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E-learning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

E-learning
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from E-Learning) E-learning refers to the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning is broadly inclusive of all forms of educational technology in learning and teaching. E-learning is inclusive of, and is broadly synonymous with multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer-based training (CBT), computerassisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI), internet-based training (IBT), web-based training (WBT), online education, virtual education, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms), m-learning, and digital educational collaboration. These alternative names emphasize a particular aspect, component or delivery method. E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology applications and processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CDROM, and computer-based learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web-based learning. Information and communication systems, whether free-standing or based on either local networks or the Internet in networked learning, underly many e-learning processes.[1] E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self-paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor-led, synchronous learning. E-learning is suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but it can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term blended learning is commonly used. It is commonly thought that new technologies make a big difference in education.[2] Many proponents of elearning believe that everyone must be equipped with basic knowledge of technology, as well as use it as a vehicle for reaching educational goals.

Contents
1 Overview 2 Background 3 History 4 Educational approach 4.1 Synchronous and asynchronous 4.2 Linear learning 4.3 Collaborative learning 4.3.1 Classroom 2.0 4.3.2 E-learning 2.0 5 Technology 5.1 Audio 5.2 Video 5.3 Computers, tablets and mobile devices 5.4 Blogging 5.5 Webcams 5.6 Whiteboards 5.7 Screencasting 5.8 Combining technology 5.9 Virtual classroom 5.10 Administrative tools
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-Learning 1/20

8/17/13

E-learning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

5.10.1 Learning management system 5.10.2 Learning content management system 5.10.3 Computer-aided assessment 5.10.4 Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) 6 Content 6.1 Pedagogical elements 6.2 Pedagogical approaches 6.3 Learning object standards 7 Applications 7.1 Preschool 7.2 K–12 7.3 Higher education 7.4 Corporate and professional 8 Advantages and disadvantages 8.1 Motivation 8.2 Other advantages and disadvantages 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Overview
E-learning refers to the use of technology in learning and education. There are several aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of e-learning, which can be categorized into discrete areas. These are addressed in turn in the sections of this article: 1. e-learning as an educational approach or tool that supports traditional subjects; 2. e-learning as a technological medium that assists in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange; 3. e-learning itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and Communication Technology (ICT)"; 4. e-learning administrative tools such as education management information systems (EMIS).

Background
E-learning is a broadly inclusive term that describes educational technology that electronically or technologically supports learning and teaching. Bernard Luskin, a pioneer of e-learning, advocates that the "e" should be interpreted to mean "exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational" in addition to "electronic." This broad interpretation focuses on new applications and developments, and also brings learning and media psychology into consideration.[3] Parks suggested that the "e" should refer to "everything, everyone, engaging, easy".[4] Depending on whether a particular aspect, component or delivery method is given emphasis, a wide array of similar or overlapping terms has been used. As such, e-learning encompasses multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), internet-based training (IBT), web-based training (WBT), online education, virtual education, virtual learning environments (VLE) which are also called learning platforms, m-learning, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction. Every one of these numerous terms has had its advocates, who point up particular potential distinctions. In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" aspect that was
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-Learning 2/20

[10] Developments in internet and multimedia technologies are the basic enabler of e-learning. Belgium and Korea appear to have comparatively effective programs.[9] The worldwide e-learning industry is economically significant. a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all. Early e-learning systems. and was estimated in 2000 to be over $48 billion according to conservative estimates. has been realized. is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course that not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching. California.[14] In the early 1960s. Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction. as opposed to systems developed later based on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL). Students and instructors communicate via these technologies. technologies. Whyte researched about the ever increasing role that computers would play in higher education. the free encyclopedia initially emphasized has blended into "e-learning.[15] and the ones developed at the University of Guelph in Canada. virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications. This evolution. Stanford's Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. slow en. Educational institutions began to take advantage of the new medium by offering distance learning courses using computer networking for information. which encouraged the shared development of knowledge. multimedia resources.[12] E-learning expenditures differ within and between countries. Cassandra B. Bernard Luskin launched Coastline Community College as a "college without walls" using television station KOCE-TV as a vehicle. and videoconferencing.org/wiki/E-Learning 3/20 .Wikipedia. content. Accordingly. with consulting. Finland. working with Stanford and others. The type of computers has changed over the years from cumbersome.[7][8] In practice. the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based in linked computer terminals where students could access informational resources on a particular course while listening to the lectures that were recorded via some form of remotely device like television or audio device. In 1963. Computer-based learning made up many early e-learning courses such as those developed by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz in the 1970s and 80s at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. developed computer assisted instruction. to include computer-supported collaborative learning.8/17/13 E-learning . accessing course content become possible at many college libraries. Luskin completed his landmark UCLA dissertation working with the Rand Corporation in analyzing obstacles to computer assisted instruction in 1970. Norway. Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. based on Computer-Based Learning/Training often attempted to replicate autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge. in addition to data management. "virtual learning" in a narrowly-defined semantic sense implies entering the environmental simulation within a virtual world.[16] In 1976." As an example.wikipedia.[5][6] for example in treating PTSD. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach math and reading to young children in elementary schools in East Palo Alto. services and support being identified as the five key sectors of the e-learning industry.[11] Information and communication technologies (ICT) are used extensively by young people. By the mid-1980s.[13] History In 1960. or at least a significant portion. which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn.

