving. in the recieving section of mobile phones a radio signal is gather from ceramic antenna switch and then it is filtered and sent to rf IC to further process. in rf IC signal is detected and then rectified for audio and data which is sent to audio IC or computer section.

Computer Section:
A computer section in mobile phone consists of two main functions

CPU(central processing unit) Memory (RAM, FLASH, COMBO CHIP)

CPU:
A CPU is used in mobile phones as a central processing arithematic or controler. the cpu controls various functions in mobile phones like signal, display, sound converting(DSP), charging, power on, rf channel controler, rf tx power conroller, LEDs, vibrator, data processing, data storing etc. so we can say that if a cpu is damaged in any mobile phone it cannot be repaired unless the CPU is not replaced but this type of fault is not even seen to me ever either memory chips can be damaged. in brand Nokia CPU is named with two different words (MAD or UPP)

Memory:
there are two main types of memories used in mobile phones

RAM (Random Access Memory) The RAM is used in mobile phones to store user data in mobile phones. So these a days we can store pictures, messages, ringtones, applications, themes and other these type of things in mobile phones so CPU stores these types of data in the RAM of our mobile phones.

Flash (eeprom, ROM etc) The flash chip is used in mobile phones to hold mobile phone's operating system in it. so if the flash chip is damaged in mobile phones the phone cannot power on properly because all the instructions to start a mobile phones and its various tasks like call making , display etc are stored in the flash chip of mobile phones.

Combo Chip In smoe mobile phones there is a combined type of memory used which is called combo memory chips these types of memories work for both like RAM and Flash.The clear example of this type of memory is used in Nokia 1100. Note: Multy Media Cards are not a part of mobile phones becaues they are used externally.

Mobile Phone Function

Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures.

First of all we will discuss how many main functions a mobile phone often has irrespectively of mobile brands. There are three major sections inside a mobile phone

Power Section Radio Section Computer Section

Power Section:
A power section deals with power related tasks such as power distribution or charging the battery so this section can be divided into two sub sections like.

Power Distribution
A power distribution section is built around an "power IC" it takes 3.6V power from battery and regulates its power and then distributes to the other components used in mobile phone circuit. in some mobile phones tech "RF Power amplifier" uses more Power than provided bye mobile phone's battery .i.e. 4.7 V or 5.6 V in some phones. the power Ic with a power boaster

coil is used to increase voltages. so we can say that power IC is used to provide power to other components how much they needed. either less than battery voltage or more than it.

Charging Section
A charging section works for battery charging purposes.it is often consists a fuse, a coil, a protecting diode, a filter capacitor and charging IC and some other discreet. the charging section helps battery to be charged when it needs and when battery is charged, charging IC reads its state of charge and feels it full charged and then disconnects charging from it.

Radio Section:
A radio section has basically a set of four main functions.wich are.

Band Switching RF Power Amplification Transmitter Receiver

Band Switching:
In the modern mobile phone communication techniques. the frequency of mobile phone communication is divided into three bands

GSM (operates on 900 MHz) DCS (operates on 1800 MHz) PCS (operates on 1900 MHz) the third band is used only in USA whereas the first two bands are used in the rest of the world. band switching is done bye a "ceramic antenna switch" it reads from the radiation dispersed in the air and then switches to the appropriate band. in the very first phase of mobile phones there were single band handsets which operated on single frequency band but now a days all the handsets are dual band or tri band in operation.

RF Power Amplifier
RF power amplifier is often called as ".PA" or"Transmitter" its functions is to amplify or boast the power which is being transmitted to air, so may it would be able to communicate with long distances. a typical .PA can amplify rf power up to 0.6W or 600mW. This amount of rf power is sufficient to communicate nearly 20 to 25 kilometers in open area, but all the PA's are controlled by there rf signal processor, so if we are near our cell base tower the PA of our phone will transmit low power but if we are far away it will produce its maximum power.

