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Section 5.1: Triple integrals

In general, the mass of a body with density (x, y, z ) is (x, y, z ) dV . For bodies with R constant density the mass is V , where V is the volume. Compute the mass of a body which is bounded by the parabolic cylinder z = 4 x2 , and the planes x = 0, y = 0, y = 6, z = 0 if the density of the body is 1.

2 0 0 2

6 0

4x2

6 0

dz dy dx =

0

(4 x2 ) dydx

If f (x, y, z ) is a function of three variables and E is a solid region in space, then f (x, y, z ) dxdydz E 1 is dened as the n limit of the Riemann sum n 3 (xi ,yj ,zk )E f (xi , yj , zk ), where (xi , yj , zk ) = i j k , n , n ). (n As in two dimensions, triple integrals can be evaluated by iterated 1D integral computations. Here is a simple example: Assume E is the box [0, 1] [0, 1] [0, 1] and f (x, y, z ) = 24x2 y 3 z .

1 0 1 0 1 0

= 6

0

(4 x2 ) dx = 6(4x x3 /3)|2 0 = 32

24x2 y 3z dz dy dx .

1 0

1 0

1 0

12x3 y 3 dy = 3x2 and nally and nally handle the outer layer:

3x2 dx =1.

When we calculate the most inner integral, we x x and y . The integral is integrating up f (x, y, z ) along a line intersected with the body. After completing the middle integral, we have computed the integral on the plane z = const intersected with R. The most outer integral sums up all these two dimensional sections. A special case of a triple integral is the volume under the graph of a function f (x, y ) and above b d a region R = [a, b] [c, d] is the integral a c f (x, y ) dxdy . What we actually have computed is a triple integral

b d c 0 R f (x,y )

V =

a

1 dzdxdy . 1 dA, we have the volume of The problem of computing volumes has been tackled early in mathematics: Archimedes (287-212 BC) designed a method of integration which allowed him to nd areas, volumes and surface areas in many cases without calculus. His method of exhaustion is close to the numerical method of integration by Riemann sum. The Archimedes principle states that any body submerged in a water is acted upon by an upward force which is equal to the weight of the displaced water. This provides a practical way to compute volumes of complicated bodies. Heureka!

Similarly, when we computed the area of a region R, we had a solid E as 1 dV . E Example: The volume of a sphere is

1

V =

R

dxdydz =

1

1x2

1x2 1

1x2 y 2 1x2 y 2

dz ]dy ]dx .

substitution y/a = sin(u), dy = a cos(u) to write this as a 0 /2 a2 0 cos2 (u)du = a2 /2. We can nish up the last integral

1

After computing the inner integral, we have V = 2 1 [ 1x2 (1 x2 y 2 )1/2 dy ]dx. a To resolve the next layer, call 1 y 2 = a2 . The task is to nd a a2 y 2 dy . Make the

arcsin(a/a)

1x2

V = 2/2

1

(1 x2 ) dx = 4/3 . 1 2

Cavalieri (1598-1647) would determine area and volume using tricks like the Cavalieri principle. Example: to get the volume the half sphere of radius R, cut away a cone of height and radius R from a cylinder of height R and radius R. At height z , this body has a cross section with area R2 r 2 . If we cut the half sphere at height z , we obtain a disc of area (R2 r 2 ) . Because these areas are the same, the volume of the half-sphere is the same as the cylinder minus the cone: R3 R3 /3 = 2R3 /3 and the volume of the sphere is 4R3 /3. Newton (1643-1727) and Leibniz( 16461716): Newton and Leibniz, developed calculus independently. The new tool made it possible to compute integrals through anti-derivation. Suddenly, it became possible to nd integrals using analytic tools as we do here. Here is an other way to compute integrals: Suppose we want to calculate the volume of some solid body R which we assumed to be contained inside the unit cube [0, 1] [0, 1] [0, 1]. The Monte Carlo method shoots randomly n times onto the unit cube and count the number k of times, we hit the solid. The result k/n estimates of the volume. Here is an experiment with Mathematica and where the body is one eights of the unit ball: R := Random[]; k = 0; Do[x = R; y = R; z = R; If[x2 + y2 + z2 < 1, k + +], {10000}]; k/10000 Assume, we hit 5277 of n=10000 times. The volume so measured is 0.5277. The actual volume of 1/8th of the sphere is /6 = 0.524. For n the Monte Carlo computation gives the actual volume. The Monte-Carlo integral is stronger than the Riemann integral. It is equivalent to the Lebesgue integral and allows to measure much more sets than solids with piecewise smooth boundaries.