the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning's potential to drive equality and education improvements across the EU. was first developed) began a revolution of using the Internet to deliver learning.[25] In 2008. multimedia began introducing new schemes of communication. CALCampus is where concepts of online-based school first originated.[21] As the Internet becomes popularized.[17] The Open University in Britain[16] and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT. Now. and office to laptops and handheld devices that are more portable in form and size and this minimalization of technology devices will continue. record shows only 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses being for those with an online component. home. The emergence of e-learning is arguably one of the most powerful tools available to the growing need for education. back in 2006-2007 academic year.Wikipedia.[19] Practitioners such as Harasim (1995)[20] put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks. through the invention of webcams. By 1994. With the advent of World Wide Web in the 1990s. universities and K-12 students. now incorporated into Blackboard Inc.[24] With the drastic shift of Internetfunctionality. the free encyclopedia devices taking up much space in the classroom.[23] By 1994. In fact. replicable.[22] In 1993. Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technology-based courses include being portable.S Department of Education. now teachers received quick lecture feedbacks from their students.8/17/13 E-learning . which are text-based online virtual reality system. The idea of Virtual Education soon became popular and many institutions began following the new norm in the education history. scalable.wikipedia. the National Center for Education Statistics estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005. teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites. tutorial and assessment project using electronic mail.[18] making heavy use of web-based training and online distance learning and online discussion between students. educators can simply record lessons live and upload them on the website page. Graziadei described an online computer-delivered lecture. and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness. According to a 2008 study conducted by the U. correspondence schools like University of Phoenix became highly interested with the virtual education. The need to improve access to education opportunities allowed students who desire to pursue their education but are constricted due to the distance of the institution to achieve education through "virtual connection" newly available to them. about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools began participating in student financial aid programs offered some distance learning courses. and affordable.[25] Educational approach en. this allowed to progress real-time classroom instructions and Quantum Link classrooms. the first online high school had been founded. to create course websites along with simple sets instructions for its students.[26] Recent studies show that the effectiveness of online instruction is considered equal to that of face-to-face classroom instructions but not as effective as the combination of face-to-face and online methods. there are currently wide varieties of online education that are reachable for colleges. setting up a name for itself in 1980.org/wiki/E-Learning 4/20 . In 1997. This form of high learning allowed for greater flexibility by easing the communication between teacher and student. Online education is rapidly increasing and becoming as a viable alternative for traditional classrooms. CALCampus presented its first online curriculum as Internet becoming more accessible through major telecommunications networks.