Transmitting
A mobile phone's rf section is basically built around an rf IC which is often called rf signal processor whereas in nokia it is called hagar IC in some hand sets and in some hand sets it is

called Mjoelner. irrespectively of the brands and verity of names we call it rf signal processor. this IC works as transmitter and receiver as well. working as transmitter it takes instructions from phone's computer and also takes audio data from audio section and creates radio waves then mixes audio data to its radio waves according to the instructions given by computer section. this mixer of audio and radio is sent to PA to amplify its strength

Reciever
A reciver section for rf waves is built in rf IC, as it is said that this IC works for dual purposes first transmitting and section recieving. in the recieving section of mobile phones a radio signal is gather from ceramic antenna switch and then it is filtered and sent to rf IC to further process. in rf IC signal is detected and then rectified for audio and data which is sent to audio IC or computer section.

Computer Section:
A computer section in mobile phone consists of two main functions

CPU(central processing unit) Memory (RAM, FLASH, COMBO CHIP)

CPU:
A CPU is used in mobile phones as a central processing arithematic or controler. the cpu controls various functions in mobile phones like signal, display, sound converting(DSP), charging, power on, rf channel controler, rf tx power conroller, LEDs, vibrator, data processing, data storing etc. so we can say that if a cpu is damaged in any mobile phone it cannot be repaired unless the CPU is not replaced but this type of fault is not even seen to me ever either memory chips can be damaged. in brand Nokia CPU is named with two different words (MAD or UPP)

Memory:
there are two main types of memories used in mobile phones

RAM (Random Access Memory) The RAM is used in mobile phones to store user data in mobile phones. So these a days we can store pictures, messages, ringtones, applications, themes and other these type of things in mobile phones so CPU stores these types of data in the RAM of our mobile phones.

Flash (eeprom, ROM etc) The flash chip is used in mobile phones to hold mobile phone's operating system in it. so if the flash chip is damaged in mobile phones the phone cannot power on properly because all the instructions to start a mobile phones and its various tasks like call making , display etc are stored in the flash chip of mobile phones.

Combo Chip

In smoe mobile phones there is a combined type of memory used which is called combo memory chips these types of memories work for both like RAM and Flash.The clear example of this type of memory is used in Nokia 1100. Note: Multy Media Cards are not a part of mobile phones because they are used externally.

Mother Board System

This Lesson is intended to make you aware of the Fundamentals of a mobile phone's mother board and I want to teach you about what a typical mother board.

A typical mother board is constructed using two main things

Fiber Plate Copper Plate These two plates are joined in three forms.

Single layer board Double layer board

Three or tripple layer board

A single layer board is constructed yusing one copper plate and the other fiber plate. Its one side is copper faced and other is fiber faced. while a Double layer board is made with two copper sheets ad fiber sheet.Its one side is copper faced and the other is also copper faced and the fiber is stcked between two copper sheets.this kind of board holds electronic components on both of its side because both copper sided prints anre inter connected with one another on proper places A three layer board is made with three copper sheets and two fiber sheet.as it is shown below. Basics about Mother Boards Different mother boards have different views but many things are common in different brand mother boards.first common thing is ,every mother board has radio Section(Discussed in Lesson 1) on top of the mother board

On a conventional cell phone mother board there diffeent kinds of mother boards, some are thick and some are thin enough to see easily.The thick and thin tracks transfer current and data to from one part of the mother board to another.the thick track passes hugfe amount of current in it so it is a very low risk that these tracks will burn up. A sepecial track which is very thick and makes portions on a single board is called portion track.it is located on the above picture. This track is making different sections apart.

Frequency

Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures.

What is frequency? and what are mobile frequencies? Mobile phone uses radio waves to communicate with other mobile phones and when you are face to face with radio waves you ve to learn about frequencies. The word frequency is derived from the word frequently which is used with the meaning of circulation of any task repeated with same time period. so if any task is repeated with a same time period you can call its ratio as frequency. In radio waves a the speed of waves going up and down is called frequency and it is measred in Hz(Hertz). if a wave finishes its ten cycles in a second its frequency will be 10 Hz. look at the cahrt below to learn more about the frequencies.

