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International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

56

RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE CHARACTERIZATION USING HFSS

1

CHANNABASAYYA MATHAD,

2

PARAMESHA,

3

D SRINIVASA RAO

1

Dept of Telecommunication Engg, K I T Tiptur, Karnatak, India. Dept of E & C, Govt Engineering College, Hassan.

Karnataka, India.

3

Dept of E C, J N T U, Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh India.

E-mail: mathad123@yahoo.com

Abstract: The rectangular waveguide characteristics and field distribution for different modes in an open ended rectangular

waveguide when the waveguide is in the free space is computed using HFSS software. The analysis is made for different

parameters. The electric and magnetic fields strengths are analyzed inside a rectangular waveguide along with fundamental

modal distributions. Simulation analysis is carried out for X-band. Characteristic profiles are analyzed and the performance

of rectangular waveguide is studied. Theoretical analysis and simulation are carried out for waveguide and both results are

compared. A HFSS simulation platform for the analysis of the aperture radiation from a dielectric filled rectangular

waveguide is described.

Keywords- Rectangular waveguide, HFSS, Field distribution, Propagation constant.

I. INTRODUCTION

The radiating rectangular waveguide is a

fundamental electromagnetic structure and one about

which a great deal known.

An open ended rectangular waveguide is normally

taking the form of an enclosed conducting waveguide

[1], [2]. The electromagnetic waves propagating

inside the waveguide may be characterized by

reflections from the conducting walls. It is a radiating

structure finds many applications in communication

system, radar, biomedical, and both as single radiator

and as coupled radiators .etc [3] and [4]. It is possible

to propagate several modes of electromagnetic waves

within a rectangular waveguide. The rectangular

waveguide is a transmission medium supports TE and

TM modes. Because of the lack of a center conductor,

the electromagnetic field supported by a waveguide

can only be TE or TM modes. For rectangular

waveguide the dominant mode is TE

10

, which has the

lowest cut-off frequency. [5] [7]. The analysis of

rectangular waveguide field distribution is carried out

by several researchers.

As the communication technology improves

higher frequency range available for the longer

bandwidth. Analysis of transmission line is done by

microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. Thus

waveguide structures characterization is very

important. It depends on geometrical shape of the

waveguide and property of the medium. The various

theoretical formulas such as propagation

characteristics and resistive profiles are derived [8]

[11].

The HFSS is a software package analysis

modeling and analysis of 3-dimensional structures.

HFSS utilizes a 3D full wave finite element method

to compute the electrical behaviors of high frequency

and high speed components. The HFSS is more

accurately characterizes the electrical performance of

components and effectively evaluates various

parameters. It helps the user to observe and analyze

various performance of electromagnetic properties of

structures such as propagation constant, characteristic

port impedance, generalized S-parameters and Y-

Parameter etc are normalized to specific port

impedances, the Eigen modes or resonances of the of

the structures. The HFSS software is designed for

extracting modal parameters by simulating passive

devices. It is necessary for designing high frequency

and high speed components used in modern

electronic devices. The HFSS simulated results are

more accurate and helpful before design and

fabricating of real world components [12] [15].

In this paper characteristic of the rectangular

waveguide is simulated using HFSS. This analysis is

much helps in the fundamental of waveguide. Most

near field antenna measurements are made using

open-ended rectangular waveguide.

II. MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Consider a hallow rectangular waveguide

situated in the rectangular co-ordinate system with its

breadth along x-axis, width along y- axis, inner

dimension a b filled with an air as a dielectric. In

rectangular waveguide the electric and magnetic

fields are confined to space within the waveguides.

The electromagnetic waves are propagating in the z

direction. Or else the z - component of the magnetic

field, H

z

must exist in order to have energy

transmission in the rectangular waveguide. The

electromagnetic wave inside a waveguide can have an

infinite number of patterns which are called modes.

The TE

mn

modes in a rectangular waveguide are

characterized by E

z

=0, ie z-component of magnetic

field H

z

- must exist in order to transmit energy

through the waveguide. The TM

mn

modes in a

rectangular waveguide are characterized by H

z

=0.

