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Rectangular Waveguide Characterization Using HFSS

International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

56
RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE CHARACTERIZATION USING HFSS

1
CHANNABASAYYA MATHAD,
2
PARAMESHA,
3
D SRINIVASA RAO

1
Dept of Telecommunication Engg, K I T Tiptur, Karnatak, India. Dept of E & C, Govt Engineering College, Hassan.
Karnataka, India.
3
Dept of E C, J N T U, Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh India.
E-mail: mathad123@yahoo.com


Abstract: The rectangular waveguide characteristics and field distribution for different modes in an open ended rectangular
waveguide when the waveguide is in the free space is computed using HFSS software. The analysis is made for different
parameters. The electric and magnetic fields strengths are analyzed inside a rectangular waveguide along with fundamental
modal distributions. Simulation analysis is carried out for X-band. Characteristic profiles are analyzed and the performance
of rectangular waveguide is studied. Theoretical analysis and simulation are carried out for waveguide and both results are
compared. A HFSS simulation platform for the analysis of the aperture radiation from a dielectric filled rectangular
waveguide is described.
Keywords- Rectangular waveguide, HFSS, Field distribution, Propagation constant.


I. INTRODUCTION

The radiating rectangular waveguide is a
fundamental electromagnetic structure and one about
which a great deal known.
An open ended rectangular waveguide is normally
taking the form of an enclosed conducting waveguide
[1], [2]. The electromagnetic waves propagating
inside the waveguide may be characterized by
reflections from the conducting walls. It is a radiating
structure finds many applications in communication
system, radar, biomedical, and both as single radiator
and as coupled radiators .etc [3] and [4]. It is possible
to propagate several modes of electromagnetic waves
within a rectangular waveguide. The rectangular
waveguide is a transmission medium supports TE and
TM modes. Because of the lack of a center conductor,
the electromagnetic field supported by a waveguide
can only be TE or TM modes. For rectangular
waveguide the dominant mode is TE
10
, which has the
lowest cut-off frequency. [5] [7]. The analysis of
rectangular waveguide field distribution is carried out
by several researchers.
As the communication technology improves
higher frequency range available for the longer
bandwidth. Analysis of transmission line is done by
microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. Thus
waveguide structures characterization is very
important. It depends on geometrical shape of the
waveguide and property of the medium. The various
theoretical formulas such as propagation
characteristics and resistive profiles are derived [8]
[11].
The HFSS is a software package analysis
modeling and analysis of 3-dimensional structures.
HFSS utilizes a 3D full wave finite element method
to compute the electrical behaviors of high frequency
and high speed components. The HFSS is more
accurately characterizes the electrical performance of
components and effectively evaluates various
parameters. It helps the user to observe and analyze

various performance of electromagnetic properties of
structures such as propagation constant, characteristic
port impedance, generalized S-parameters and Y-
Parameter etc are normalized to specific port
impedances, the Eigen modes or resonances of the of
the structures. The HFSS software is designed for
extracting modal parameters by simulating passive
devices. It is necessary for designing high frequency
and high speed components used in modern
electronic devices. The HFSS simulated results are
more accurate and helpful before design and
fabricating of real world components [12] [15].
In this paper characteristic of the rectangular
waveguide is simulated using HFSS. This analysis is
much helps in the fundamental of waveguide. Most
near field antenna measurements are made using
open-ended rectangular waveguide.

II. MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Consider a hallow rectangular waveguide
situated in the rectangular co-ordinate system with its
breadth along x-axis, width along y- axis, inner
dimension a b filled with an air as a dielectric. In
rectangular waveguide the electric and magnetic
fields are confined to space within the waveguides.
The electromagnetic waves are propagating in the z
direction. Or else the z - component of the magnetic
field, H
z
must exist in order to have energy
transmission in the rectangular waveguide. The
electromagnetic wave inside a waveguide can have an
infinite number of patterns which are called modes.
The TE
mn
modes in a rectangular waveguide are
characterized by E
z
=0, ie z-component of magnetic
field H
z
- must exist in order to transmit energy
through the waveguide. The TM
mn
modes in a
rectangular waveguide are characterized by H
z
=0.
Means that z-component of electric field E-must exist
to transmit energy in the waveguide.
The wave equations for waves propagating along z-
direction are given by

Rectangular Waveguide Characterization Using HFSS
International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

