Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330

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Flow Measurement and Instrumentation
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/flowmeasinst
Discharging capacity of rectangular side weirs in straight open channels
M. Emin Emiroglu
a,∗
, Hayrullah Agaccioglu
b
, Nihat Kaya
a
a
Firat University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, 23119, Elazig, Turkey
b
Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 34210, Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 28 December 2009
Received in revised form
6 December 2010
Accepted 5 April 2011
Keywords:
Side weir
Water discharge
Discharge coefficient
Intake
Channel flow
Flow measurement
Hydraulic structure
a b s t r a c t
A side weir is a hydraulic control structure used in irrigation and drainage systems and combined sewer
systems. A comprehensive laboratory study, including 843 tests for the discharge coefficient of a sharp-
crested rectangular side weir in a straight channel, was conducted in a large physical model under
subcritical flow conditions. The discharge coefficient is a function of the upstream Froude number, the
ratios of weir length to channel width, weir length to flow depth, and weir height to flow depth. An
equation was developed considering all dimensional parameters for discharge coefficient of the sharp-
crested rectangular side weir. The average error of the proposed equation is 4.54%. The present study data
were compared with ten different discharge coefficient equations developed by several researchers. The
study also presents water surface profile and surface velocity streamlines.
© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Side weirs have been extensively used in hydraulic and
environmental engineering applications. They are substantial parts
of distribution channels of irrigation systems and water and
wastewater treatment plants. Side weirs are also used as an
emergency structure in many hydraulic structures. The side weir is
normally installed at one side of a channel to divert flow laterally.
Nandesamoorthy et al. [1], Subramanya et al. [2], Yu-tech [3],
Ranga Raju et al. [4], Hager [5], Cheong [6], Singh et al. [7], Jalili
et al. [8], and Borghei et al. [9] gave equations for discharge
coefficients for rectangular, sharp-crested side weirs based on
experimental results. Swamee et al. [10] used an elementary
analysis approach to estimate the discharge coefficient in smooth
side weirs through an elementary strip along the side weirs.
Ghodsian [11] studied behavior in the rectangular side weir under
conditions of supercritical flow. Khorchani et al. [12] studied the
flow over side weirs with a full-scale experiment using digital
cameras. Muslu [13], Yüksel [14] and Muslu et al. [15] used
numerical analysis to analyze the flowover a rectangular side weir.
Considering the discharge dQ through an elementary strip of
lengthds along the side weir ina rectangular mainchannel interms
of De Marchi’s [16] equation, one gets
q = −
dQ
ds
=
2
3
C
d
_
2g (h −p)
3/2
(1)

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 4242370000x5441; fax: +90 4242415526.
E-mail addresses: memiroglu@firat.edu.tr (M.E. Emiroglu), agacci@yildiz.edu.tr
(H. Agaccioglu), nkaya@firat.edu.tr (N. Kaya).
where Q is the discharge in the main channel, s is the distance
from the beginning of the side weir, dQ/ds (or q) is the discharge
overflow per unit length of the side weir, g is the acceleration
due to gravity, p the is height of the side weir, h is the depth
of flow at the section s (at s = 0 : h = h
1
and Q = Q
1
), (h −p) is
the pressure head on the weir and C
d
is the discharge coefficient
of the rectangular side weir. Thus, Q
s
= q.L, in which Q
s
is the
flowrate over the side weir and L is the length of the side weir. The
discharge coefficient (C
d
) depends on the following dimensionless
parameters [2,7,9,17,18].
C
d
= f
1
_
F
1
=
V
1

gh
1
,
L
b
,
L
h
1
,
p
h
1
, ψ, S
0
_
(2)
where F
1
is the upstream Froude number at the beginning of the
side weir in the main channel, V
1
is the mean velocity of flow at
the upstream section of the side weir in the main channel, L is the
width of the side weir, b is the width of the main channel, h
1
is
the depth of flow on the upstream end of the side weir in the main
channel centerline, ψ is the deviation angle of flow, and S
0
is the
channel slope. Notations and a definition sketch of subcritical flow
over a rectangular side weir can be seen in Fig. 1.
The water nape deviationor the deflectionangle ψ, is defined as
the deflection of the side weir nape from the water surface toward
the weir side which is formulated as follows [2]:
sin ψ =
_
1 −
_
V
1
V
s
_
2
(3)
in which, V
s
is velocity of flow dQ
s
over the brink. According
to Eq. (3), ψ takes different values for each fluid particle and
0955-5986/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2011.04.003
320 M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330
Nomenclature
b Width of channel, m
C
d
Side weir discharge coefficient,
E Specific energy, m
F
1
Froude number at upstream end of side weir,
g Acceleration due to gravity, m/s
2
h Main channel depth, m
h
1
Flow depth at upstream end of side weir at main
channel centerline, m
h
2
Flow depth at downstream end of side weir at
channel centerline, m
L Length (width) of side weir, m
p Height of weir crest, m
Q Discharge in the main channel, m
3
/s
Q
0
Discharge at upstream of side weir at main channel
centerline, m
3
/s
Q
1
Discharge at upstream end of side weir at main
channel centerline, m
3
/s
Q
2
Discharge at downstream end of side weir at main
channel centerline, m
3
/s
Q
s
Total flow rate over the side weir, m
3
/s
q Discharge per unit length over side weir, m
2
/s
dQ/ds = dQ
s
Discharge per unit length of side weir, m
2
/s
R Correlation coefficient,
S
0
Channel slope,
s Distance along side weir measured from upstream
end of side weir, m
V Mean velocity in any section of channel, m/s
V
1
Mean velocity of flow at upstream end of side weir,
m/s
V
2
Mean velocity of flow at downstream end of side
weir, m/s
V
s
Velocity of flow dQ
s
over the brink, m/s
ψ Deviation angle of flow, °
varies with the Froude number, which changes along the side weir
due to spilling over the side weir. The deviation angle increases
toward the weir side when the Froude number in the main channel
decreases toward the downstream direction. El-Khashab [17]
also mentioned that the dimensionless length of the side weir
(L/b) includes the effect of the deviation angle on the discharge
coefficient. Therefore, the deviation angle ψ is not specified in
the side weir discharge coefficient equations in the literature.
Therefore, the effect of ψ on C
d
is not considered separately in
the present study. In addition, Borghei et al. [9] reported that
a
b
c
Fig. 1. Definition sketch of subcritical flow over a rectangular side weir.
the channel slope can be ignored in conditions of subcritical
flow. Thus, dimensionless parameters for rectangular side weir
discharge coefficient can be formulated as shown in Eq. (4).
C
d
= f
2
_
F
1
=
V
1