The integration factor can be seen by measuring the volume of a spherical wedge which is d, sin() d, d = 2 sin()ddd.

f (x, y, z ) dxdydz =

T (R) R

g (, , z ) 2 sin() ddd

R 0 0 2 0

2 sin() ddd . The most inner integral 0 2 sin()d = 2 cos()| 0 = 22 . The next layer is, because does not appear: 2 R 22 d = 42 . The nal integral is 0 42 d = 0 4R3 /3. The moment of inertia of a body G with respect to an axis L is dened as the triple integral r (x, y, z )2 dzdydx, where r (x, y, z ) = R sin() is the distance from the axis L. For a G sphere of radius R we obtain with respect to the z -axis:

R 2 0 0 R 2

I=

0

0 0 R

=(

4 dr )(

0

d)

2pi

Cylindrical coordinates are obtained by taking polar coordinates in the x-y plane and leave the z-coordinate. With T (r, , z ) = (r cos(), r sin(), z ), the integration factor r is the same as in polar coordinates.

=(

0

4 dr )(

0 0

d)

8R5 4 R5 2 = . 3 5 15

f (x, y, z ) dxdydz =

T (R) R

g (r, , z ) r drddz

Spherical coordinates use , the distance to the origin as well as two angles: the polar angle and , the angle between the vector and the z axis. The coordinate change is T : (x, y, z ) = ( cos() sin(), sin() sin(), cos()) . 3 4

If the sphere rotates with angular velocity , then I 2 /2 is the kinetic energy of that sphere. Example: the moment of inertia of the earth is 8 1037 kgm2 . The angular velocity is = 2/day = 2/(86400s). The rotational energy is 8 1037 kgm2 /(7464960000s2) 1029 J 2.51024 kcal. How long would you have to run on a tread mill to accumulate this energy if you could make 2500 kcal/hour? We would have to run 1021 hours = 3.61024 seconds. Note that the universe is about 1017 seconds old. If all the 6 million people in Massachusetts would have run since the big bang on a treadmill, they could have produced the necessary energy to bring the earth to the current rotation. To make classes pass faster, we need to spin the earth more and just to add some more treadmills ... To the right you see my proposal for the science center.

Example: Find z 2 dV for the solid obtained by R 2 intersecting {0 x + y 2 + z 2 4 } with the double cone {z 2 x2 + y 2 }. Solution: since the result for the double cone is twice the result for the single cone, we work with the diamond shaped region R in {z > 0} and multiply the result at the end with 2. In spherical coordinates, the solid R is given by 1 2 and 0 /4. With z = cos(), we have

2 1 0 2 0 /4

4 cos2 () sin() ddd 25 15 cos3 ()) /4 31 )2 ( |0 = 2 (1 23/2 ) . 5 5 3 5 3 The result for the double cone is 4 (31/5)(1 1/ 2 ) . =(

Example: Find the volume and the center of mass of a diamond, the intersection of the unit sphere with the cone given in cylindrical coordinates as z = 3r .