much like reading an online book or manual. with all participants interacting at the same time. Synchronous learning occurs in real-time.0. For example. the free encyclopedia The extent to which e-learning assists or replaces other learning and teaching approaches is variable. ranging on a continuum from none to fully online distance learning. and the ability to communicate in writing effectively. and typically presents content in a linear fashion. and social networking using web 2. radio button. or fully online distance learning environments. In elearning environments. If they need to listen to a lecture a second time. Skype conversations.[27] Another scheme described the level of technological support as 'web enhanced'. the primary difference being that WBTs are delivered via Internet using a web browser.[35] Linear learning Computer-based learning or training (CBT) refers to self-paced learning activities delivered on a computer or handheld device such as a tablet or smartphone. or chat rooms or virtual classrooms where everyone is online and working collaboratively at the same time. as well as web-supported textbooks. Asynchronous learning may use technologies such as email. A face-to-face discussion is an example of synchronous communications. examples of synchronous communications include online real-time live teacher instruction and feedback. audio[33] video courses. Assessing learning in a CBT is often by assessments that can be easily scored by a computer such as multiple choice questions. They have the opportunity to complete their work in a low stress environment and within a more flexible timeframe. internships. students proceed at their own pace. wikis. drag-and-drop.[27][28] A variety of descriptive terms have been employed (somewhat inconsistently) to categorize the extent to which technology is used.wikipedia.[34] Asynchronous learning is particularly beneficial for students who have health problems or have child care responsibilities and regularly leaving the home to attend lectures is difficult. or work and still graduate with their class. 'web supplemented' and 'web dependent'. they may do so without fearing that they will hold back the rest of the class. providing immediate end-user feedback and completion en. Through online courses.[32] hypertext documents.(Sloan Commission)[citation needed ] Synchronous and asynchronous E-learning may either be synchronous or asynchronous.[19] In asynchronous online courses. self-discipline. or repeat failed courses without the embarrassment of being in a class with younger students. CBT is often used to teach static processes. or think about a question for awhile. simulation or other interactive means. training may include virtual operating rooms. Computer-based training is conceptually similar to web-based training (WBT). Students also have access to an incredible variety of enrichment courses in online learning. and discussion boards. Both the asynchronous and synchronous methods rely heavily on self-motivation. and can participate in college courses.8/17/13 E-learning .[29][30][31] 'Distributed learning' may describe either the e-learning component of a hybrid approach. At the professional educational level. students can earn their diplomas more quickly. or may refer to approaches in which traditional classroom time is reduced but not eliminated. while asynchronous learning is self-paced and allows participants to engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time. such as using software or completing mathematical equations.Wikipedia. For this reason. Synchronous learning involves the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period of time. blogs. 'hybrid learning' or 'blended learning' may refer to classroom aids and laptops.org/wiki/E-Learning 5/20 . CBT often delivers content via CD-ROM. and is replaced with some online learning. sports. Assessments are easily scored and recorded via online software.

computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) allows learners in one school to communicate with learners in another that they would not get to know en. including videos or animations. not typically offered by any other means. Many learning organizations are beginning to use smaller CBT/WBT activities as part of a broader online learning program which may include online discussion or other interactive elements."[36]:2 Using Web 2.[citation needed ] For example. CSCL is similar in concept to the terminology.0 social tools in the classroom allows for students and teachers to work collaboratively. Instead of limiting students to attending courses or reading printed manuals. the neologism "e-learning 1. Whyte.org/wiki/E-Learning 6/20 . and cloud-based document portals (such as Google Docs and Dropbox). Collaborative learning Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) uses instructional methods designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks. In contrast to the linear delivery of content. manual. wikis. the continuing attention to aspects of motivation and success in regard to e-learning should be kept in context and concert with other educational efforts.0 Classroom 2. and social networking skills are found to be significantly useful in the classroom. wikis.wikipedia. CBTs offer user-friendly solutions for satisfying continuing education requirements.0". CBTs offer visual learning benefits through animation or video. psychologists. According to the work of Cassandra B. can easily be embedded to enhance the learning. For example. CSCL uses blogs. the lack of human interaction can limit both the type of content that can be presented as well as the type of assessment that can be performed. After initial instruction on using the tools. In addition. "elearning 2. Users are often able to print completion records in the form of certificates. Typically the creation of effective CBTs requires enormous resources. According to Sendall (2008).0 tools. students also reported an increase in knowledge and comfort level for using Web 2.0" refers to the direct transfer method in computer-based learning and training systems (CBL). or classroom-based instruction. For example. Information about motivational tendencies can help educators. The software for developing CBTs (such as Flash or Adobe Director) is often more complex than a subject matter expert or teacher is able to use. CBTs provide learning stimulus beyond traditional learning methodology from textbook. However.8/17/13 E-learning . CBTs pose some learning challenges. Locus of control remains an important consideration in successful engagement of e-learners.[37] blogs. students are able to acquire knowledge and skills through methods that are much more conducive to individual learning preferences. Collaborative learning is distinguishable from the traditional approach to instruction in which the instructor is the principal source of knowledge and skills. With technological Web 2.Wikipedia.0 advances. and technologists develop insights to help students perform better academically. often directly from the instructor's material. Also known as "eTwinning". and promote information. the free encyclopedia status. discuss ideas. sharing information between multiple people in a network has become much easier and use has increased.[38] Classroom 2. The collaborative tools also prepare students with technology skills necessary in today's workforce.[36]:1 One of the main reasons for its usage states that it is "a breeding ground for creative and engaging educational endeavors.0 refers to online multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) that connect schools across geographical frontiers.[citation needed ] CBTs can be a good alternative to printed learning materials since rich media.