gh
1
,
L
b
,
L
h
1
,
p
h
1
_
. (4)
The flowover a side weir is a typical case of spatially varied flow
with decreasing discharge. Like normal weirs, side weirs may be
sharp or broad-crested. The flow in the main channel along a side
weir may be subcritical or supercritical. In side weir applications,
the most common form is a sharp-crested rectangular design. In
addition, the most common flowtype is subcritical. Therefore, this
weir type and flow regime are considered in the present study.
Table 1 shows equations presented in the literature, relating C
d
for rectangular side weir located on straight channels. As seen
in Table 1, Froude number is taken into account in all of the
equations. However, the dimensionless parameter L/h
1
is not seen
in any of the equations previously presented in the literature. It
was mentioned by Subramanya et al. [2], El-Khashab [17], Singh
et al. [7], and Durga Rao et al. [18] that the L/h
1
dimensionless
Table 1
Side weir discharge coefficient equations presented in the literature for straight channels.
No. Discharge coefficient equations for rectangular side weirs Source
1 C
d
= 0.432
_
2−F
2
1
1+2F
2
1
_
0.5
Nandesamoorthy et al. [1]
2 C
d
= 0.611
_
1 −
_
3F
2
1
F
2
1
+2
_
= 0.864
_
1−F
2
1
2+F
2
1
_
0.5
Subramanya et al. [2]
3 C
d
= 0.623 −0.222F
1
Yu-Tech [3]
4 C
d
= 0.81 −0.6 F
1
Ranga Raju et al. [4]
5 C
d
= 0.485
_
2+F
2
1
2+3 F
2
1
_
0.5
Hager [5]
6 C
d
= 0.45 −0.221F
2
1
Cheong [6]
7 C
d
= 0.33 −0.18F
1
+0.49
_
p
h
1
_
Singh et al. [7]
8 C
d
= 0.71 −0.41F
1
−0.22
_
p
h
1
_
Jalili et al. [8]
9 C
d
= 0.7 −0.48F
1
−0.3
_
p
h
1
_
+0.06
L
b
Borghei et al. [9]
10 C
d
= 1.06
_
_
14.14p
8.15p+h
1
_
10
+
_
h
1
h
1
+p
_
15
_
−0.1
Swamee et al. [10]
M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330 321
Table 2
Range of variables for present study and several studies.
Variable Source
Present study Borghei
et al. [9]
Singh
et al. [7]
Cheong [6] Subramanya
et al. [2]
Agaccioglu et al. [21]
Channel width (m) 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.35–0.67 0.248–0.61 0.40
Discharge (L/s) 10–150 35–100 10–14 3.5–75 – 7.95–68.8
Weir length (m) 0.15–1.50 0.20–0.70 0.10–0.20 0.28–0.97 – 0.25–0.75
Weir height (m) 0.12–0.20 0.01–0.19 0.06–0.12 – 0.08–0.51 0.12–0.16
Froude number 0.08–0.92 0.1–0.9 0.40–0.90 0.24–0.99 0.02–4.3 0.077–0.869
L/b ratio (max.) 0.30–3.00 2.30 0.50 1.45 0.2–1.0 0.625–1.875
p/h
1
ratio 0.34–0.91 – 0.42–0.85 – 0.2–0.96 0.542–0.877
Dimensionless parameters in
equation
F
1
, L/b, L/h
1
and,
p/h
1
F
1
, L/b, and
p/h
1
F
1
and p/h
1
F
1
F
1
F
1
, L/b
Number of runs 843 253 – 78 200 320 (for straight channel)
Fig. 2. Experimental arrangement.
parameter is among the parameters that affect the discharge
coefficient. Therefore, L/h
1
andL/b dimensionless parameters have
been tested together with p/h
1
parameter for the experimental
data. The range of test variables used in the present study is given
Table 2.
The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate
the effect of side weir length in relation to the discharge
coefficient under subcritical flow conditions, using a broad range
of experiments, and considered together with the other effective
dimensionless parameters. Additionally, water surface profiles and
surface velocity streamlines were investigated in the weir region.
2. Experimental set-up and experiments
Experiments were carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory of
Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. A schematic representation of the
experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 2. The experimental set-up
consists of a main channel and a discharge collection channel. The
main channel is 12 m long and the bed has a rectangular cross
section. The main channel is 0.5 m wide, 0.5 m deep and has a
0.001 bed slope. The channel consists of a smooth horizontal well-
painted steel bed with a vertical glass sidewall. A sluice gate is
fitted at the end of the main channel in order to control flowdepth.
The collection channel is 0.5 m wide and 0.7 m deep, and situated
parallel to the main channel. The width of the collection channel
across the side weir is 1.3 mand it is constructed as a circular shape
to provide free overflowconditions over the side weirs. AMitutoyo
brand digital point gauge with ±0.01 mmsensitivity is fitted 0.4 m
from the weir. The side weirs were fabricated from steel plates,
which are sharp edged and fully aerated and installed flush with
the main channel bank.
Water for the main channel was supplied through a supply
pipe from a sump and the flow was controlled by a gate valve.
In previous studies, experiments to determine the discharge
coefficient were generally conducted within a narrower range
Fig. 3. Locations where water level was measured.
of discharges than those examined in the present study. In this
study, the flow rate was between 0.010 and 0.150 m
3
/s and was
measuredby means of a Siemens brandelectromagnetic flowmeter
(±0.01 L/s sensitivity) installed on the supply line. Additionally,
the results were compared by a calibrated 90° V-notched weir at
the beginning of the system(Q
1
). The overflowrate at the side weir
was obtained by calibrated standard rectangular weir, located at
the downstream end of the collection channel (Q
s
).
Water depth was measured using the point gauge at the side
weir region, along the channel centerline (C2, D2 and E2) and the
weir side of the main channel (C1, D1 and E1), as seen in Fig. 5.
Water surface measurements were made using a special type of
322 M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
Rectangular side weir
p=0.12 m, L=0.75 m
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