1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0

=

0

x =

0

y =

0

z =

0

(1 23 ) 2 sin() ddd = 3 0 /6 1 3 sin2 () cos() ddd = 0 V 0 /6 1 3 sin2 () sin() ddd = 0 V 0 /6 2 1 3 cos() sin() ddd = V 32 V 0

/6 2

A vector eld in the plane is a map, which assigns to each point (x, y ) in the plane a vector F (x, y ) = P (x, y ), Q(x, y ) . A vector eld in space is a map, which assigns to each point (x, y, z ) in space a vector F (x, y, z ) = P (x, y, z ), Q(x, y, z ), R(x, y, z ) . For example F (x, y ) = x 1, y /((x 1)2 + y 2)3/2 x + 1, y /((x + 1)2 + y 2 )3/2 is the electric eld of positive and negative point charge. It is called dipole eld. It is shown in the picture above. x = 0.4x 0.4xy y = 0.1y + 0.2xy Volterra explained with such systems the oscillation of sh populations in the Mediterranean sea. At any specic point r (x, y ) = x(t), y (t) , there is a curve = r(t) = x(t), y (t) through that point for which the tangent r (t) = (x (t), y (t) is the vector 0.4x 0.4xy, 0.1y + 0.2xy . Hamiltonian elds. An other class of vector elds important in mechanics are Hamiltonian elds: If H (x, y ) is a function of two variables, then Hy (x, y ), Hx (x, y ) is called a Hamiltonian vector eld. An example is the harmonic Oscillator H (x, y ) = x2 + y 2. Its vector eld (Hy (x, y ), Hx (x, y )) = (y, x) is the same as in example 1) above. You have seen earlier that the ow lines of a Hamiltonian vector elds are located on the level curves of H . Vector elds in mechanics Newtons law mr = F relates the acceleration r of a body with the force F acting at the point. For example, if x(t) is the position of a mass point in [1, 1] attached at two springs and the mass is m = 2, then the point experiences a force (x + (x)) = 2x so that mx = 2x or x (t) = x(t). If we introduce y (t) = x (t) of t, then x (t) = y (t) and y (t) = x(t). Of course y is the velocity of the mass point, so a pair (x, y ), thought of as an initial condition, describes the system so that nature knows what the future evolution of the system has to be given that data. We dont yet know yet the curve t r (t) = x(t), y (t) , but we know the tangents r (t) = x (t), y (t) = y (t), x(t) . In other words, we know a direction at each point. The equation (x = y, y = x) is called a system of ordinary dierential equations (ODEs) More generally, the problem when studying ODEs is to nd solutions x(t), y (t) of equations x (t) = f (x(t), y (t)), y (t) = g (x(t), y (t)). Here we look for curves x(t), y (t) so that at any given point (x, y ), the tangent vector (x (t), y (t)) is (y, x). You can check by dierentiation that the circles (x(t), y (t)) = (r sin(t), r cos(t)) are solutions. They form a family of curves. Can you interpret these solutions physically?

Gradient elds. An important class of vector elds are gradient elds. Here is the denition. If f (x, y ) is a function of two variables, then F (x, y ) = f (x, y ) is called a gradient eld. Gradient elds in space are of the form F (x, y, z ) = f (x, y, z ). When is a vector eld a gradient eld? F (x, y ) = P (x, y ), Q(x, y ) = f (x, y ) implies Qx (x, y ) = Py (x, y ). If this does not hold at some point, F is no gradient eld. We will see next week that the condition curl(F ) = Qx Py = 0 is also necessary for F to be a gradient eld. In class, we see more examples on how to construct the potential f from the gradient eld F . Vector elds and dierential equations Example: Let x(t) denote the population of a prey species like tuna sh and y (t) is the population size of a predator like sharks. We have x (t) = ax(t) + bx(t)y (t) with positive a, b because both more predators and more prey species will lead to prey consumption. The rate of change of y (t) is cy (t) + dxy , where c, d are positive. We have a negative sign in the rst part because predators would die out without food. The second term is explained because both more predators as well as more prey leads to a growth of predators through reproduction. A concrete example is the Volterra-Lodka system