1 cycle/second = 1Hz 1000 Hz 1000Khz 1000Mhz 1000Ghz =1Kilo Hertz (1Khz) =1 Mega Hertz (1Mhz) =1 Giga Hertz (1Ghz) = 1 Tera hertz (1Thz)

Frecuencies used in Mobile phones there are three types of frequency bands used in mobile phones

GSM 900 Mhz DCS 1800 Mhz PCS 1900 Mhz some mobile phones are used to operate on single band but most of the new comming handsets are dual bands which can operate on both GSM or DCS. But some of the very new types of mobile phones can operat on tri band GSM, DCS or PCS Invalid ID: Please check your code. How Mobile Phone Power On

Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has while powering on so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures. First of all look at the picture below carefuly. this picture describe booting detail about nokia mobile phones but same structure can be applied to the other brands with a little modification.

In the picture above all of you can see a little block diagram illustrating mobile phone booting sequence. first of all I am starting explanation from power switch. When apwer switch is pressed it turns on a ciruit inside the power IC and this IC starts distributing power suplly to other parts of mobile phones. On the first place VCO( voltage controlled ocsilator) or an other type of clock ocsilator starts producing a clock frequencey of 26MHz in some mobile phones this clock frequency is directly used to run CPU but most of the sets in nokia brands it is distributed bye hagar IC or RF Signal processor and it becomes 13MHz in the end of the division process. this low frequency cloack signal is used to start CPU functions now CPU which is like the brain of the mobile phone comes to the senses and first of all contacts its memory to know what are the instructions written it for this event and its memory tells CPU that if you feel that you are finding 13 MHz from hagar IC you have to run a booting test. in this test CPU tests most of the mobile phones function if they are correct CPU will order power IC to continue providing power to other parts and CPU also starts its display section. so this is the total process in which a mobile phone comes to the power on state.

Responsible parts for mobile phone power failure


there are eight elements which can affect mobile phone power on function

Power Swicth Battery Battery terminal power supply tracks power IC

Ocsilator (VCO) hagar IC flash (programming) So we can say that when ever a mobile phone fails to power on there may be a fault in such type of parts which are used in mobile phone booting process

Common Faults

Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures.

First of all we will discuss how many main functions a mobile phone often has irrespectively of mobile brands. A typical mobile phone has various types of faults which can be distributed in two main kinds of faults

Hardware faults Software faults Setting Faults

Hardware Faults:
Hardware faults in mobile phones are related to mother boards of mobile phone, batteries and any physical fault will be amount to hardware faults. I have pointed out as much hardware faults as much i remeber this time but if you have a fault which is not listed below you can tell me by clicking here I willo be glad to know that it would be a great help for me too.The list of common hardwarefaults is given below.

dead set condition no charging battery empty auto charging low signal No signal voice problem vibrator problem ringer problem backlight problem auto turn off hanging problem

insert sim (no sim card inserted shows on the screen) keypad problem display problem

Software faults

no signal dead set display contact service (contact retailer, contact service provider) Test mode not charging

Setting problem:

call divert sim lock security code country lock cnfiguration of SMS configuration of GPRS configuration of call

all these faults described over this text are common found and i will try my best to describe all types of repairing available for such faults in the next lessons. I am working for this site and my team is also working for the upgradation of this site so all of you can help us by if you know something you can go to our forum at GSM Help Discussion and post lessons for others to help us teaching all the people in the world so let us start registration at GSM Help discussion and start posting new threads. Keep in touch with us and soon you will find detail of all the faults described above step by step you can oblidge your friends by telling us about our site helping suffered people in GSM Problems Battery Problem We are going to discuss here some techniques and steps to repair dead condition in mobile phones irrespectively of brands

there are manay types of batteries used in mobile phones but now a days the most popular battery is "Lithium neon battery". as i have discussed in the first lesson about the pins of mobile phone batteries there are two two types of battereis. Note: in Sony ericson there are five pins used for battery terminal but dont be confused first 2pins works togather third works alone and the last 2 pins also work togather so you can take ir as three pin battery.

three pin battery four pin battery

Positive pin:
positive pin of mobile phone gives " + " type current which has normally 3.6V potentional difference with " _ " pin. a normal mobile phone battery now a days holds 3.6V when it is full charged it is normally 3.8V and when it is discharged it is normally at 3.2V.