f
l
o
w

i
n

m
Longitudinal section in m
F
1
=0.28, Surface profile along the centerline
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
Rectangular side weir
p=0.12 m, L=0.75 m
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

f
l
o
w

i
n

m
Longitudinal section in m
F
1
=0.28, Surface profile along the weir-side
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
Rectangular side weir
p=0.16 m, L=0.75 m
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

f
l
o
w

i
n

m
Longitudinal section in m
F
1
=0.39, Surface profile along the centerline
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
Rectangular side weir
p=0.16 m, L=0.75 m
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

f
l
o
w

i
n

m
Longitudinal section in m
F
1
=0.39, Surface profile along the weir-side
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
o.50
Rectangular side weir
p=0.20 m, L=0.75 m
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

f
l
o
w

i
n

m
Longitudinal section in m
F
1
=0.63, Surface profile along the centerline
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
Rectangular side weir
p=0.20 m, L=0.75 m
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

f
l
o
w

i
n

m
Longitudinal section in m
F
1
=0.63, Surface profile along the weir-side
Fig. 4. Water surface profiles along the weir side and centerline at straight channel.
measurement car which can move in both x and y directions on a
rail (see Fig. 3). Velocities were measured using a Nortek Acoustic
Doppler velocity meter with high sensitivity.
Experiments were conducted for subcritical flow, stable flow
and free overflow conditions. Coleman et al. [19] stated that
minimum nape height should not be less than 0.019 m because of
the surface tension over the weir crest. Therefore, minimum nape
height was taken into account as 0.020 m. The experiments were
conducted for five different lengths of the weir (0.15, 0.25, 0.50,
0.75, and 1.50 m) and three different heights of the weir (0.12,
0.16, and 0.20 m). As seen in Table 2, the length of side weir, L was
between 0.20 and 0.70 m to achieve the discharge coefficient of
rectangular side weir. The lengthof the side weir (L) is animportant
parameter for discharge coefficient of the side weir. Therefore, the
dimensionless parameters, L/b and L/h
1
, were studied in detail in
the present study. The length of the side weir (L) was considered
between 0.15 and 1.50 m in the present study, permitting the
dimensionless L/b parameter to be tested across a wide range (i.e.,
L/b = 0.3 to 3.0).
After the completion of a good physical description of the
rectangular side weir flowat the straight rectangular channel, side
weir flowrates were tested for different Froude numbers, different
M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330 323
a
b
Fig. 5. Definition sketch: velocity streamlines for L/b = 1.50: (a) F
1
< 0.28; (b) F
1
> 0.42.
p/h
1
ratios, different L/b ratios, and different L/h
1
ratios in order
to determine the variation of the discharge coefficient (Table 2).
A total of 910 test runs for discharge coefficient and water level
measurements were performed in the present study.
3. Experimental results and analysis
3.1. Water level profile
Water surface levels were measured both along the channel
centerline (C2, D2 and E2) and the weir side of the main channel
(C1, D1 and E1) to describe the flow structure in the main channel.
As shown in Fig. 4, the water depth at the upstream end of the
side weir is lower than that at the downstream end of the side
weir. This same situation is observed in all previous experimental
runs. Water surface profiles along side weirs drop slightly at the
upstream end of the weir crest. As El-Khashab [17] and Emiroglu
et al. [20] reported in previous studies, this is due to the side weir
entrance effect at the upstream end. The water level then quickly
rises toward the downstreamend of the weir. The rate of rise at the
water level decreases substantially after the midspan of the side
weir crest. The change in water level is not noticeable in almost
the last third of the weir length, where the water surface is almost
horizontal. This behavior of the water surface is due to the effect
of secondary flow created by lateral flow. Fig. 4 also indicates that
the water surface level along the main channel centerline is almost
horizontal. This shows that the side weir entrance effect does not
spread as for as the centerline of the main channel, but occurs only
near the weir crest.
Fig. 5(a) and (b) show surface velocity streamlines for F
1
<
0.28 and F
1
> 0.42, respectively. The effect of lateral flow is
significant, especially for high overflow conditions. The effect of
the breakdown in flow near the end of the weir at the channel
side is obvious near the channel bed. Since the low velocity layer
starts to exist, the path of maximum velocity gradually moves
from a position toward the side weir toward the centerline of the
main channel passing through the separation zone. The separation
zone occurs due to decreasing momentum in the direction of the
main channel flow overflowing the collection channel. The area
occupied by this zone is always near the bed, from 0.2 to 0.4 times
the mean depth of flow at that section along the weir length, and
varies with this area occupied by the low velocity layer. A reverse
flow at the downstream end of the side weir was also observed
when the Froude number is small. When F
1
> 0.42, the reserve
flow area diminishes and weak standing waves are formed. When
F
1
> 0.85, a surface jump occurs earlier at the end of side weirs,
because lateral flow reduces the potential energy and increases
the kinetic energy of the flow in the downstream direction within
the main channel. The existence of a stagnation zone is due to the
diversion that occurs from the path of maximum velocity thread.
The location of the stagnation zone and the reverse flow area
depend especially on the Froude number F
1
at the upstream side
of the weir in the main channel in addition to the length of the
side weir and the nape thickness over the side weir. When the flow
intensity or momentum toward the downstream direction in the
main channel increases, then the reverse flow area moves toward
the downstream end of the side weir.
3.2. C
d
coefficient
A series of 843 experimental runs were conducted to determine
the discharge coefficient of sharp-crested rectangular side weirs.
The discharge coefficient was computed using De Marchi’s
equation (Eq. (2)). In other words, h
1
and Q
w
were measured for
each side weir configuration in the laboratory. Thus, the discharge
coefficient was computed with Eq. (5) (i.e., De Marchi’s equation).
C
d
=
(3/2)Q
w

