You are on page 1of 15

Model code of safe practice

Part 16

Tank cleaning safety code

3rd edition

EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE

PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE


Third edition

July 2008

Published by
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Copyright 2008 by the Energy Institute, London:


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EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE

CONTENTS

Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Key technical changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
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Introduction, scope and application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1 Storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2 Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.3 Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.4 Safety, health and environmental protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Preparatory work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1 Before the contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1.1 Client responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1.2 Contractor selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Contractor organisation and personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.1 Supervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.2 Workforce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.3 Medical aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 Smoking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.4 Access and signage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.5 Permit-to-work system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.6 Pre-cleaning inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.6.2 Storage tank contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.6.3 Storage tank inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.6.4 Roof inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.6.5 Inspection of fixed roof tanks with internal floating covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.6.6 Site inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.7 Hazardous area classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.8 Local weather conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.9 Health and safety file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.10 Work programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.10.1 Changes of condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.11 Risk assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.11.1 Flammable products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.11.2 Hazardous substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

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2.12 Environmental protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.12.1 Legislation and regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.2 Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.3 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.4 Sludge management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.5 Waste water disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.6 Contamination of vehicles, plant and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13 Customs approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14 Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.15 Emergency action plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Equipment and services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Powered equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Equipment powered by internal combustion engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Equipment powered by other types of engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Breathing air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3 Electrical supply and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Test equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 Gas testing for oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 Gas testing for flammable gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.3 Testing for hazardous substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.4 Testing for microbiological populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.5 Testing for radioactive contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.6 Continuous combustible gas indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Personal protective equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.1 Personal protective equipment for body protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.2 Respiratory protective equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Miscellaneous equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.1 Welfare facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.2 Hand tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.3 Wind indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.4 Windsail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.5 Eductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.6 Air blowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.7 Ejectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.8 Hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.9 Sludge pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.10 Vacuum equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.11 Mechanical squeegees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.12 Scaffolding and ladders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.13 Grit and shot blasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.14 High and ultra high pressure water jetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3.7.15 Steam cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


3.7.16 Equipment made of light alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.7.17 Emergency equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4

Taking storage tanks out of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4.1 Emptying and line clearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Floating roof tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Isolation of equipment and services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 Piping systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3 Thermal pressure relief system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4 Drainage systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.5 Electrical isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.7 Fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Gas-freeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Overview of control measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 Emissions to air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Tank cleaning work area control measures during gas-freeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Gas-freeing methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Gas-freeing fixed roof tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Displacement by natural air ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Displacement by artificial air ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Water displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 Inert gas displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.5 Steaming out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 Gas-freeing floating roof storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6 Gas-freeing fixed roof storage tanks with internal floating covers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7 Gas-freeing horizontal cylindrical storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8 Gas-freeing special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.9 Control of pyrophoric material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.10 Gas testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.10.1 Gas testing for flammable gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.10.2 Gas testing for hazardous substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.10.3 Gas testing for oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.11 Testing for LSA radioactive contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Cleaning procedures
6.1 Initial cleaning from outside the storage tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 Crude oil and high viscosity oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3 Cleaning through open access points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.4 Hydrocarbon re-circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.5 Warm water re-circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6.2

Preparation for personnel tank entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


6.2.1 Confined space entry permit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2 Pre-inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3 Personnel tank entry checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working in the storage tank general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Escape procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 Head protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.4 Storage tank internal hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.5 Roof support leg cleaning (floating roofs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.6 Horizontal cylindrical storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.1 Liquid removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.2 Sludge and solid residue removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.3 Microbial decontamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.1 Change of product standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.2 Hot work standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.3 Inspection standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.4 Internal painting standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.5 Decontamination standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Declaration of cleanliness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70
70
72
72
74
74
75
76
76
76
77
77
78
78
80
82
82
82
83
84
84
84

Cleaning issues, hazards and control measures of specific product groups . . . . . . .