Creating a systematic video development method holds promise for creating video models that positively impact student learning. Websites like YouTube are used by many teachers.0 is a type of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) system that developed with the emergence of Web 2. podcasts and virtual worlds such as Second Life. Video Videos allow teachers to reach students who are visual learners and tend to learn best by seeing the material rather than hearing or reading about it. iTunes has various podcasts available on a variety of subjects that can be downloaded for free. in contrast to e-learning systems not based on CSCL.[49] Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) is the use of handheld computers or cell phones to assist in language learning.org/wiki/E-Learning 7/20 . Teachers can use messaging programs such as Skype. Audio The radio has been around for a long time and has been used in educational classrooms. which were delivered to students using assignments.8/17/13 E-learning .[43][44][45] From an e-learning 2. conventional e-learning systems were based on instructional packets. In contrast. and virtual classrooms.0. to interact with guest speakers and other experts. Traditional educators may not promote social networking unless they are communicating with their own colleagues. Teachers can access video clips through the internet instead of relying on DVDs or VHS tapes.[51] Computers.[39][40][41] enhancing educational outcomes and cultural integration. Most e-learning uses combinations of these techniques. the free encyclopedia otherwise. but early results show an increased retention and better results when video is used in a lesson. ePortfolios. the new e-learning places increased emphasis on social learning and use of social software such as blogs.0 applications are Blogger and Skype. wikis.[50] Technology Various technologies are used to facilitate e-learning. Assignments were evaluated by the teacher. social networks have become an important part of E-learning 2. Adobe Connect.[42] E-learning 2.[46] This phenomenon has also been referred to as Long Tail Learning[47] See also (Seely Brown & Adler 2008)[48] E-learning 2. Social networks have been used to foster online learning communities around subjects as diverse as test preparation and language education.0.0 E-learning 2. Interactive video games are being integrated in the curriculum at both K-12 and higher education institutions. tablets and mobile devices en. Advocates of social learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something is to teach it to others. For example.[48] In addition to virtual classroom environments. Learning takes place through conversations about content and grounded interaction about problems and actions. Examples of classroom 2. or webcams. Recent technologies have allowed classroom teachers to stream audio over the internet. collaborative software. Research on the use of video in lessons is preliminary. including blogs.0.0 perspective. assumes that knowledge (as meaning and understanding) is socially constructed.Wikipedia. There are also webcasts and podcasts available over the internet for students and teachers to download.wikipedia.

so learning becomes interactive and engaging. the increasing tendency is to create a virtual learning environment (VLE) (which is sometimes combined with a Management Information System (MIS) to create a Managed Learning Environment) in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface standard throughout the institution. which may be more confusing when delivered via simple text instructions. E-learning. something a classroom cannot always offer. Screencasting Screencasting is a recent trend in e-learning. instructional technology. There are many screencasting tools available that allow users to share their screens directly from their browser and make the video available online so that the viewers can stream the video directly. also has implications beyond just the technology and refers to the actual learning that takes place using these systems. such as online advising and registration.[53] Whiteboards Interactive whiteboards ("smartboards") allow teachers and students to write on the touch screen. Combining technology Along with the terms learning technology. student governments and student newspapers. Many mobile devices support m-learning. and images. the term educational technology refers to the use of technology in learning in a much broader sense than the computer-based training or Computer Aided Instruction of the 1980s. ideas. online textbook purchases. as well as newer onlineonly colleges. however. Virtual classrooms with such technology also provide the benefits of being easy to set up.Wikipedia. A growing number of physical universities. From the learner's point of view this provides the ability to pause and rewind and gives the learners the advantage of moving at their own pace. especially since they are contributing as a main solution to solving problems with travel expenses. PDF files. Virtual classrooms supported by such technology are becoming more and more popular.[52] Webcams The development of webcams and webcasting has facilitated the creation of virtual classrooms and virtual learning environments. While some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations.org/wiki/E-Learning 8/20 . With the combination of video and audio. have begun to offer a select set of academic degree and certificate programs via the Internet at a wide range of levels and in a wide range of disciplines.wikipedia. the expert can mimic the one-on-one experience of the classroom and deliver clear. It is also broader than the terms Online Learning or Online Education which generally refer to purely web-based learning. complete instructions. such as Microsoft Word.[54] The advantage of such tools is that it gives the presenter the ability to show his ideas and flow of thoughts rather than simply explain them. Blogging Blogs allow students and teachers to post their thoughts. several universities offer online student support services. e-counseling. the free encyclopedia Computers and tablets allow students and teachers access to websites and other programs. Blogging allows students and instructors to share their thoughts and comments on the thoughts of others which could create an interactive learning environment. many are delivered completely online. In addition. PowerPoint. and comments on a website. the term M-learning has become more common. In cases where mobile technologies are used. In higher education especially. en.8/17/13 E-learning .