2g(h
1
−p)
3/2
L
. (5)
To study the effect of parameter p/h
1
on discharge coefficients,
C
d
values were plotted against p/h
1
together with the different L/b
ratios, as shown in Fig. 6((a)–(c)). Experiments were performed for
constant p, b and L with varying depth of flow(h
1
). In other words,
the crest height is 0.12 min Fig. 6(a), 0.16 min Fig. 6(b), and 0.20 m
in Fig. 6(c). As is seen in Fig. 6((a)–(c)), C
d
values corresponding
to the same p/h
1
values, especially for high L/b ratios, are very
324 M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330
a
b
c
Fig. 6. C
d
vs. different p/h
1
values for L/b = 0.3; L/b = 1.5, and L/b = 3.0 (a) p/b = 0.24; (b) p/b = 0.32; and (c) p/b = 0.24.
Fig. 7. Side weir coefficient (C
d
) vs. F
1
together with different dimensionless weir
heights (p/h
1
).
different fromeachother. The scatter of the data is attributedto the
effect of the other parameters, such as F
1
and L/h
1
parameters. The
variation of C
d
with p/h
1
shows a decreasing tendency for L/b =
0.3. This decreasing tendency for L/b < 1is similar to that reported
in previous studies [8,9,21,22]. The variation of C
d
with p/h
1
for
L/b = 1 to 1.5 shows a slightly increasing tendency. However,
for L/b = 3.0, this increasing tendency is very high. The intensity
of secondary flow due to lateral flow is more dominant when
a side weir is relatively long. Therefore, the deviation angle and
the kinetic energy caused by the secondary flow toward the side
weir increases when the relative side weir length (or the overflow
length) increases. Thus, it can be conclusively stated that p/h
1
is
an important parameter for the discharge coefficient. Therefore,
the effect of p/h
1
on C
d
has been investigated in detail for all
rectangular side weirs.
Fig. 7 shows C
d
plotted against F
1
together with different
dimensionless weir heights (p/h
1
) and weir lengths (L/b). The
p/h
1
and L/b values were kept constant, and several series of
experiments with different Froude numbers were performed.
Although the variation in C
d
value does not change greatly with
increasing p/h
1
value for L/b = 0.3, the values of C
d
increase
significantly with increasing p/h
1
for L/b = 3.0. Fig. 7 clearly
shows the effect of both p/h
1
and L/b on C
d
. The effect of p/h
1
on C
d
can be explained with reference to the discontinuity region.
This discontinuity regionhas a strong secondary motionnext to the
boundary of the weir side: the intensity of the secondary motion
next to the boundary depends on the crest height of the side weir
and decreases with increasing crest height of the side weir, due
to the friction of the weir surface. The intensity of secondary flow
created by lateral flow is defined as the ratio of the mean kinetic
energy of the lateral motion to the total kinetic energy of main flow
at a given cross section.
The variation of C
d
with F
1
while L/b, p/h
1
, and L/h
1
are
constant is shown in Fig. 8((a)–(e)). Moreover, Fig. 8((a)–(e)) also
M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330 325
a
b
c
d
e
Fig. 8. C
d
for different F
1
values: (a) p = 0.12 m; (b) p = 0.16 m; (c) p = 0.20 m.
show the effect of L/b parameter on C
d
. For L/b = 0.3 and
0.5, when the Froude number increases, C
d
values decrease. The
results indicate that the discharge coefficient increases when the
Froude number increases for L/b > 1. Agaccioglu et al. [21] and
Kaya et al. [22] also found a similar tendency. The values of C
d
have a tendency to increase with increasing values of L/b. The
variation of C
d
with F
1
shows an increasing tendency when L/b =
3, as shown in Fig. 8(e). The primary reason for this may be the
intensity of secondary flow created by lateral flow turbulence
and velocity streamlines that is oriented toward the side weir. By
the orientation of the velocity streamlines toward side weir, the
occurrence of the stagnation zone plays an important role in flow
interactions. As mentioned above, the strength of the secondary
flow created by the lateral flow was affected by the length of the
side weir crest height of the side weir and the Froude number. An
increase in the secondary flow causes the growth of the deviation
326 M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330
a
b
c
Fig. 9. C
d
for different L/h
1
values (a) L/b = 0.3; (b) L/b = 1.5; (c) L/b = 3.0.
angle and kinetic energy toward the side weir when the relative
length of the side weir increases. A review of the literature shows
that previous experiments generally used narrower main channel
widths, smaller weir lengths, and lower flow rates. Most previous
researchers ignored the effect of L/b, L/h
1
, and p/h
1
ratios on the
discharge coefficient. However, Jalili et al. [8] and Borghei et al. [9]
considered the effect of L/b and p/h
1
.
Fig. 9 shows the effect of L/h
1
on C
d
, where p/b is kept constant.
In other words, the crest height is 0.12 m in Fig. 9(a), 0.16 m in
Fig. 9(b), and 0.20 m in Fig. 9(c). However, it was not possible
to take p/h
1
and F
1
as constants, due to the variation of L/h
1
ratio. Although many researchers (e.g., El-Khashab [17]; Durga
Rao [18]) stated that the dimensionless parameter L/h
1
is effective
on discharge coefficient, the effect of this dimensionless parameter
was not studied adequately in previous studies. As shown in Fig. 9,
the variation in C
d
tends to increase with increasing values of
L/h
1
. The scatter of the data is attributed to the effect of the other
parameters, such as the Froude number and p/h
1
parameters. This
could be observed in almost all of the experiments. For the higher
values of L/b, the effect of L/h
1
can be seen more clearly. The fact
that the literature studied low L/b ratios more commonly led to
researchers overlooking the real effect of L/h
1
. The results of the
present study demonstrate conclusively that L/h
1
should not be
ignored.
Empirical correlations to predict discharge coefficient C
d
were
developed for rectangular side weirs according to the results of the
dimensionless analysis. The resulting correlation is given in Eq. (6).
C
d
=
_
0.836 +
_
−0.035 +0.39
_
p
h
1
_
12.69
+0.158
_
L
b
_
0.59
+0.049
_
L
h
1
_
0.42
+0.244F
2.125
1
_
3.018
_
_
5.36
(6)
where the weir width L, the channel width b, the height of weir
crest p, and the flowdepth h
1
are in meters and the Froude number
F
1
is dimensionless.
To evaluate the accuracy of the estimated nonlinear equation,
the root mean square errors (RMSE), the mean absolute error
(MAE), the average percent error (APE) and the correlation
coefficient (R) criteria were used. The value of R shows the degree
to which two variables are linearly related. Different types of
information about the predictive capabilities of the estimated
nonlinear equation are measured through RMSE and MAE. The
RMSE indicates the goodness of the fit related to high discharge
coefficient values, whereas the MAE provides a more balanced
perspective of the goodness of the fit at moderate discharge
coefficients [23]. The RMSE, MAE and APE are defined as
RMSE =
¸
¸
¸
_
1
N
N