7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Crude oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.3 Sludge deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.4 Flammable gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Sweet light and middle distillates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4 Sour light and middle distillates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 Leaded petrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3 Warning notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.4 Scale and sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.5 Cleaning procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.6 Declassification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6 Aromatic products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85
85
85
85
85
86
86
86
86
86
87
87
87
87
87
88
88
88
88
89
89
89
89

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6
7

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7.7

Residual fuel oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


7.7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.3 Sludge deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.4 Thermal insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.5 Gas testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.6 Use of diluents for cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.7 Internal fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8 Bitumens, cutback bitumens and bitumen emulsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.2 Storage tank deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.3 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.4 Cutback bitumens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.5 Thermal insulation and internal fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9 Lubricating oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.3 Sludge deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10 Wax and waxy oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3 Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.4 Thermal insulation and internal fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11 Ballast water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.3 Storage tank internals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.12 Slops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.12.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89
89
90
90
90
90
91
91
91
91
91
92
92
92
92
92
92
92
93
93
93
93
93
93
93
93
94
94
94
94

Recommissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 Fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6 Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7 Operational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.1 Bitumen storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8 Retaining storage tanks out of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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95
95
95
96
96
96
97
97
98

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Annexes:
Annex A Glossaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
A.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
A.2 Glossary of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
A.2 Glossary of abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Annex B EI classification of petroleum products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Annex C Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.2 Fire and explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.2.1 Flammable gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.2.2 Sources of ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.3 Hazardous substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.3.2 Lead alkyl compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.3.3 Hydrogen sulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.3.4 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.3.5 Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.3.6 Miscellaneous chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.3.7 Dusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.4 Oxygen deficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.5 Oxygen enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.6 Physical hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.6.1 Environmental conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.6.2 Work conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7 Radiation hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.1 Supervised areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.2 Controlled areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.3 Control levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.4 Record keeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8 Microbiological hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8.2 Infection hazard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8.3 Allergenic hazard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8.4 Microbial by-product hazardous substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8.5 Hazards from microbiological test kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.9 Hazard identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114
114
114
115
116
118
118
118
119
120
120
121
122
122
123
123
123
124
124
125
126
126
127
127
127
127
128
128
128
129

Annex D Permit-to-work checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


D.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.2 Before PTW issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.3 Information on PTWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.4 Following PTW issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.5 Performing authority responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.6 During work in progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

133
133
133
134
134
135
135

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D.7
D.8
D.9
D.10
D.11
D.12
D.13
D.14

Page

Suspending a PTW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Withdrawal or cancellation of PTWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cross-referencing of PTWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hand-over of PTWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On completion of work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auditing of PTW system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas test certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

135
136
136
136
136
137
137
137

Annex E Typical contents of work programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


E.1 Method statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E.2 Scope of method statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E.3 Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

138
138
138
139

Annex F Gas detection using combustible gas indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


F.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2 False readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2.1
The need for oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2.2
Range limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2.3
Fail-to-danger catalyst poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2.4
Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2.5
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.3 Formation of gas clouds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.4 Samples taken from above flammable liquids or solid deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.4.1
Samples taken from above flammable liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.4.2
Samples taken from above solid deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.5 Particulate, wet and other contaminated atmospheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.5.1
Particulates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.5.2
Water and other liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.5.3
Contaminants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.6 Sampling lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.7 Calibration, minimum response checks and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.7.1
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.7.2
Minimum response checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.7.3
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.8 Certification for use in flammable atmospheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.8.1
Instrument certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.8.2
Protective covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.9 Authorised gas testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.10 Interpretation of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.11 Personnel tank entry criteria and continuing monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.11.1 Personnel tank entry criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.11.2 Continuing monitoring using continuous gas detection alarms . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.12 Detection of other gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

140
140
140
141
141
141
141
141
142
142
142
142
142
142
143
143
143
143
143
144
144
144
144
144
145
145
145
145
146
146

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EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE

Contents Cont...