[55] Participants in a virtual classroom can also use icons called emoticons to communicate feelings and responses to questions or statements. students.org/wiki/E-Learning 9/20 . administrators.[52] An LMS may allow teachers. read and respond to discussion questions. microphone rights. Administrative tools Learning management system Main article: Learning management system A learning management system (LMS) is software used for delivering.[56] Two widely used internet-based learning management systems tools for e-learning are Blackboard Inc. which allows for instant playback of any class over the course of the school year. Other communication technologies available in a virtual classroom include text notes. microphone. The term is also used extensively in the business sector where it generally refers to cost-effective online training.Wikipedia. Students can submit their work. utilize virtual classrooms and meetings which often use a mix of communication technologies. Students are able to 'write on the board' and even share their desktop. en.8/17/13 E-learning . the free encyclopedia E-learning can also refer to educational websites such as those offering learning scenarios. and participate in class discussions. and Moodle. also known as learning platforms. Breakout sessions allow the participants to work collaboratively in a small group setting to accomplish a task as well as allow the teacher to have private conversations with his or her students. Effective translation into other languages and cultural contexts requires even more investment by knowledgeable personnel. Virtual classroom Main article: Virtual Learning Environment Virtual Learning Environments (VLE). Each class is recorded and stored on a server. and take quizzes. is Adobe Connect. The virtual classroom also provides the opportunity for students to receive direct instruction from a qualified teacher in an interactive environment. Students have direct and immediate access to their instructor for instant feedback and direction. worksheets and interactive exercises for children.wikipedia. Most virtual classroom applications provide a recording feature. which can be helpful for students who may find the freedom of asynchronous learning to be overwhelming. This also provides students with the opportunity to watch any class that they may have missed. time on task. grade assignments. tracking and managing training and education. which is sometimes used for meetings and presentations. tracking attendance. One example of web conferencing software that enables students and instructors to communicate with each other via webcam. The creation and maintenance of comprehensive learning content requires substantial initial and ongoing investments of human labor. the virtual classroom provides a social learning environment that replicates the traditional "brick and mortar" classroom. and student progress. and permitted additional parties (such as parents if appropriate) to track various metrics. This can be extremely useful for students to review material and concepts for an upcoming exam. Educators can post announcements. so that they do not fall behind. The virtual classroom also provides a structured schedule of classes. and real-time chatting in a group setting. for example. In addition. check on course activity. It also gives parents the ability to monitor any classroom to ensure that they are satisfied with the education their child is receiving. when given rights by the teacher. LMSs range from systems for managing training/educational records to software for distributing courses over the Internet and offering features for online collaboration. and breakout sessions.