i=1
(C
d
(observed) −C
d
(estimated))
2
(7)
M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330 327
Table 3
Comparison of present results with those of researchers in the literature when L/b = 0.3.
F
1
p/h
1
L/b L/h
1
Subramanya
et al. [2]
Ranga
Raju
et al. [4]
Hager [5] Singh
et al. [7]
Jalili
et al. [8]
Borghei
et al. [9]
Swamee
et al. [10]
Cheong [6] Nandesamoorthy
et al. [1]
Yu-
Tech[3]
Present
study
0.099 0.74 0.3 0.923 0.426 0.750 0.483 0.674 0.507 0.449 0.712 0.448 0.603 0.601 0.378
0.118 0.84 0.3 1.044 0.423 0.739 0.482 0.718 0.478 0.411 0.701 0.447 0.600 0.597 0.345
0.219 .79 0.3 0.989 0.402 0.678 0.474 0.678 0.446 0.375 0.706 0.439 0.576 0.574 0.318
0.313 0.77 0.3 0.963 0.372 0.622 0.464 0.651 0.412 0.337 0.708 0.428 0.545 0.554 0.365
0.153 0.34 0.3 0.426 0.417 0.718 0.480 0.469 0.572 0.542 0.831 0.445 0.594 0.589 0.406
0.198 0.34 0.3 0.424 0.407 0.691 0.476 0.460 0.554 0.521 0.832 0.441 0.583 0.579 0.404
0.228 0.37 0.3 0.466 0.399 0.673 0.473 0.472 0.535 0.497 0.812 0.439 0.574 0.572 0.401
0.267 0.41 0.3 0.518 0.387 0.650 0.469 0.485 0.509 0.465 0.792 0.434 0.561 0.564 0.397
0.294 0.40 0.3 0.505 0.378 0.633 0.466 0.475 0.500 0.456 0.797 0.431 0.552 0.558 0.397
0.226 0.34 0.3 0.422 0.400 0.674 0.473 0.455 0.543 0.508 0.833 0.439 0.574 0.573 0.402
0.257 0.34 0.3 0.422 0.391 0.656 0.470 0.449 0.530 0.493 0.833 0.435 0.565 0.566 0.408
0.634 0.62 0.3 0.772 0.215 0.430 0.420 0.518 0.314 0.229 0.732 0.361 0.407 0.482 0.320
0.650 0.58 0.3 0.728 0.206 0.420 0.418 0.498 0.316 0.231 0.740 0.357 0.400 0.479 0.318
0.088 0.72 0.3 0.541 0.427 0.757 0.483 0.668 0.515 0.459 0.715 0.448 0.605 0.603 0.402
0.119 0.88 0.3 0.661 0.423 0.739 0.482 0.741 0.467 0.396 0.696 0.447 0.600 0.597 0.365
0.143 0.63 0.3 0.473 0.419 0.724 0.480 0.613 0.513 0.460 0.730 0.445 0.596 0.591 0.400
0.123 0.46 0.3 0.347 0.422 0.736 0.481 0.534 0.558 0.520 0.773 0.447 0.600 0.596 0.410
0.167 0.51 0.3 0.379 0.414 0.710 0.478 0.547 0.530 0.486 0.759 0.444 0.590 0.586 0.407
0.172 0.47 0.3 0.353 0.413 0.707 0.478 0.530 0.536 0.494 0.770 0.443 0.589 0.585 0.404
0.515 0.90 0.3 0.674 0.280 0.501 0.437 0.678 0.301 0.201 0.694 0.391 0.460 0.509 0.318
0.590 0.91 0.3 0.681 0.240 0.456 0.426 0.669 0.268 0.162 0.693 0.373 0.426 0.492 0.327
0.550 0.87 0.3 0.650 0.262 0.480 0.432 0.656 0.294 0.194 0.697 0.383 0.444 0.501 0.281
0.567 0.83 0.3 0.621 0.253 0.470 0.429 0.634 0.295 0.197 0.701 0.379 0.437 0.497 0.338
0.606 0.87 0.3 0.649 0.231 0.447 0.424 0.645 0.271 0.168 0.698 0.369 0.419 0.489 0.285
0.615 0.82 0.3 0.617 0.226 0.441 0.423 0.623 0.277 0.176 0.702 0.367 0.415 0.487 0.314
0.184 0.86 0.3 1.071 0.410 0.700 0.477 0.717 0.446 0.373 0.698 0.443 0.586 0.582 0.376
0.366 0.86 0.3 1.071 0.351 0.591 0.457 0.684 0.371 0.285 0.698 0.420 0.524 0.542 0.366
0.424 0.86 0.3 1.071 0.325 0.555 0.449 0.674 0.348 0.257 0.698 0.410 0.500 0.529 0.346
0.127 0.89 0.3 0.833 0.422 0.734 0.481 0.743 0.462 0.390 0.695 0.446 0.599 0.595 0.434
0.210 0.89 0.3 0.833 0.404 0.684 0.475 0.728 0.428 0.351 0.695 0.440 0.579 0.576 0.412
0.294 0.89 0.3 0.833 0.378 0.633 0.466 0.713 0.394 0.310 0.695 0.431 0.552 0.558 0.412
0.405 0.91 0.3 0.682 0.334 0.567 0.452 0.703 0.344 0.251 0.693 0.414 0.508 0.533 0.403
0.466 0.91 0.3 0.682 0.305 0.530 0.444 0.692 0.319 0.222 0.693 0.402 0.482 0.520 0.394
0.549 0.75 0.3 0.938 0.262 0.481 0.432 0.599 0.320 0.230 0.711 0.383 0.445 0.501 0.335
0.600 0.75 0.3 0.938 0.235 0.450 0.425 0.590 0.299 0.205 0.711 0.371 0.422 0.490 0.356
0.178 0.80 0.3 0.750 0.412 0.703 0.478 0.690 0.461 0.393 0.705 0.443 0.588 0.584 0.424
0.251 0.80 0.3 0.750 0.392 0.659 0.471 0.677 0.431 0.357 0.705 0.436 0.567 0.567 0.410
0.409 0.83 0.3 0.625 0.332 0.565 0.451 0.665 0.359 0.272 0.701 0.413 0.506 0.532 0.383
0.463 0.83 0.3 0.625 0.306 0.532 0.444 0.655 0.337 0.246 0.701 0.403 0.483 0.520 0.375
0.293 0.67 0.3 0.833 0.379 0.634 0.466 0.604 0.443 0.378 0.723 0.431 0.552 0.558 0.391
0.417 0.67 0.3 0.833 0.328 0.560 0.450 0.582 0.392 0.318 0.723 0.412 0.503 0.530 0.382
0.494 0.73 0.3 0.682 0.291 0.513 0.439 0.597 0.347 0.262 0.714 0.396 0.469 0.513 0.388
0.621 0.73 0.3 0.682 0.222 0.437 0.422 0.575 0.295 0.202 0.714 0.365 0.412 0.485 0.342
0.168 0.77 0.3 0.577 0.414 0.709 0.478 0.677 0.472 0.407 0.708 0.444 0.590 0.586 0.414
0.241 0.77 0.3 0.577 0.395 0.666 0.472 0.664 0.442 0.372 0.708 0.437 0.570 0.570 0.409
MAE =
1
N
N