-1

If x(t) is the angle of a pendulum, then the gravity acting on it produces a force G(x) = gm sin(x), where m is the mass of the pendulum and where g is a constant. For example, if x = 0 (pendulum at bottom) or x = (pendulum at the top), then the force is zero. The Newton equation mass times acceleration = force gives x (t) = g sin(x(t)) . The equation of motion for the pendulum x (t) = g sin(x(t)) can be written with y = x also as d (x(t), y (t)) = (y (t), g sin(x(t)) . dt Each possible motion of the pendulum x(t) is described by a curve r(t) = (x(t), y (t)). Writing down explicit formulas for (x(t), y (t)) is in this case not possible with known functions like sin, cos, exp, log etc. However, one still can understand the curves.

In physics, if F (x, y, z ) is a force eld, then the line integral a F (r (t)) r (t) dt is called work. b In electrodynamics, if F (x, y, z ) is an electric eld, then the line integral a F (r (t)) r (t) dt is called electric potential. Example: let C : t r (t) = cos(t), sin(t) be a circle parametrized by t [0, 2 ] and let F (x, y ) = y, x . Calculate the line integral I = C F (r ) dr. Solution: We have I = 0 F (r (t)) r (t) dt = 0 ( cos(t), sin(t)) ( cos(t), sin(t)) dt = 2 cos2 (t) + sin2 (t) dt = 2 0 Example: Let r (t) be a curve given in polar coordinates as r (t) = cos(t), (t) = t dened on [0, ]. Let F be the vector eld F (x, y ) = (xy, 0). Calculate the line integral C F dr. Solution: In Cartesian coordinates, the curve is r (t) = (cos2 (t), cos(t) sin(t)). The velocity vector is then r (t) = (2 sin(t) cos(t), sin2 (t) + cos2 (t)) = (x(t), y (t)). The line integral is

0 2 2

F (r (t)) r (t) dt =

0

= 2

Here is the rst generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus to higher dimensions. It is called the fundamental theorem of line integrals. If F = f , then

b a

Curves on the top of the picture represent situations where the velocity y is large. They describe the pendulum spinning around fast in the clockwise direction. Curves starting near the point (0, 0), where the pendulum is at a stable rest, describe small oscillations of the pendulum. Vector elds in weather forecast On weather maps, one can see isoterms, curves of constant temperature or isobars, curves p(x, y ) = c of constant pressure. These are level curves. The wind maps are vector elds. F (x, y ) is the wind velocity at the point (x, y ). The wind velocity F is not always normal to the isobars, the lines of equal pressure p. The scalar pressure eld p and the velocity eld F depend on time. The equations which describe the weather dynamics are called the Navier Stokes equations d F + F F = F p + f, divF = 0 dt (where we will dene the derivatives and div later. This is a partial dierential equation like the transport equation ux uy = 0 we have seen earlier. Finding solutions is not trivial: 1 Million dollars are given to the person proving that the equations have smooth solutions in space.

In other words, the line integral is the potential dierence between the end points r (b) and r (a), if F is a gradient eld. Example: Let f (x, y, z ) be the temperature distribution in a room and let r(t) the path of a y in the room, then f (r(t)) is the temperature, the y experiences at the point r (t) at time d f (r(t)). The line-integral of the temperature t. The change of temperature for the y is dt gradient f along the path of the y coincides with the temperature dierence between the end point and initial point. If r (t) is parallel to the level curve of f , then d/dtf (r(t)) = 0 and r (t) orthogonal to f (r (t)) If r(t) is orthogonal to the level curve, then |d/dtf (r(t))| = |f ||r (t)| and r (t) is parallel to f (r(t)). The proof uses the chain rule in the second equality and the fundamental theorem of calculus in the third equality of the following identities:

b b b

If F is a vector eld in the plane or in space and C : t r (t) is a curve, then

b a

is called the line integral of F along the curve C . The short-hand notation used.