Negative pin:
A negative pin in mobile phone is simple as working in other types of batteries so there is no need to discuss it more.

BSI pin:
BSI pin stands for "battery state indicator" this is a pin which tells the mobile phone's CPU that what is the current state of battery is right now. in some mobile phones where three pin

battery is used, this pin also works to tell the mobile phone that what is battery temprature right now.

B Temp:
B temp pin is specially designed to tell the mobile phone about battery temprature so some mobile phone shuts down if their battery is heating up much while using. but this pin is now a days emerged in BSI pin so now a days most of the mobile phones use three pin battery instead of four pin battery. Common faults caused by battery: there are many types of faults created by batter and you will be amazed by looking that what type of faults are our batteries creating.

Insert sim card fault power on fault signal fault auto shut off while calling battery empty fault test mode fault

Insert sim card fault:


It came to my experience that in nokia models where three pin battery and for power purposes UEM IC is used we can test that if BSI pin is not connected there will be a Insert sim card problem. for ex: if you disconnect only BSI pin in nokia 1100 or 2300 or 3100 there will be a message for you on the screen "insert sim card"

Power on fault:
if you battery is not working it will not be able to supply proper voltage to your mobile phone and it will not turn on so it creates power on faults.

Signal problem:
some times in some mobile phones the battery is so low but phone is running but there will be no signal in this situation but this problem was found only in old mobile phones sets and it is very rare.

Auto shut off while calling:


some time we call some one while holding full signal in our mobile phone battery indicator bars but as we call someone all battery signal drops and our phone shuts off it self.

Test mode fault:


there is a fault in some nokia mobile phones that they show " Test mode " while truning on. some time it is the fault of battery and some time it is a software problem

example: 3 days before typing this lesson i have experienced a fault and I amazed to find the reason behind this I had a nokia 3100 which was full working and I got another nokia 3100 from a customer to repair in my mobile lab, the battery of my own mobile phone became discharged so I replaced the batter with the battery of customers phone it got a message in my mopbile phone " test mode " I used to charge my battery in the customers mobile phone but when i inserted my own batery now it was also showing " Test mode " so i tried a new battery and got the problem fixed so and experiment showed me that when ever i inserted infected battery it got test mode and when i got new battery it was alright.

Charging Problem Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures. First of all we will discuss how many main functions a mobile phone often has irrespectively of mobile brands. charging faults are mainly of three types

No charging Not charging Auto charging

No charging:
in this fault a mobile phone does not charge at all when charging pin is inserted nothing happens it is always due to damaged fuse. or broken charging supply track if we repair fuse or jumper broken tracks we can set this fault off. but on the first step I am telling you how to check no charging fault.

Check Your battery if it is not connected properly no charging fault occurs. check continuity between charging pins it should be nor full nor high resistance. if it is showing full continuity then there may be some problem in your charging IC may it is totally short you can re hot /replace this IC. if there is no continuity in charging pins 90% fuse is damaged. you can replace fuse or jumper it. if a fuse shows full continuity in multi meter then it is working correctly if it is not so it is damaged. if fuse is not damaged you can check tracks if broken. if fuse, battery and tracks are ok then charging IC would be damaged.

Not charging:
in this fault a mobile phone shows a message "Not charging" on the screen when ever it is connected with charging pins. this type of fault is not a mere hardware fault it is 90% software fault. this fault is present only in nokia and I personally experienced a problem with a nokia 3100 it was showing "Not charging" i tried hardware solutions but totally in vain so I upgraded my software now every thing was ok. . and this is the same case in many types of nokia brands you can check this up. Only nokia 1100 when "Not charging" fault comes it is very hard to remove this fault in nokia 1100 I only repaired a little number of nokia 1100 displaying this message there was a problem in charge connector diode next to charging fuse. but often it can be solved by repairing software or upgrading it.