i=1
|C
d
(observed) −C
d
(estimated)| (8)
APE =
100
N
N

i=1
¸
¸
¸
¸
C
d
(observed) −C
d
(estimated)
C
d
(observed)
¸
¸
¸
¸
(9)
in which N is the number of data set.
The root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error
(MAE), the average percent error (APE) and correlation coefficient
(R) values for Eq. (6) are 0.0401%, 0.0281%, 4.527% and 0.955%
(i.e., deterministic coefficient R
2
= 0.912), respectively. Very good
agreements are obtained between the values observed experi-
mentally and the values computed from the predictive equation
(i.e., Eq. (6)). Thus, the present study introduces an accurate equa-
tion for the coefficient of discharge of the rectangular side weirs in
subcritical flow conditions.
The results of the present study, shown in Tables 3–5 were
compared with ten previous studies from the literature. As seen
from the relevant tables and also Fig. 10, at lower L/b values, the
results of the present studies are generally compatible with the
literature. The same is not true at highL/b ratios. Table 5 and Fig. 11
show that small F
1
numbers are compatible with the literature
but that, at high F
1
numbers, the present results differ from those
reported in the literature. This can be explained as follows: at high
L/b ratios, the intensity of secondary flow increases even more. As
mentioned above, the present study examined higher L/b ratios.
The values obtained using equations produced in other studies are
not very compatible within themselves. This situation can be seen
in Tables 3–5.
4. Conclusions
The present study provides an experimental examination of
the variation in the discharge coefficient of a rectangular, sharp-
crested side weir located on a straight, rectangular main channel.
As a result of dimensional analysis, the results indicate that the
dimensionless parameters of L/b and L/h
1
should not be ignored
in equations determining the discharge coefficient of the side
weir. In this study, the ranges of experimental conditions were
between 0.08 and 0.92 for F
1
, 0.34 and 0.91 for p/h
1
, 0.30 and
3.00 for L/b, and 0.347 and 10.71 for L/h
1
. For L/b = 0.3
and 0.5, when the Froude number increases, C
d
values decrease.
However, the variation of C
d
with F
1
shows an increasing tendency
328 M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330
Table 4
Comparison of present results with those in the literature when L/b = 1.5.
F
1
p/h
1
L/b L/h
1
Subramanya
et al. [2]
Ranga
Raju
et al. [4]
Hager [5] Singh
et al. [7]
Jalili
et al. [8]
Borghei
et al. [9]
Swamee
et al. [10]
Cheong [6] Nandesamoorthy
et al. [1]
Yu-
Tech[3]
Present
study
0.161 0.78 1.5 4.925 0.415 0.713 0.479 0.687 0.471 0.476 0.706 0.444 0.592 0.587 0.390
0.169 0.82 1.5 5.095 0.414 0.708 0.478 0.699 0.461 0.464 0.703 0.444 0.590 0.585 0.361
0.226 0.70 1.5 4.378 0.400 0.674 0.473 0.633 0.463 0.471 0.718 0.439 0.574 0.573 0.422
0.236 0.72 1.5 4.514 0.397 0.668 0.472 0.641 0.454 0.460 0.715 0.438 0.571 0.570 0.416
0.737 0.63 1.5 3.965 0.155 0.368 0.406 0.508 0.268 0.246 0.729 0.330 0.361 0.459 0.501
0.631 0.54 1.5 3.344 0.217 0.431 0.420 0.479 0.333 0.326 0.751 0.362 0.408 0.483 0.485
0.728 0.59 1.5 3.677 0.161 0.373 0.407 0.487 0.282 0.264 0.738 0.333 0.365 0.461 0.525
0.692 0.54 1.5 3.347 0.182 0.395 0.412 0.468 0.309 0.297 0.751 0.344 0.381 0.469 0.506
0.804 0.56 1.5 3.495 0.116 0.328 0.398 0.459 0.257 0.237 0.745 0.307 0.332 0.445 0.562
0.454 0.88 1.5 4.135 0.311 0.537 0.445 0.680 0.330 0.307 0.696 0.404 0.487 0.522 0.390
0.310 0.61 1.5 2.860 0.373 0.624 0.464 0.573 0.449 0.458 0.734 0.429 0.546 0.554 0.426
0.352 0.67 1.5 3.119 0.356 0.599 0.459 0.593 0.419 0.421 0.724 0.423 0.530 0.545 0.448
0.435 0.77 1.5 3.589 0.320 0.549 0.448 0.627 0.363 0.351 0.709 0.408 0.495 0.526 0.466
0.506 0.85 1.5 3.973 0.285 0.506 0.438 0.654 0.316 0.293 0.699 0.393 0.464 0.511 0.451
0.345 0.60 1.5 2.797 0.359 0.603 0.460 0.560 0.437 0.445 0.737 0.424 0.533 0.546 0.428