F (r (t)) r (t) dt

C

F (r (t)) r (t) dt =

f (r (t)) r (t) dt =

F dr is also

It follows that for a gradient eld, the line-integral along any closed curve is zero. A device which implements a force eld which is not a gradient eld is called a perpetual motion machine. Mathematically, it realizes a force eld for which along some closed loops the 10

energy gain is nonnegative. (By possibly changing the direction, the energy change is positive.) The rst law of thermodynamics forbids the existence of such a machine. It is informative to contemplate some of the ideas people have come up with and to see why they dont work. When is a vector eld a gradient eld? F (x, y ) = f (x, y ) implies Py (x, y ) = Qx (x, y ). If this does not hold at some point, F = P, Q is no gradient eld. This is called the component test. We will see later that the condition curl(F ) = Qx Py = 0 implies that the eld is conservative, if the region satises a certain property. Problem: Let F (x, y ) = 2xy 2 + 3x2 , 2yx2 . Find a potential f of F = P, Q . The potential function f (x, y ) satises fx (x, y ) = 2xy 2 + 3x2 and fy (x, y ) = 2yx2 . Integrating the second equation gives f (x, y ) = x2 y 2 + h(x). Partial dierentiation with respect to x gives fx (x, y ) = 2xy 2 + h (x) which should be 2xy 2 +3x2 so that we can take h(x) = x3 . The potential function is f (x, y ) = x2 y 2 + x3 . Find g, h from f (x, y ) =

x 0

Gradient field

Path independence

y , x . It is a gradient eld because f (x, y ) = arctan(y/x) has Let F (x, y ) = P, Q = x2 +y 2 x 2 +y 2 the property that fx = (y/x2 )/(1 + y 2 /x2 ) = P, fy = (1/x)/(1 + y 2 /x2 ) = Q. However, the line integral F dr, where is the unit circle is 2 0

sin(t) cos(t) , sin(t), cos(t) dt cos2 (t) + sin2 (t) cos2 (t) + sin2 Here is an example of a pertual motion machine which implements a nonconservative eld and allows so to generate energy for free. Consider a O-shaped pipe which is lled only on the right side with water. A wooden ball falls on the right hand side in the air and moves up in the water.

which is

2 0

1 dt = 2 . What is wrong?

Solution: note that the potential f as well as the vector-eld F are not dierentiable everywhere. The curl of F is zero except at (0, 0), where it is not dened.

Why does this perpetual motion machine not work? The former Harvard department professor Benjamin Peirce writes in his book A system of analytic mechanics of 1855 and refers so to the antropic principle:

We will see later that if R is a simply connected region then F is a gradient eld if and only if curl(F ) = 0 everywhere in R. A region R is called simply connected, if every curve in R can be contracted to a point in a continuous way and every two points can be connected by a path. A disc is an example of a simply connected region, an annular region is an example which is not. Any region with a hole is not simply connected. For simply connected regions, the existence of a gradient eld is equivalent to the eld having curl zero everywhere. 11 12

Such a series of motions would receive the technical name of a perpetual motion by which is to be understood, that of a system which would constantly return to the same position, with an increase of power, unless a portion of the power were drawn o in some way and appropriated, if it were desired, to some species of work. A constitution of the xed forces, such as that here supposed and in which a perpetual motion would possible, may not, perhaps, be incompatible with the unbounded power of the Creator; but, if it had been introduced into nature, it would have proved destructive to human belief, in the spiritual origin of force, and the necessity of a First Cause superior to matter, and would have subjected the grand plans of Divine benevolence to the will and caprice of man. Nonconservative elds can also be generated by optical illusion as can be seen in M.C. Escher pictures. An example is the famous stair in which people always walk down or with the waterfall. The gures suggests the existence of a force eld which is not conservative. Can you gure out how Eschers pictures work?

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