Auto Charging:
In auto charging a phone continues showing charging despite of removing charging pin from phone.

in this type of fault the "BSI" pin of mobile phone is very important because it is used to tell the phone what is the state of mobile phone charging now so if this pin is not ok this fault occurs. there are some cases in wich a mobile phone battery is ok but auto charging is present you can check transistors if used in charging section and if faulty replace it because this transistor is used in some mobilephones to cut off charging from phone automatically. in In some cases a resistance in charging section is responsible for that which is marked as "R22" in charging section so you can check "+" supply connection with this

Dead Set We are going to discuss here some techniques and steps to repair dead condition in mobile phones irrespectively of brands First of all let us now about the main functions to power on a mobile phone you can consult our previous lesson

Key Components and funtions:


. Battery Power Switch battery terminal Power IC Oscilator Frequency divider CPU Flash (ROM / EEPROM)

Battery:
A battery is used to provide power supply to our mother board unit so if this battery or on of its funtions fails the whole mobile phone fails to power on. So battery must be in good condition to make a mobile phone power on. Some times the third Pin used in battery which is called "BSI" is not working correctly but voltage can be found in " + " and " - " terminals, in this situation mobile phone cannot turn on.

Power Switch:
A power switch is used in a mobile phone to turn on and off mobile phones if it is faulty the whole unit cannot power on so keep checking its terminals wether they are connected with the power IC of not if not then you can make a jumpwer and connect it.

Battery terminal:
battery terminals connect battery to mobile phone component unit if its points are dry soldered of unsoldered or bended then you can change and fix this problem which is alwways in the result of no power on. so if battery terminals are working correctly you need to proceed further.

Power IC:
A power IC distributes current among all the components actually a power IC works as " voltage regulator" and " power on funtion" so if a power on funtion is faulty the whole unit will not power on. but there are some problems with ICs that we cannot check them wether they are working right or not rather we can only assume that they are faulty if the other functions are correct.

Oscilator:
An oscilator makes low frequency which is called clock frequency. this frequency is used to run digital components if this frequency is not available digital components fail to work and the result is power on failure. the out put frequency is used in mobile phone's CPU and Memory chips and UEM Ic if used.

Frequency divider:
Frequency dividing is a funtion which is used in mobile phones to divide clocke frequency to get accurate frequency to run digital components so if divider is failed power on fault mat occur. this frequency dividing funtion is built in radio ICs commonly like hagar IC or Mojoelner in Nokia mobile phones.

CPU
A CPU (central processing unit) is like a brain in mobile phones which controls the major parts of mobile phones so its funtionality is very necessory in mobile phones while testing in boot process but its functionality is assosiated with Memory chips used in mobile phone specially Flash chip.

Flash Chip ( EEPROM)


A flash chip holds booting information in it self it has instructions stored in itself for the CPU to control other components so if flash chip or its software is damaged it mean the set do not power on. in case of damaged software the phone should be treated in flashing process * The word flashing denotes in mobile phones that some software installation.

Steps to Repair Dead Set

Note Some steps which cannot be take in an average mobile phone lab are avoided to be explained becaues oscilator and divider's functionality can be cehecked by Osciloscope which is not available in an common mobile phone lab.

Ringer Problem

Ringer Problem is also same in all brands of handsets, here we will discuss components which take part in creating Ringer problem in mobile phones. first of all we should know about key elements used in making in mobile phones. these components are listed below.

Ringer Tracks Ringer Controller IC Programming

Ringer:
A ringer is commonly taken as a speaker, in the former sets we found ringers like two metal plates joined together. one plate was small and the other was large and there was a crystal material between the two plates so there was a capacitance effect between the two plates. and when the supply was connected to the ringer given below it would give a sound like "Click" but if it was connected with AC supply it would give voice like "Shar r r r r r r r r r r r !" and so on. In the old ringer models there was an oscillator used to make different voice frequencies in ringer . so they made it to produce different tunes procured by CPU and its memory and voice oscillator.