Blackboard's tools allow educators to decide whether their program will be blended or fully online. tools. The best examples follow a formative Assessment structure and are called "Online Formative Assessment". or it can host the content itself. Blackboard can be used for K-12 education. Blackboard Connect. Business. The next stage is to make a summative assessment by a new set of questions only covering the topics previously taught. and IMS LD Level A is supported in LAMS V2. the free encyclopedia Blackboard Inc. advice.elearning has been replacing the traditional settings due to its cost effectiveness.[61] Electronic performance support systems are used for: task structuring support: help with how to do a task (procedures and processes). Learning design is the type of activity enabled by software that supports sequences of activities that can be both adaptive and collaborative. A recent trend in LCMSs is to address this issue through crowd-sourcing (cf. With some systems.[58] Learning content management system A learning content management system (LCMS) is software for author content (courses. An LCMS may be solely dedicated to producing and publishing content that is hosted on an LMS. and learning experiences" (Raybould. This is the formative learning stage. It will then give the pupil at least one practice at each slight variation of sifted out questions. It is free to download and provides blended learning opportunities as well as platforms for distance learning courses. individualized on-line access to the full range of information.org/wiki/E-Learning 10/20 . guidance. 1991). asynchronous or synchronous. ranging from automated multiple-choice tests to more sophisticated systems is becoming increasingly common. 1989). and assessment and monitoring systems to permit job performance with minimal support and intervention by others.8/17/13 E-learning . The Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC) specification provides support for content that is hosted separately from the LMS. has over 20 million users daily. images." (Gery.Wikipedia. data. software. Higher Education. This involves making an initial formative assessment by sifting out the incorrect answers. Blackboard Collaborate. advice and assistance. The author of the assessment/teacher will then explain what the pupil should have done with each question. and Blackboard Analytics. Offering six different platforms: Blackboard Learn. according to Barry Raybould. Blackboard Transact.[57] Moodle is an Open Source Course Management System. Computer-aided assessment Computer-aided assessment (also but less commonly referred to as e-assessment). The IMS Learning Design specification is intended as a standard format for learning designs.wikipedia.SlideWiki[59]). feedback can be geared towards a student's specific mistakes or the computer can navigate the student through a series of questions adapting to what the student appears to have learned or not learned. and Government collaboration. The Moodle website has many tutorials for creating a program or becoming a Moodle student. Blackboard Mobile. "a computer-based system that improves worker productivity by providing on-the-job access to integrated information. reusable content objects). Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) An Electronic Performance Support System is.[60] Gloria Gery defines it as "an integrated electronic environment that is available to and easily accessible by each employee and is structured to provide immediate. en.

. video. Excel formulas. data) Content Content is a core component of e-learning and includes issues such as pedagogy and learning object re-use.. symbols for Excel formula.g. Creating a course requires putting together a en.[71] Learning object standards Main article: Sharable Content Object Reference Model Much effort has been put into the technical reuse of electronically based teaching materials and in particular creating or re-using learning objects. quiz. or the five phases in ADDIE) Procedure .[65] and cognitive.. 2007). lesson.task performed by adapting guidelines (e. the pedagogical structures themselves are not the textbook. encouraging interconnectivity. or the parts that make up a learning objective) Concept .a flow of events or activities (e. g. assignment.wikipedia. multiple choice question. Mayer.[66] emotional. how a spreadsheet works. or the steps that should be followed within a phase in ADDIE) Strategic Principle . entering a formula into a spreadsheet. Self-regulation and structured supervision both enhance e-learning. all of which are possible methods of delivery. video conference. These units are independent of format. including social-constructivist.org/wiki/E-Learning 11/20 .8/17/13 E-learning . e. or other metadata. the free encyclopedia access to knowledge bases (help user find information needed) alternate forms of knowledge representation (multiple representations of knowledge. They are the educational content that is to be delivered. and often stored in an XML file format.[63] Laurillard's conversational model[64] including Gilly Salmon's five-stage model.Wikipedia..[69] In 'mode neutral' learning online and classroom learners can coexist within one learning environment.[62] Content normally comes in one of five forms: Fact ..a category that includes multiple examples (e. one option is using a design architecture composed of the “Five Types of Content in eLearning” (Clark. E-learning theory examines these approaches. g.[70] Self-regulated learning refers to several concepts that play major roles in e-learning.step-by-step task (e. g. Learning courses should provide opportunities to practice these strategies and skills. discussion group or a case study. audio. or using a framework for designing learning environments) Pedagogical elements Pedagogical elements are defined as structures or units of educational material.. or the various types/theories of Instructional Design) Process .[67] behavioral.unique data (e. g. text. web page. Podcast. one application of which was One Laptop Per Child. These are self-contained units that are properly tagged with keywords. image. doing a financial projection in a spreadsheet. Pedagogical approaches Main article: E-learning (theory) Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with e-learning programs. meaning that although the unit may delivered in various ways. While there are a number of means of achieving a rich and interactive elearning platform.[68] and contextual perspectives. g.