Means that z-component of electric field E-must exist

to transmit energy in the waveguide.

The wave equations for waves propagating along z-

direction are given by

Rectangular Waveguide Characterization Using HFSS

International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

57

2

H

z

=pe

2

Hz

t

2

and E

z

=0 for TE waves (1)

2

E

z

=pe

2

Lz

t

2

and H

z

=0 for TM waves (2)

Where E

z

and H

z

are the components of the electric

and magnetic field along the z- direction for TE and

TM waves respectively. The mode which having

lowest cutoff frequency in a particular waveguide is

called dominant mode. The dominant mode in a

rectangular waveguide with dimension a >b is the

TE

10

mode. It is a mode which is used for practically

all electromagnetic transmission in the rectangular

waveguide. Dominant mode is almost always a low

loss, distortion less transmission and higher modes

result in a significant loss of power and also

undesirable harmonic distortion.

The cutoff frequency for the TE

mn

mode is given by

f

c

=

1

2

s

_

m

u

2

2

+

n

b

2

2

(3)

m,n =0,1..

m =n 0

The guided wavelength g in the waveguide is

given by

g =

_1-(Ic I)

2

for f >f

c

(4)

Where is the wavelength (unbounded dielectrics)

The propagation constant gamma is given by

=((R+jL)(R+jC))

= +j (5)

Where

is the attenuation constant

is the phase constant

The wave will propagate in the waveguide if

operating frequency must be greater than cutoff

frequency f >f

c

i.e. the frequency at which the value

of the propagation constant changes from real to

imaginary is called cut-off frequency.

The propagation constant/phase constant [ is

expressed as

= 1 (fc/ f)

2

for f >f

c

(6)

Where

f

c

is the cutoff frequency

p is the permeability and e is the permittivity of the

medium. The nature of propagation constant either

real or imaginary is decided by the frequency .

Characteristic wave impedance z is given by

z =

q

_1-(Ic I)

2

for f >f

c

(7)

Where

=1/

dielectric)

III. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

Numerical analyses are carried out for

characteristic properties of a rectangular waveguide

structure.

Figure 1: Coordinate system of a Rectangular waveguide.

The field patterns for the dominant TE

10

modes are

shown. The electric field exists only at right angles to

the direction of propagation where as the magnetic

field has a component along the z direction. Since n

=0, there is no variation of electric field along the y-

direction but varies only along x- direction The

electric field is maximum at the center of the

waveguide and decreasing sinusoidally towards the

side walls and finally becomes zero all along the left

and right two sides of the walls. Distribution of

electric and magnetic field is important while

considering a waveguide.

Figure2: Field variation for TE10 modes

There cannot be any interference with other modes

and hence noise and distortion are minimized when

only TE

10

mode propagates through the waveguide.

In TE

10

mode E

x

=0, H

y

=0, E

y

and H

x

exist. Since the

cut-off wavelength depends only on the larger

dimension a of the waveguide and its is independent

of the other dimension.

Rectangular Waveguide Characterization Using HFSS

International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

58

Figure3: Field variation for TE20 modes.

For TE

20

mode a full sine wave is observed and for

TE

11

mode field intensity maximum at the center zero

at the boundary.

Figure 4: Field variation for TE11 modes.

The magnetic field is in the form of closed loops

which lies in plane normal to the electric field that is

parallel to top and bottom of the waveguide. The

magnetic field is same in all those planes.

Using HFSS software field distribution for

different modes is analyzed. The electric field E and

magnetic field H variations inside the waveguide for

TE

10,

TE

20

and TE

11

modes are shown in the figure.

Figure 5: Electrical field variation inside rectangular

waveguide.

Figure 6: Magnetic field variation inside rectangular

waveguide.

Rectangular Waveguide Characterization Using HFSS

International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

59

Figure 7: Guided wavelength profile of rectangular waveguide

for X-band.