These days most of the ringers are behaving like an ear piece used in mobile phones. it would be right to say that now a days ringer and speakers are merged in the same shape altogether and instead of using an other piece working as ringer the Companies use a speaker which is working as speaker as well as ringer. please read below carefully. . most of the old nokia , samsung and motorola phones were built with a ringer and speaker 2. Now a days nokia , samsung and motorola are using speakers as earpiece and ringer purposes .because the speakers are used to make a ring 3. Sony Ericson use mostly a piece in which there are four points two for ringer and two for ear piece because they have made both things in joined form. 4. another difference is that in all the mono ringtones hand sets there was a separate ringer and a separate speaker used.

Checking Of Ringer:
If you suspect that a Ringer is damaged you can check it as the following ways.

Check if its points ar not broken if it is so you can replace this Ringer on the basis of its shape and size because now a days all the vibrators are operate on same voltages but their shape and size is different. Check continuity between the two terminals of Ringer if there is no continuity then consider this vibrator damaged and replace it. (because now days speakers are used as ringer and ear piece altogether and speakers have full continuity between the two terminals).

Tracks:
In the ringer problem there may be certain chances that the tracks may be broken and if it is so then trace the tracks leading towards the ringer's two points. mostly the one part of ringer is joined with "+" supply and they second track is joined to one of the pins of its controller IC. See the example below in which the ringer's lower point is joined with "+" and the second point is joined with PIN# 6 of "UI" IC(which controls ringer , vibrator and lights) this example is given from the circuit diagram of famous nokia handset 3310.

Ringer Controller IC:


A IC who controls the ring signals in mobile phones is normally called ringer IC and it control ringer activity. in some cases it is damaged and it would be fixed up with a new IC replacement.

Programming:
there are such chances when an inner setting of the program running in a mobile phone compels or sets Ringer off. you can check if the Ringer setting is correct in your mobile phone.

When we find a mobile phone with having problem of no Ringer then we should take the steps given below to eliminate this problem.

Signal Faults Repairing We are going to discuss here some techniques and steps to repair no signal condition in mobile phones irrespective of brands Here we are doing some critical study of the components which are mostly responsible in mobile phone no signal or low signal fault. first of all I am going to advise you about some steps to be taken while cheking and repairing no signal condition in mobil phones.

always remove phone covers slightly because some phones like sonyericson k500i has sticker type antenna and could be damaged while removing phone cover or disassembling mobile phone .

avoid touching antenna and antenna pad with hands or dirty tweezers if it is done so you can clean these contacts with CTC (corbon tetra cloride) do not over heat components near antenna section.

How to repair Signal problem?


Here we are discussing the techniques to repair signal faults in mobile phone first of all we are discussing about no signal condition

Common reasons of No signal:



antenna is not connected to phone either contacts or tracks are open antenna switch is not switching for rf signals some mutual copler may be damaged rf filters may be damaged rf signal processor is not working rf signal generator (VCO) is not working software problem

steps to be taken:

check if antenna is properly conected to antenna pad if not then you can clean it and adjust it with pad if it is not possible then some technicians use jumper to connect antenna with antenna pad. in condition of open track between antenna switch or diplexer and antenna you can check continuty between antenna and antenna pin of antenna swicth, if track is broken you can make a jumper at this place to fix this problem. most often you may come to know that in signal problems there are lot of sets which have faulty antenna switch. so you can check it by removing antenna swith and makeing a jumper between rx tx and antenna pin see example below.

it is very rare that you may come to know that the phone you are repairing hase damaged mutual coupler you can just check mutual by checking continuty betwee four pins in one side and ofour pins in the other side but it is very rare tofind a damaged mutual coupler but the chances still exist.