0.394 0.65 1.5 3.056 0.339 0.574 0.453 0.579 0.405 0.405 0.726 0.416 0.513 0.536 0.440
0.475 0.74 1.5 3.461 0.301 0.525 0.442 0.606 0.353 0.341 0.712 0.400 0.478 0.518 0.483
0.089 0.88 1.5 3.294 0.427 0.757 0.483 0.744 0.480 0.484 0.696 0.448 0.605 0.603 0.447
0.134 0.83 1.5 3.105 0.420 0.729 0.481 0.711 0.473 0.477 0.702 0.446 0.597 0.593 0.440
0.153 0.90 1.5 3.381 0.417 0.718 0.479 0.744 0.449 0.446 0.694 0.445 0.594 0.589 0.401
0.175 0.79 1.5 2.947 0.413 0.705 0.478 0.684 0.465 0.470 0.706 0.443 0.589 0.584 0.444
0.402 0.83 1.5 3.097 0.335 0.569 0.452 0.662 0.364 0.349 0.702 0.414 0.509 0.534 0.497
0.453 0.89 1.5 3.356 0.312 0.538 0.445 0.687 0.327 0.304 0.695 0.405 0.487 0.522 0.527
0.304 0.63 1.5 2.367 0.375 0.628 0.465 0.585 0.447 0.455 0.730 0.430 0.548 0.556 0.437
0.360 0.71 1.5 2.647 0.353 0.594 0.458 0.611 0.407 0.406 0.717 0.421 0.527 0.543 0.469
0.425 0.79 1.5 2.956 0.325 0.555 0.449 0.640 0.362 0.349 0.706 0.410 0.499 0.529 0.489
0.494 0.87 1.5 3.267 0.291 0.514 0.440 0.668 0.316 0.291 0.697 0.396 0.469 0.513 0.504
0.334 0.62 1.5 2.338 0.363 0.610 0.461 0.575 0.436 0.443 0.731 0.425 0.537 0.549 0.436
0.408 0.71 1.5 2.672 0.332 0.565 0.452 0.606 0.386 0.380 0.716 0.413 0.507 0.532 0.478
0.494 0.81 1.5 3.033 0.291 0.513 0.440 0.637 0.329 0.310 0.704 0.396 0.469 0.513 0.508
0.558 0.88 1.5 3.288 0.257 0.475 0.430 0.659 0.288 0.259 0.696 0.381 0.441 0.499 0.532
0.389 0.65 1.5 2.421 0.341 0.576 0.454 0.576 0.408 0.409 0.727 0.417 0.515 0.537 0.453
0.466 0.73 1.5 2.730 0.305 0.531 0.444 0.603 0.359 0.348 0.714 0.402 0.482 0.520 0.502
0.541 0.80 1.5 3.015 0.267 0.486 0.433 0.627 0.311 0.289 0.704 0.385 0.448 0.503 0.501
0.632 0.89 1.5 3.344 0.216 0.431 0.420 0.653 0.255 0.219 0.695 0.362 0.408 0.483 0.545
0.608 0.86 1.5 5.357 0.230 0.445 0.423 0.641 0.272 0.241 0.698 0.368 0.418 0.488 0.689
0.684 0.86 1.5 5.357 0.186 0.400 0.413 0.627 0.241 0.205 0.698 0.347 0.384 0.471 0.606
0.334 0.89 1.5 4.167 0.363 0.609 0.461 0.705 0.377 0.363 0.695 0.425 0.537 0.549 0.504
0.376 0.89 1.5 4.167 0.346 0.584 0.456 0.698 0.360 0.343 0.695 0.419 0.520 0.539 0.511
0.100 0.91 1.5 3.409 0.426 0.750 0.483 0.758 0.469 0.469 0.693 0.448 0.603 0.601 0.537
0.126 0.91 1.5 3.409 0.422 0.735 0.481 0.753 0.458 0.457 0.693 0.447 0.599 0.595 0.538
0.156 0.91 1.5 3.409 0.416 0.716 0.479 0.747 0.446 0.442 0.693 0.445 0.593 0.588 0.546
0.217 0.91 1.5 3.409 0.402 0.680 0.474 0.736 0.421 0.413 0.693 0.440 0.577 0.575 0.564
0.280 0.91 1.5 3.409 0.383 0.642 0.468 0.725 0.395 0.383 0.693 0.433 0.557 0.561 0.583
0.342 0.91 1.5 3.409 0.360 0.605 0.460 0.714 0.370 0.353 0.693 0.424 0.534 0.547 0.582
Fig. 10. Comparison of present results with those of Singh et al. [7] and Borghei
et al. [9] when L/b = 0.50.
Fig. 11. Comparison of recent results with those of Singh et al. [7] and Borghei
et al. [9] when L/b = 3.00.
M.E. Emiroglu et al. / Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 22 (2011) 319–330 329
Table 5
Comparison of present results with those in the literature when L/b = 3.0.
F
1
p/h
1
L/b L/h
1
Subramanya
and
Awasty [2]
Ranga
Raju
et al. [4]
Hager [5] Singh
et al. [7]
Jalili
and
Borghei [8]
Borghei
et al. [9]
Swamee
et al. [10]
Cheong [6] Nandesamoorthy
and
Thomson [1]
Yu-
Tech[3]
Present
study
0.282 0.82 3.0 10.266 0.382 0.641 0.467 0.682 0.414 0.498 0.702 0.432 0.556 0.560 0.608
0.328 0.79 3.0 9.824 0.366 0.614 0.462 0.656 0.403 0.487 0.706 0.426 0.539 0.550 0.585
0.369 0.78 3.0 9.720 0.350 0.589 0.457 0.645 0.388 0.470 0.707 0.420 0.523 0.541 0.602
0.405 0.83 3.0 10.356 0.334 0.567 0.452 0.663 0.361 0.437 0.701 0.414 0.508 0.533 0.676
0.473 0.84 3.0 10.492 0.302 0.527 0.443 0.656 0.332 0.401 0.700 0.401 0.479 0.518 0.932
0.495 0.80 3.0 9.974 0.291 0.513 0.439 0.632 0.332 0.403 0.705 0.396 0.469 0.513 0.672
0.507 0.81 3.0 10.184 0.284 0.506 0.438 0.638 0.323 0.392 0.703 0.393 0.463 0.510 0.701
0.637 0.80 3.0 7.487 0.213 0.428 0.419 0.607 0.273 0.334 0.705 0.360 0.405 0.482 0.834