From Figure:7: Guided wavelength plot it is

observed and found that increase in frequency there is

a decrease in wavelength. Higher values of frequency

it remains almost constant. It also

Figure 8: Propagation constant profile of rectangular

waveguide for X-band.

Figure: 8 shows that propogation constant profile it is

observed that where the propagation constant

increases with increase in frequency because the

propogation constant is proportional to the frequency,

waveguide dimensions a and b and the arbitrary

intergers m and n.

Figure: 9: Characteristic impedance profile of rectangular

waveguide for X-band.

Figure 9 shows the characteristic impedance profile it

is observed that as the frequency increases

characteristic impedance decreases for lower

frequency and it remains almost constant for higher

frequency. It is also oberved that there is deviation in

the theoretical and simulated values. These results are

useful for analysis in various waveguide structure.

CONCLUSION

Excellent agreement between theoretical and

simulated values are observed and in charecteristic

impedance deviation is observed . The properties of

the waveguides are used to determine the

characteristics of the waveguide. The simulations are

carried out for lower microwave frequencies for X-

band. For analysis purpose different modes are

considered to understand the properties of electric

and magnetic field distrubutions, simulations are

carried out. Numerical results are compared with

existing theoretical results. This simulation is useful

for experimental analysis and results are more

accurate and helpful before design and fabricating of

real world components.

REFERENCES

[1]S.Paramesha and A, Chakrabarty Waveguide as a near- field

measuring probe of the two element array radiator Progress

in Electromagnetics Reasearch PIER B, vol. 7, 245-255,

2008.

Rectangular Waveguide Characterization Using HFSS

International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (PRINT): 2320-2084, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013

60

[2] J iao, C. Q, Selective suppression of

Electromagnetic Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide by

Distributed Wall Lpsses, Progress in Electromagnetics

Reasearch PIER letters, vol. 22, pp. 119-128, 2011.

[3] Lee, C. S, Lee, S. W. and Chuang, S. L, plot of modal field

distribution in rectangular and circular waveguides, IEEE

transactions on microwave theory and techniques, vol. 33,

pp.271-274, 1985.

[4] Simon, w, wert hen, Mandy wolf F, I, A novel coplanar

transmission line to rectangular waveguide transition, IEEE

MTT-society international symposium digest. pp.257-260,

1998.

[5]Samuel Y Liao, 2008, Microwave Devices and Circuits

3

rd

Edition Pearson Prentice Hall.

[6]Harrington, R. F, Time harmonic Electromagnetic Fields,

McGraw- Hills, New York, 1961.

[7]C, A Balanis Advanced Engineering Electromagnetic, 1989,

J ohn Wiley and Sons Inc.

[8] R.E Collin, Foundation for microwave engineering, 2

nd

edition, 1992.McGraw-Hills New York.

[9] Baudrand, H, Tao, J ,W, Atechian, J .Study of radiating

properties of open ended rectangular wave guides, Antennas

and Propogation, IEEE Transcations on pages;1071-1077

Vol;36, Issue;8,Aug. 1988.

[10]Pozar, D. M, 1998, Microwave Engineering 2

nd

Edition,New

York: J ohn Wiley and sons Inc.

[11]Marcueitz, N, waveguide handbook, red lab. Series, vol.

10, McGraw hill book co, New York, 1951.

[12] HFSS; High frequency structure simulator based on the finite

element method, v. 9.2.1, and Soft Corporation, 2004.

[13]South worth, G, C, Principles and application of waveguide

transmission, D Van No strand co, N J , 1980.

[14] Kawalko, S.F, Kanda, M, Near zone gain of open ended

rectangular waveguides, Electromagnetic Compatibility,

IEEE Transactions on page(s): 408-413 Volume; 39, issue; 4,

Nov 1997.

[15]A Das,M.Sarkar.R Das, D. Das and P.Debnath Numerical

characterization of rectangular waveguide in free space using

HFSS software at lower microwave frequencies ijetae, 2250-

2459 .Vol 2,Issue 3, 2012.

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