57

2
H
z
=pe

2
Hz
t
2
and E
z
=0 for TE waves (1)

2
E
z
=pe

2
Lz
t
2
and H
z
=0 for TM waves (2)
Where E
z
and H
z
are the components of the electric
and magnetic field along the z- direction for TE and
TM waves respectively. The mode which having
lowest cutoff frequency in a particular waveguide is
called dominant mode. The dominant mode in a
rectangular waveguide with dimension a >b is the
TE
10
mode. It is a mode which is used for practically
all electromagnetic transmission in the rectangular
waveguide. Dominant mode is almost always a low
loss, distortion less transmission and higher modes
result in a significant loss of power and also
undesirable harmonic distortion.
The cutoff frequency for the TE
mn
mode is given by
f
c
=
1
2

s
_
m
u
2
2
+
n
b
2
2
(3)
m,n =0,1..
m =n 0
The guided wavelength g in the waveguide is
given by
g =

_1-(Ic I)
2
for f >f
c
(4)

Where is the wavelength (unbounded dielectrics)
The propagation constant gamma is given by
=((R+jL)(R+jC))
= +j (5)
Where
is the attenuation constant
is the phase constant
The wave will propagate in the waveguide if
operating frequency must be greater than cutoff
frequency f >f
c
i.e. the frequency at which the value
of the propagation constant changes from real to
imaginary is called cut-off frequency.
The propagation constant/phase constant [ is
expressed as
= 1 (fc/ f)
2
for f >f
c
(6)
Where
f
c
is the cutoff frequency

p is the permeability and e is the permittivity of the
medium. The nature of propagation constant either
real or imaginary is decided by the frequency .
Characteristic wave impedance z is given by
z =
q
_1-(Ic I)
2
for f >f
c
(7)
Where
=1/

pe is the intrinsic impedance (unbounded


dielectric)

III. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

Numerical analyses are carried out for
characteristic properties of a rectangular waveguide
structure.

Figure 1: Coordinate system of a Rectangular waveguide.

The field patterns for the dominant TE
10
modes are
shown. The electric field exists only at right angles to
the direction of propagation where as the magnetic
field has a component along the z direction. Since n
=0, there is no variation of electric field along the y-
direction but varies only along x- direction The
electric field is maximum at the center of the
waveguide and decreasing sinusoidally towards the
side walls and finally becomes zero all along the left
and right two sides of the walls. Distribution of
electric and magnetic field is important while
considering a waveguide.

Figure2: Field variation for TE10 modes

There cannot be any interference with other modes
and hence noise and distortion are minimized when
only TE
10
mode propagates through the waveguide.
In TE
10
mode E
x
=0, H
y
=0, E
y
and H
x
exist. Since the
cut-off wavelength depends only on the larger
dimension a of the waveguide and its is independent
of the other dimension.
Rectangular Waveguide Characterization Using HFSS
International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

58

Figure3: Field variation for TE20 modes.

For TE
20
mode a full sine wave is observed and for
TE
11
mode field intensity maximum at the center zero
at the boundary.


Figure 4: Field variation for TE11 modes.

The magnetic field is in the form of closed loops
which lies in plane normal to the electric field that is
parallel to top and bottom of the waveguide. The
magnetic field is same in all those planes.
Using HFSS software field distribution for
different modes is analyzed. The electric field E and
magnetic field H variations inside the waveguide for
TE
10,
TE
20
and TE
11
modes are shown in the figure.


Figure 5: Electrical field variation inside rectangular
waveguide.


Figure 6: Magnetic field variation inside rectangular
waveguide.
Rectangular Waveguide Characterization Using HFSS
International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

59


Figure 7: Guided wavelength profile of rectangular waveguide
for X-band.

From Figure:7: Guided wavelength plot it is
observed and found that increase in frequency there is
a decrease in wavelength. Higher values of frequency
it remains almost constant. It also


Figure 8: Propagation constant profile of rectangular
waveguide for X-band.
Figure: 8 shows that propogation constant profile it is
observed that where the propagation constant
increases with increase in frequency because the
propogation constant is proportional to the frequency,
waveguide dimensions a and b and the arbitrary
intergers m and n.

Figure: 9: Characteristic impedance profile of rectangular
waveguide for X-band.

Figure 9 shows the characteristic impedance profile it
is observed that as the frequency increases
characteristic impedance decreases for lower
frequency and it remains almost constant for higher
frequency. It is also oberved that there is deviation in
the theoretical and simulated values. These results are
useful for analysis in various waveguide structure.

CONCLUSION

Excellent agreement between theoretical and
simulated values are observed and in charecteristic
impedance deviation is observed . The properties of
the waveguides are used to determine the
characteristics of the waveguide. The simulations are
carried out for lower microwave frequencies for X-
band. For analysis purpose different modes are
considered to understand the properties of electric
and magnetic field distrubutions, simulations are
carried out. Numerical results are compared with
existing theoretical results. This simulation is useful
for experimental analysis and results are more
accurate and helpful before design and fabricating of
real world components.

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Rectangular Waveguide Characterization Using HFSS
International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

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