0.786 0.79 3.0 7.448 0.126 0.339 0.400 0.578 0.213 0.265 0.705 0.314 0.340 0.449 1.066
0.826 0.79 3.0 7.361 0.102 0.314 0.395 0.566 0.199 0.248 0.706 0.299 0.322 0.440 1.116
0.807 0.80 3.0 7.509 0.114 0.326 0.397 0.577 0.203 0.252 0.705 0.306 0.331 0.444 1.148
0.652 0.79 3.0 7.445 0.205 0.419 0.417 0.602 0.268 0.329 0.705 0.356 0.398 0.478 0.841
0.485 0.72 3.0 6.730 0.296 0.519 0.441 0.594 0.353 0.432 0.715 0.398 0.473 0.515 0.618
0.440 0.73 3.0 6.821 0.318 0.546 0.447 0.607 0.369 0.450 0.714 0.407 0.493 0.525 0.609
0.389 0.75 3.0 7.031 0.341 0.577 0.454 0.627 0.386 0.468 0.711 0.417 0.515 0.537 0.600
0.343 0.78 3.0 7.335 0.360 0.605 0.460 0.652 0.397 0.481 0.707 0.424 0.533 0.547 0.628
0.284 0.81 3.0 7.619 0.382 0.640 0.467 0.677 0.415 0.500 0.703 0.432 0.556 0.560 0.639
0.236 0.85 3.0 7.980 0.397 0.668 0.472 0.705 0.426 0.511 0.699 0.438 0.571 0.571 0.697
0.181 0.90 3.0 6.713 0.411 0.701 0.477 0.736 0.439 0.524 0.695 0.443 0.587 0.583 0.682
0.221 0.84 3.0 6.305 0.401 0.678 0.474 0.702 0.435 0.522 0.700 0.439 0.576 0.574 0.592
0.263 0.81 3.0 6.092 0.389 0.652 0.470 0.681 0.423 0.510 0.703 0.435 0.562 0.565 0.576
0.307 0.90 3.0 6.761 0.374 0.626 0.465 0.716 0.386 0.462 0.694 0.429 0.547 0.555 0.770
0.411 0.84 3.0 6.267 0.331 0.564 0.451 0.666 0.358 0.432 0.701 0.413 0.506 0.532 0.690
0.435 0.72 3.0 5.379 0.320 0.549 0.448 0.603 0.374 0.456 0.715 0.408 0.495 0.526 0.544
0.615 0.90 3.0 6.774 0.226 0.441 0.422 0.662 0.259 0.314 0.694 0.367 0.415 0.487 1.020
0.679 0.90 3.0 6.784 0.189 0.403 0.414 0.651 0.233 0.283 0.694 0.348 0.387 0.472 1.160
0.651 0.88 3.0 6.604 0.205 0.419 0.417 0.644 0.249 0.303 0.696 0.356 0.399 0.478 1.009
0.703 0.88 3.0 6.575 0.175 0.388 0.410 0.633 0.229 0.279 0.696 0.341 0.376 0.467 1.020
0.735 0.90 3.0 6.773 0.156 0.369 0.406 0.640 0.210 0.256 0.694 0.331 0.362 0.460 1.347
0.808 0.91 3.0 6.813 0.113 0.325 0.397 0.630 0.179 0.220 0.693 0.306 0.330 0.444 1.746
0.769 0.88 3.0 6.591 0.136 0.348 0.402 0.622 0.201 0.247 0.696 0.319 0.347 0.452 1.288
0.244 0.86 3.0 10.714 0.395 0.664 0.472 0.706 0.421 0.506 0.698 0.437 0.569 0.569 0.677
0.367 0.86 3.0 10.714 0.350 0.590 0.457 0.684 0.371 0.447 0.698 0.420 0.524 0.542 0.722
0.797 0.86 3.0 10.714 0.294 0.517 0.440 0.662 0.322 0.389 0.698 0.397 0.472 0.515 0.792
0.715 0.89 3.0 8.333 0.168 0.381 0.409 0.637 0.221 0.270 0.695 0.337 0.371 0.464 1.347
0.750 0.89 3.0 8.333 0.147 0.360 0.404 0.631 0.207 0.253 0.695 0.326 0.355 0.456 1.556
0.165 0.91 3.0 6.818 0.415 0.711 0.479 0.746 0.443 0.528 0.693 0.444 0.591 0.586 0.731
0.277 0.91 3.0 6.818 0.384 0.644 0.468 0.726 0.397 0.474 0.693 0.433 0.558 0.562 0.785
0.397 0.75 3.0 9.375 0.337 0.572 0.453 0.626 0.382 0.464 0.711 0.415 0.511 0.535 0.583
0.550 0.75 3.0 9.375 0.262 0.480 0.432 0.599 0.320 0.391 0.711 0.383 0.444 0.501 0.682
0.610 0.80 3.0 7.500 0.228 0.444 0.423 0.612 0.284 0.347 0.705 0.368 0.417 0.487 0.857
0.679 0.80 3.0 7.500 0.189 0.403 0.414 0.600 0.256 0.314 0.705 0.348 0.387 0.472 0.914
0.246 0.83 3.0 6.250 0.394 0.663 0.471 0.694 0.426 0.512 0.701 0.437 0.568 0.569 0.600
0.328 0.83 3.0 6.250 0.366 0.614 0.462 0.679 0.392 0.473 0.701 0.426 0.539 0.550 0.656
0.434 0.83 3.0 6.250 0.320 0.550 0.448 0.660 0.349 0.422 0.701 0.408 0.496 0.527 0.674
when L/b = 3. An equation predicting the discharge coefficient
of rectangular sharp-crested side weirs was developed. The
presented equation for C
d
, De Marchi’s coefficient is reliable in
subcritical flow conditions. Thus, the discharge coefficient derived
from the equation can be used with confidence.
Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful for the constructive comments of
various anonymous reviewers, which strengthened and further
focused the manuscript. The authors acknowledge the financial
support of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of
Turkey (TUBITAK) under Project No. MAG 104M394.
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