rf filters a also very rare to find in no signal problem in mobil phones but you can't ignore this because in nokia 8210 there were mostly found damaged filters in signal faults. Rf signal processor is the main component which controls the whole Rf section if the above steps fail to power on signals in mobile phones then you can consider Rf signal processor reponsible for that fault, first you shoult know that in nokia sonyericsonyou can find rf signal processros in the form of BGA IC (which has terminals below its body) but in samsung it is mostly in the form of SMT IC ( which has its terminals at the four sides of its body) remeber some time BGA ICs are suffered of dry soldering so if you find you rf signal processor in BGA form you can first check it by making rehot it and if the problem exists you can replace this IC. note ICs and IC type components has no verified checking methode. so you can take a chance to replace this IC if you found problem after taking the steps mentioned above. In some mobile phones rf signal generators is used to produce a signal which is often mixed with rx recieved from antenna and then there is some processing on the mixed form of rf signal so if rf signal generators which are mostly known as VCO (voltage controlled ocilator) is corrupt no signal faults may occure. In the final I am going to tell you about the software function used in mobile phones your mobile phone uses its software to connect to the network and to set frequencies in mobile phones and there are some instructions found about controlling the hardware rf section by CPU with the help of software, so if the software of your mobile phone is corrupted then you may have signal faults in your mobile phone. you can see the example of all nokia DCT3 models if there is no "set faid" option is checked while flashing mobile phone the phone after flashing does not show signals so dont ignore software problems in no signal.

When signal comes and then disappears.


if you find a problem in some mobile phones that when mobile phone is turned on it shows signals for a while and then signal disappears after some seconds you can consider your Rf power amplifire is faulty or unsoldered or dry soldered.

explanation
when we turn on the phone it shows the signal strenght bars because it is recieving signals from the base station and then our phone tries to send its information about its seriel number and SIM identification number to the base station and you can think that whenver phone tries to send signals to the other device it uses Rf Power amplifire (PA) and if the PA is not supporting the phone to send the informations to the base station then our phone disconnects its half way link to base station and stops displaying signals.

how to repair this problem?



first check the supply connection with your PA if supply is broken then you can make a jumper at this point check Tx signal tracks comming to the PA from rf signal processor if broken then jumper it check Tx signal tracks going from PA to antenna switch if broken then jumper it. rehot your PA. remove PA and then place two jumpers in rf in and out points at the place of PA replace PA it will be 100% right in working now.

Vibrator Problems

Vibrator Problem is same in all brands of sets here will discuss components which take part in creating vibrator problem in mobile phones firs of all we should know about key elements used in Vibra functions, these elements are as under

Vibrator Tracks Micro controller IC Programming

Vibrator:
A vibrator is a little motor which is run by only 1.5 Volts DC or AC this motor has a shaft inside its coil the outer piece of the shaft is out of balance so when this motor runs it gives a little vibration

Checking Of Vibrator:
If you suspect that a vibrator is damaged you can check it as the following ways. Check if its points ar not broken if it is so you can replace this vibrator on the basis of its shape and size because now a days all the vibrators are operate on same voltages but their shape and size is different. Check continuity between the two terminals of Vibrator if there is no continuity then consider this vibrator damaged and replace it.

Tracks:
all tracks which lead to the vibrator from its micro controller are subject to create "no vibration problems" so if the tracks of the vibrator are damaged or open then vibrator will not get electronic pulses form its micro controller and it will not produce vibration. Our experiment says that 90% set with no vibration faults are fixed only with jumpering open tracks.. see an example below

Micro Controller IC:


A micro controller IC is used in a mobile phone to control pulses sent bye CPU so if a pulse sent by CPU to micro controller IC is not executed vibrator will not work despite of the integrity of tracks and vibrator its self so some times this problem occurs in mobile phone that vibrator is OK , Tracks are Ok but no vibration is there then you can check IC controlling this vibra function you see the picture given above where a 20PIN IC is connected to vibrator and if this IC fails to work properly then vibrator will not be able to work at all.

Programming:
there are such chances when an inner setting of the program running in a mobile phone compels or sets vibra off. you can check if the vibrator setting is correct in your mobile phone.

When we find a mobile phone with having problem of no vibration then we should take the steps given below to eliminate this problem.