peerreviewed repositories of learning objects such as the Merlot repository. They are also relatively vertical specific: SIF is primarily pK-12. Students are to use technology for school use only and must meet weekly work submission requirements. or for categorizing metadata (LOM). Retired. Technology kits are usually provided that include computers. Teachers employed by K–12 online public schools must be certified teachers in the state they are teaching in.the Post-Secondary Education Standards Council. PESC. Online schools allow for students to maintain their own pacing and progress. such as the ageanticipated stages labeled by Swiss psychologist.[73] Although parents report a positive experience. An excellent example of e-learning that relates to knowledge management and reusability is Navy ELearning. These standards themselves are early in the maturity process with the oldest being 8 years old. and SCORM is primarily Military and Corp with some Higher Ed. There are several states that are utilizing virtual school platforms for e-learning across the country that continue to increase. and reimbursement for home internet use. and concurrent entertainment and educational aspects. Applications Preschool Various forms of electronic media are a feature of preschool life.[73] The age when a given child might start using a particular technology such as a cellphone or computer might depend on matching a technological resource to the recipient's developmental capabilities. but also evaluates the progress of the student and credit can be earned toward higher learning institutions.[74] Parameters. the free encyclopedia sequence of learning objects. Other specifications such as Schools Framework allow for the transporting of learning objects. Each state government's content standards and achievement benchmarks are critical metadata for linking e-learning objects in that space. course selection. such as age-appropriateness. or Disable Military members.[75] K–12 E-learning is utilized by public K–12 schools in the United States as well as private schools.wikipedia. which is available to Active Duty.org/wiki/E-Learning 12/20 .8/17/13 E-learning .the NCES data standards are a prime example. LOM is primarily Corp. Virtual school enables students to log into synchronous learning or asynchronous learning courses anywhere there is an internet connection. Some elearning environments take place in a traditional classroom. others allow students to attend classes from home or other locations.[72] This reuse is an excellent example of knowledge retention and the cyclical process of knowledge transfer and use of data and records. coherence with sought-after values. This on-line tool provides certificate courses to enrich the user in various subjects related to military training and civilian skill sets. non-commercial and commercial. printers.[citation needed ] en.is also making headway in developing standards and learning objects for the Higher Ed space. Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications that applies to certain web-based e-learning. the impact of such use has not been systematically assessed.Wikipedia. The Internet allows for learning to be directed at one’s current objectives. Military and Higher Ed. have been suggested for chosing media. while SIF is beginning to seriously turn towards Instructional and Curriculum learning objects. In the US pK12 space there are a host of content standards that are critical as well. The e-learning system not only provides learning objectives. and provide the flexibility for students to create their own schedule. There are both proprietary and open. Jean Piaget.

These provide the benefits of e-learning to students in states where charter online schools are not available.org/wiki/E-Learning 13/20 .8/17/13 E-learning . income level or class size in the way brick and mortar charter schools are.900 free micro-lectures available via YouTube. Properly trained staff must also be hired to work with students online. is now offering education for millions of people around the world. MIT. 6. non-profit schools do so.wikipedia. Virtual education in K-12 schooling often refers to virtual schools. the free encyclopedia E-learning is increasingly being utilized by students who may not want to go to traditional brick and mortar schools due to severe allergies or other medical issues. Private organizations also offer classes.[79] In 2009. and in higher education to virtual universities. This virtual curriculum complement the curriculum taught in the traditional education setting by providing equality for all students. Private institutions may become more involved with on-line presentations as the costs decrease. Online charter schools also often are not limited by location. with free computer science classes.[citation needed ] Enrollments for fully online learning increased by an average of 12–14 percent annually between 2004–2009. Coursera. Stanford and Princeton University offer classes to a global audience. Free online courses are administered by the website. Although a large proportion of for-profit higher education institutions now offer online classes. despite disability.[84] The Sloan report.[83] Over two-thirds of chief academic officers believe that online learning is critical for their institution. Virtual schools are “cybercharter schools"[78] with innovative administrative models and course delivery technology. but not for college credit. e-learning has become a predominant form of post-secondary education. The lectures are recorded into series of short videos discussing different topics and assignments in a weekly basis. These staff members need to understand the content area.[77] National private schools are also available online. 3.5 million students participated in on-line learning at higher education institutions in the United States. indicated that students are as satisfied with on-line classes as with traditional ones. Online education is rapidly increasing.fields like computer science. 44 percent of post-secondary students in the USA were taking some or all of their courses online.[82] During the fall 2011 term.[79][80] In 2006. and geographical location and socioeconomic status.[76] Online schools create a safe haven for students to receive a quality education while almost completely avoiding these common problems.[85] Although massively-open online courses (MOOCs) may have limitations that preclude them from fully replacing college education. such as Udacity. en. They also may allow students greater flexibility and exemption from state testing. with over 3.[78] Higher education In the United States. and Khan Academy.[87] University-level programs. compared with an average of approximately 2 per cent increase per year in enrollments overall.[81] Almost a quarter of all students in post-secondary education were taking fully online courses in 2008. networks and social sciences are accessibly offered to pursuing students. fear of school violence and school bullying and students whose parents would like to homeschool but do not feel qualified. offer wide range of disciplines at no charge. and also be highly trained in the use of the computer and Internet. like edX founded by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University.Wikipedia.[86] such programs have significantly expanded. and online doctoral programs have even developed at leading research universities. this figure is projected to rise to 81 percent by 2014. A certification is consigned by Coursera for students who are able to complete an adequate performance in the course.7 million students enrolled in at least one online course. an online-enrollment platform. only about half of private. medicine. based on a poll of academic leaders.