Page

Annex G Gas detection using chemical detector tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


G.1 Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G.2 Models available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G.3 Personnel authorised to use chemical detector tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G.4 Using chemical detector tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

147
147
148
148
148

Annex H Earthing and bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


H.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H.2 Equipment requiring bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H.3 Bonding methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

150
150
150
150

Annex I Vacuum tankers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


I.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.2
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.3
Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.4
Control measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

151
151
151
151
152

Annex J References and bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


Tables:
Table 2.1: Example of risk assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Table 3.1: Personal protective equipment requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Table 6.1: Flammable gas conditions for personnel tank entry and work in petroleum
product storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table B.1: EI classification of petroleum products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Table C.1: Summary of hazards and control measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Figures:
Figure 5.1: Examples of ventilation arrangements for gas-freeing fixed roof tanks using
(a) air- or steam-operated eductor, (b) air blower and (c) windsail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Figure 5.2: Access to horizontal cylindrical storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Figure C.1: Radiation hazards: designation of supervised and controlled areas . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE

FOREWORD
An Energy Institute (EI) Model Code of Safe Practice is not intended necessarily to represent the most
stringent requirements for managing a particular issue, nor does it represent a minimum standard.
Instead, it sets out principles and guidance on good practice rather than a set of rigid rules which,
in the opinion of a cross-section of technical representatives and based on practical experience, if
implemented should ensure adequate protection of people, assets and the environment.
Occasions arise when storage tanks containing petroleum products need to be cleaned to facilitate
a change of product, maintenance, repair, inspection, modification or demolition. Yet, cleaning of
storage tanks containing petroleum products is an inherently dirty and unpleasant operation with
many hazards that could result in harm to people, assets and the environment if the work is not
properly planned, controlled and executed. The main hazard is fire and explosion arising from the
inherent flammability of the products stored and potential sources of ignition; however, the
non-routine activity of tank cleaning increases the potential for exposure to health hazards, electrical
hazards, operational hazards, etc. and consequences such as illness, injury and fatality to people,
asset (e.g. plant, buildings and equipment) damage and environmental impact.
This Model Code gives guidance on safety, health and environmental protection risk assessment and
management for tank cleaning operations. It has been prepared on the basis that most tank cleaning
operations are outsourced by clients to specialist contractors. For the former, the Model Code
provides information that should help them understand the contractors operations and sets out
necessary client organisational and work control arrangements that should protect people, assets and
the environment. Whereas for contractors, the Model Code stresses the need for proper planning,
control and execution of tank cleaning operations: it identifies typical hazards and pertinent control
measures to reduce risks, including organisational arrangements and equipment specifications, and
sets out good practice. Such information should be helpful to contractors when developing their own
cleaning procedures. Therefore, the Model Code is intended for use by both clients and tank cleaning
contractors, and should be read by client installation managers, project engineers, maintenance
managers, maintenance contractors, and safety advisors.
Those responsible for tank cleaning should realise that every project is different and they should study
the pertinent circumstances and plan each project accordingly. The plan should be based on safety,
health and environmental risk assessments that take full account of current legislative and regulatory
requirements, and related guidance. Such risk assessments should identify control measures
necessary to ensure that tank cleaning operations are safely controlled and carried out.
The third edition of this Model Code was commissioned by the EI Distribution and Marketing Safety
Committee: it replaces the second edition published 1996. Major changes have been made to:

Provide additional guidance on environmental protection.


Recognise that most tank cleaning operations are outsourced to specialist contractors.
Provide guidance on client responsibilities before and during tank cleaning projects (including
contractor selection) in support of the UK requirements of The Construction (Design and
Management) Regulations (CDM).
Provide additional guidance on fire and explosion hazards, in particular on risk assessing
flammable atmospheres and hazardous area classification in support of the requirements in
the UK of the Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR).

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EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE

Provide additional guidance on health risk assessment for hazardous substances, as required
in the UK by The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations and The Control of
Lead at Work Regulations.
Provide guidance on sludge waste management in support of the requirements in the UK of
The Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations and Special Waste Amendment
(Scotland) Regulations.
Provide guidance on general principles in equipment selection, including for mechanical and
electrical equipment used in hazardous areas, the need to meet in the UK the requirements
of the Equipment and Protective Systems for use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres
Regulations (EPSR).
Provide guidance on the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE), including respiratory
protection equipment (RPE).
Provide guidance on the hazards and control measures for use of grit and shot blasting
equipment, water jetting equipment and steam cleaning equipment.
Provide guidance on the isolation of instrumentation and fire protection.
Clarify the types of work that may be carried out through open access points and provide
guidance on pertinent control measures.
Provide guidance on the use of hydrocarbon re-circulation and warm water re-circulation for
initial tank cleaning from outside the storage tank.
Provide additional guidance on confined space access, as required in the UK by The Confined
Spaces Regulations, including information that should be included on a confined space entry
permit.
Clarify hazards to personnel working in storage tanks and provide guidance on pertinent
control measures.
Provide guidance on the content of a declaration of cleanliness.
Provide guidance on the recommissioning of instrumentation and fire protection.
Provide guidance on retaining storage tanks out of service ('mothballing').
Provide guidance on static electricity hazards in switch loading and pertinent control measures
to reduce risks.
Clarify the consequences of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure at various concentrations.
Provide guidance on the principles, models and applications of chemical detector tubes for gas
detection.
Provide guidance on the specification and control measures for using vacuum tankers.

The information contained in this publication is provided as guidance only and while every reasonable
care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of its contents, the Energy Institute and the technical
representatives listed in the Acknowledgements, cannot accept any responsibility for any action
taken, or not taken, on the basis of this information. The Energy Institute shall not be liable to any
person for any loss or damage which may arise from the use of any of the information contained in
any of its publications.
This Model Code may be further reviewed and revised from time to time. It would be of considerable
assistance if users would send comments or suggestions for improvement to:
The Technical Department
Energy Institute
61 New Cavendish Street
LONDON W1G 7AR
e: technical@energyinst.org.uk

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EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE

OVERVIEW
Section 1 defines the scope and exclusions of the Model Code in terms of storage tanks, products
and safety, health and environmental protection in tank cleaning operations. It describes how the
Model Code should be applied given that most tank cleaning operations are outsourced by clients
to specialist contractors.
Section 2 sets out preparatory work that should be carried out before commencing a tank cleaning
project. It includes guidance on contracting and organisational arrangements, personnel
requirements, control of work (including risk assessment and permit-to-work (PTW) systems), input
data (including from pre-cleaning inspections), record keeping, permissions, communications and
emergency preparedness.
Section 3 provides guidance on the selection, specification and control measures for equipment and
services used during a tank cleaning project; in particular, powered, test and protective equipment,
and breathing air, water and electrical services.
Section 4 provides guidance on taking storage tanks out of service, including emptying and line
clearing of products and isolation of various equipment and services.
Section 5 provides guidance on the methods, hazards and control measures for gas-freeing of
various types of storage tanks, and provides guidance on gas detection.
Section 6 provides guidance on hazards and control measures for tank cleaning operations. Whilst
emphasising the need to carry out as much cleaning as is practicable from outside the storage tank,
it provides guidance on personnel tank entry flammable gas conditions for various work types. In
addition, it provides guidance on control of such work, including hazards and control measures, as
supported by checklists.
Section 7 sets out cleaning issues, hazards and control measures pertinent to the cleaning of tanks
used for storing specific product groups, ranging from crude oils through to refined products and
residues.
Section 8 sets out necessary checks to ensure that the storage tank is ready to be recommissioned
safely by the reversal of isolations of various equipment and services. Some guidance is provided on
retaining storage tanks out of service.
Annex A provides glossaries of terms and abbreviations.
Annex B provides the EI classification of petroleum products, which should be used when assessing
their fire-related hazards.
Annex C sets out various hazards and pertinent control measures typically encountered in tank
cleaning operations, such as fire and explosion, health hazards from hazardous substances, physical
hazards, radiation hazards and microbiological hazards. It includes a summary table.
Annex D provides detailed guidance on PTW systems, which are key to control of work. It sets out

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EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE

the responsibilities of various parties and processes for managing PTWs.


Annex E provides guidance on the typical contents of a work programme; in particular, the
requirements of method statements.
Annex F provides guidance on gas detection using combustible gas indicators; in particular,
principles, limitations and applications.
Annex G provides guidance on gas detection using chemical detector tubes; in particular, principles,
equipment types and applications.
Annex H provides guidance on the methodology for maintaining pertinent equipment at earth
potential.
Annex I provides guidance on the specification and control measures for using vacuum tankers.
Annex J provides details of publications referenced including UK legislation, regulations and
standards and a bibliography for additional pertinent publications not referenced.

xiv

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