org/wiki/E-Learning 14/20 . bored or frustrated. including access to full degree programs[92] Better integration for non-full-time students.[90] including confusion. he or she is unlikely to be motivated to succeed in that class. It is important to note that many of these students could be working their way through college. Ease of cheating. where employees can learn valuable workplace skills.[93] Provision of tools to enable students to independently solve problems. the free encyclopedia According to Fortune magazine. in asynchronous e-learning classes. Key disadvantages of e-learning. include: Potential distractions that hinder true learning. If a student is confused. introduce new material.[citation needed ] Bias towards tech-savvy students over non-technical students. Other advantages and disadvantages Key advantages of e-learning include: Improved open access to education.[91] One reason why students are more likely to be disengaged is that the lack of face-to-face contact makes it difficult for teachers to read their students' nonverbal cues. it would be extremely difficult to find time to fit college in their schedule. students are free to log on and complete work any time they wish. They can work on and complete their assignments at the times when they think most cogently.[89] To these students.wikipedia. over a million people worldwide have enrolled in free online courses. Other areas of growth include staff development. Compliance has also been a big field of growth with banks using it to keep their staff's CPD levels up. that have been found to make learning less effective than traditional class room settings. self-paced method of education to attain their degree. these students are more likely and more motivated to enroll in an e-learning class. Teachers' lack of knowledge and experience to manage virtual teacher-student interaction. Thus. A lot of these students are attracted to a flexible. supporting themselves or battling with serious illness. Advantages and disadvantages Motivation There are several advantages and disadvantages with regards to motivation in e-learning.[93] Acquisition of technological skills through practice with tools and computers.[92] Improved interactions between students and instructors. Moreover. For many students.[94] en. Companies with large and spread out distribution chains use it to educate their sales staff about the latest product developments without the need of organizing physical onsite courses. boredom or frustration.[88] Corporate and professional E-learning has now been adopted and used by various companies to inform and educate both their employees and customers. e-learning is the most convenient way to pursue a degree in higher education.[90] However. These cues are helpful to a teacher in deciding whether to speed up. A disengaged student is usually an unmotivated student. and an engaged student is a motivated student. particularly in continuing education.8/17/13 E-learning . slow down or explain a concept in a different way.Wikipedia. whether it be early in the morning or late at night. many teachers have a harder time keeping their students engaged in an e-learning class.

Is e-learning the Solution for Individual en.[95] Danger of procrastination..(2004). Leypold M. Röser M.. Nölting K.[95] Asynchronic communication hinders fast exchange of question.org/wiki/E-Learning 15/20 ..wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Lack of social interaction between teacher and students. ^ Tavangarian D.Wikipedia..[95] Lack of direct and immediate feedback from teachers.[95] See also Adult education ALISON (company) Andragogical learning theory Andragogy Blended learning Computer-based testing Coursera Distance learning Distance education E-assessment E-learning Maturity Model Eight Dimensional E-Learning Framework Educational technology edX Flexible learning Heutagogy Hybrid course Lifelong learning Massive open online course Media psychology Microlearning Microlecture National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning Online course syllabus Online learning community Online music education Online tutoring OpenCourseWare (OCW) Rapid E-Learning Remedial education TechChange Udacity Ubiquitous learning Video study guide Virtual field trip Virtual learning environment Virtual school Virtual university Virtual World Language Learning Web-based simulation References 1.8/17/13 E-learning .

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